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Reference/relevant Timeline/Places Actions/Important facts What others said What he said Naval conditions photo Photo of Burnham Birth 29th September 1758 in Father a country clergyman Thorpe church the parsonage at Burnham and mother daughter of a (SG) Thorpe, three miles from coast baker of Norfolk Edmund Nelson's (Nelson's father) wife (Suckling) descended from the family of Father spent much of his time Sir Robert Walpole prime enjoying himself in Bath. minister under George 1 and . 11 Horatio was one of 11 children (8 still alive when she died in 1767 when Nelson was 9) Age of 13 joined the navy with Entering the navy. 600 or 700 uncle Maurice Suckling. Naval Both his uncle William and unwashed dockyards at Chatham. Maurice (Suckling) in the seamen messed navy. Nelson who was twelve on the gundeck, said he would like to go to sea in hammocks with his uncle Maurice who (14 inches of was captain of the spaces to swing Raisonnable He was made in) midshipman and was also captain's servant and able Learned seaman. navigation, He had to learn all the duties rigging and all of a common seaman although the basics he was mostly in the company of the captain and officers. The Triumph (second ship) went up and down the Thames as a guardship. His uncle found him a merchant ship to work on which would give him more experience so he got first experience of the Americas (Florida, Bermuda and Lesser Antilles). 1773 Took part in an expedition Ship sailed up to within 10 On getting Caught malaria to find the North West Passage degrees of the North Pole. malaria in the East and to India at the age of 15. On his return his uncle put "Well then, I will never shook this Trip to the far east lasting till he him on the Seahorse which be a hero and off throughout was nearly 18. was off to the far east. > confiding in his life. Madeira> Cape of Good providence I will Hope> Madras > Calcutta brave every Arriving back to danger". peace There is no employment record of his prospects were lettes from this scarce. time. 1775 Captain Suckling became Uncle Captain Suckling had To get on in the Comptroller of navy. been put in charge of the navy navy as an (comptroller). He could officer you suggest appointments to the needed interest First Lord of the Admiralty . that is someone Nelson appointed acting highly placed to lieutenant to the Worcester on help you on.. recommendation of his uncle. He enjoyed a good relationship with the captain getting to do all kinds of things not expected for someone of his rank. 1777 Nelson took his lieutenant The exam was taken by 3 Locker would Those who exams which he needed to move captains-a kind of interview. say: passed exams further on. One of the panel was his uncle "Lay a had to wait for a and of course he passed Frenchman close commission to a Commissioned to a frigate although it is not known and you will ship. Many Lowestoffe . whether favouritism was beat him". never got one. shown or not. The captain of the Lowestoffe was William Locker who was to be a life lone friend of Nelson. 1778 Britain declared war on In this campaign he showed Wars meant full France. Nelson sailed for his bravery, boarding a French employment for Jamaica in the Lowestoffe. vessel to capture in a heavy seamen. sea. Nelson moved over to Sir Peter Parker Joined Rear Admiral Sir Peter Peter Parker the Rear took over as Parker's ship. Admiral's ship the Bristol as Nelson's patron third lieutenant and became after death of his first lieutenant. uncle. after the loss of several December 1778 English officers Nelson was When a British promoted to master and shop took a He was 20 commander (not quite captain) French or other of the Badger, a brig. "enemy" ship it became a prize, the value of the ship and its goods being divided between the captain and crew. 1879 Nelson gained a death Early promotion to post On gaining his vacancy and became a proper captain ensured that Nelson post captaincy " captain (post captain) of the could become an admiral We all rise by Hinchinbrook early. His first great victory at deaths. I got my the Nile couldn't have rank by a shot happened without this early killing a post success. captain and I English colonies in the West most sincerely Indies under threat from the hope I shall, French including Jamaica. when I go, go out of the world the same way..." A prophetic statement. 1780 Nelson served in an Nelson disobeyed orders by On being sent operation in Nicaragua to cut going up river on the home after the Spanish colonies in south expedition . Disobeying having had to America through the middle. orders became one of his abandon hope of characteristics. The operation becoming master was a disaster with many of the Janus:- soldiers catching dysentery and yellow fever. Nelson was Nelson will yet called back as he had been be an admiral. It appointed captain of the is the climate Janus by Admiral Parker. that has Dalling who led the destroyed my expedition to capture the health and Castle of the Immaculate crushed my conception claimed success spirit" but in reality nothing came of the operation. Nelson was sent home too ill to take up his command. Dalling, an incompetent general, but with big ideas was to encourage Nelson to do similarly big things himself in future. 1781 Nelson recovers from his Rigaud finished the first To get enough ills at Bath. proper portrait of Nelson, seamen begun 3 years earlier. He sometimes it added the Castle of the was necessary to Immaculate conception in the "press" people background and gave Nelson into service Earl Sandwich, first lord of the a post captain's uniform. against their admiralty gave Nelson will. command of the Albermarle. After a collision in the (Woolwich) harbour he went to Canada escorting a convey and there enjoyed very good health, fell in love and met another important patron a friend of his dead uncle Suckling, Admiral Hood. He also met the Prince of Wales which he thought fortunate but did him actually little good. June 1783 -1784 unemployed Nelson used this period to go Officers were to France (St Omer) to try to laid off on half learn French. Stayed with an pay awaiting English family the Andrews being allocated where he enjoyed the another ship. company of the daughters. At this time his sister died of a chill in Bath and his father 1784 Helped in Hood's grief stricken. He only went campaign to become an MP for home two months later so did the Tories. not attend the funeral At this time he wrote ot his uncle Suckling to ask for money to meet the Was allocated another ship, the expectations of the family of Boreas to take to the Leeward the girl he wished to marry. Islands in the West Indies. He did not marry her and we do not know why or whether he got the money. Sailed for West Indies loaded Coleman with dignitaries who wanted "Nelson showed to travel out and his brother himself then and William. remained After end of the American throughout his Revolution American ships career, a fanatic were not supposed to bring in for duty. If he their goods-Nelson policed failed in his duty this very strictly against the he hoped to fall wishes of just about everyone. unpitied." He even wrote to the Admiralty in England to make his point something he did frequently throughout his career. 1784- whilst upholding the Nelson spent much time " It is not to be Navigation acts meets Fanny courting various women dissembled (that Nisbet, widow with a child. throughout his life. Nelson) though by no means ever an unprincipled seducer of the wives and daughters of his friends was always well know to entertain rather more partiality for the fair sex than is quite consistent with the highest degree of Christian purity" December 1786 met up with Nelson's connection with "He (William) Prince William again now a William resulted in endless told me this lieutenant partying and problems due to morning that the Prince's unhelpful way of since he has been dealing with matters. Nelson under my couldn't stop himself being command he has dragged under the influence of been happy and William whose needs have been given determined the date of to understand Nelson's marriage that there is no 11th March 1787 Nelson doubt whenever married to Fanny attended by he may be placed the Prince of Wales They returned to England tho in a high Nelson was ill again and not situation that I looking like making it home. will find him sincere in friendship" July 1787 Nelson arrives back Nelson in trouble over Punishment of at Portsmouth William and exceeding his sailors was strict authority with him. The King and violent. The had tried to keep his son out cat o nine tails of the way and out of debt for was a kind of as long as possible. Nelson whip and no hadn't helped. Also he was in more than 12 trouble with his crew for strokes could be overdoing punishment. The given without a admiralty also refused to court martial. confirm promotions he had made. 1100 men He was in limbo and used for received one mundane tasks such as as night (men holding ship for pressed men. between 18-25) He continued flogging his men for bad behavior. Managed to flog 66 of his 144 Difficult to get a seamen and marines. ship in peace Nelson finally gave up the Finally went to see his father time 55 post Boreas and returned to Burnham in Norfolk but without Fanny ships in Thorpe where he stayed for 3 whom he left in Bath. When commission years. He was five years Fanny and Edmund Nelson with 427 post without a ship. did meet they got in very captains after a well-this was to become an position. 1789- Storming of the Bastille enduring friendship. and the start of years of unrest and eventually war between He spent these years writing England and France. with incredible arrogance to the admiralty and his contacts requesting a ship at the same time trying to avoid being sued for having damaged the livelihoods of the West Indian Island merchants whose livelihoods he had "protected". His supporting of the prince had damaged his likelihood of ever getting a ship again. January 1793 war became Nelson took his step son On going aboard inevitable. Nelson was given Josiah on board the a Spanish ship the smallest ship of the line, the Agamemon as midshipman. "The dons mayh Agamemnon. make fine ships- He was pleased with the ship they cannot which was due to sail to the however make Mediterranean with Hood. men". Nelson became acquainted with Spanish ships when Spain was an ally. Learnt a lot about their vulnerability. French fleet was in Toulon harbour. English leadership dubious about how faithful the navy would be as most of the captains would have been behind the king rather than the rebels. Hood offered to protect the people of the south of France if they came out for the king. Needed soldiers however so sent with a request for forces from Italy. Nelson was sent to make this request because his ship was the fastest. He was received by King Ferdinand of Naples himself and met the ambassador William Hamilton for the first time. Nelson dined with the king and the troops were promised. On his return the French navy had fallen to Hood with white flags everywhere. This did not last long however as 40 000 French troops arrived led by Captain Buonoparte (Napoleon). The English took off many royalists but many were massacred. They also took 13 ships leaving 18. 1794 Nelson and navy sought English army and navy On losing sight another base in Med. Corsica leaders rowed as to the best in one eye at chosen. way to take over Corsica. Calvi in Corsica Nelson wished to see a " Yet I most glorious victory over land. He fortunately enjoyed a land campaign escaped by only despite being a sailor. His having my right men lugged cannons over the eye nearly mountains to get them in deprived of its position behind the town. sight...However After the fall of Corsica the blemish is Nelson was sent to take nothing not to be diplomatic papers to Genoa a perceived unless port that was a city state. told." Nelson met the doge (the ruler of Genoa). He had begun to acquire the taste of being received by kings and lords. 1795 Nelson's first fleet action The French navy came out of Nelson showed French sailors against the enemy Toulon to attempt to recapture his ambitions at were relatively Corsica. this time. He untrained which The English navy now under went to Hotham meant that they Hotham. to "propose to were fairly easy Nelson's ship Agamennon him ...to pursue prey to the attacked the much bigger Ca the enemy, but professional Ira with broadsides and left he is much English sailors her in tatters. This is cooler than who could fire 3 Nelson's version although myself and said times more Hotham's version says that the "We must be rapidly. Inconstant did the most contented. We damage and that Nelson just have done very finished it off. well". 1796 The French Sir John Jervis took over as When Nelson Much more revolutionaries made big gains commander-in-chief in the threatened a confident about in Italy. Med. Nelson was anxious to Genoese town his future go home for a rest and to with attack saying he would repair his ship. He was finally Jervis said of have an issue of upgraded to the Captain made Nelson" I am London Gazette a commodore and thanks to very glad that to himself "I am the ships he had taken much you have a little known in Italy, better off than before. dampened the not a kingdom or ardour of Nelson state where my respecting the name will be republic of forgot". Genoa. He is an excellent partisan. He is an excellent partisan but does not sufficiently weight consequences." 1796 ? The English quit Corsica It was no longer possible to as the Spanish joined the French maintain a base in Corsica as with the Spanish on one side and the French on the other sides they would have been easy meat. 1797 the English fleet the The English fleet went Rear Admiral "Take a Spanish Ships' crews Spanish fleet off Cape St through the Spanish fleet and Parker first rate and an were starting to Vincent gained a surpising victory complained 80 gun ship and becoming against a bigger enemy. about Nelson's after well discontented at Nelson's account differed account of the battering and conditions and from that of Jervis making his battle:- basting them for pay which was own contribution seem the "Believe me, an hour keep at the same level more important. He wrote a neither they (the throwing in your as more than swashbuckling account which officers and force balls and 100 years he sent to the Duke of company of the be sure to let before. Rations Clarence. Nelson wrote a so Prince George) these be well were poor and called recipe for cooking or myself seasoned..then sailors were not Spaniards. This appeared in expected to meet skip into her allowed ashore the Times and The Sun. an account so quarter gallery incase they At this point he was beginning different to the window, sword deserted. Half to hope for high honours real statement of in hand and let of them after all bringing with them money. that action". the rest of your had been Nelson received the Order of boarders follow pressed into the Bath and Jervis was made as they can... service. Earl St Vincent. Nelson became a rear admiral along with 8 other captains of the line at the same time. 1797 The fleet blockades Cadiz Nelson's letters back to his To his wife "I wife talked of cottages and shall come one tranquillity and the fact that he day or other had managed to get her some laughing back Josiah made into a lieutenant. when we will retire from the Nelson attacked Santa Cruz busy scenes of on Tenerife with a landing life". party in a disastrous night which resulted in the loss of hundreds of English marines. Nelson suffered his second He made light of great wound the loss of his his wounds again right arm high up. This was in a letter " Rear negligent as he should not admiral Nelson, have been involved in the his arm shot off" action as a rear admiral. It was now that Nelson started to become a legend. 1797 returned to Portsmouth . After 4 1/2 years to have his Coleman: arm looked after. He went to "The king court twice. The wound took observed that five months to heal. He was Nelson had lost given he freedom of the city his right arm but of London but was a bit put that his country out as Duncan had had an still had claim important victory against the for a bit more of Dutch. him." The story of the night he lost Of his jealousy his arm at Santa Cruz also at the Duncan been to grow and be victory:" Had embroidered upon. our battle been in the channel it Pictures of Nelson grew in would have been popularity. He met the grand so much better and the good of society and for us". thoroughly enjoyed his notoriety. Nelson and Fanny bought a house near Ipswich but shortly he was offered another ship, the Vanguard. 1797 Napoleon was conquering Fears of invasion were rife in all and now into Austria. Britain. Nelson was sent out to reconnoitre the Med and off Toulon he found out that Napoleon had sent off 12000 troups. Nelson was put in charge of the forces in the Med. to the annoyance of other leaders. He was in charge of an illustrious group. His job was to seek and pursue the French fleet and army and destroy it. He was allowed to get provisions from whereever he liked. And at this point he was still the fourth most junior admiral out of 94 in the navy. 1798 Nelson scours the Med for Nelson's fleet covered 1,800 The Herald On seeing the The Navy relied the French finally catching the miles in search of the French started to lose French fleet at on outlying fleet in Aboukir bay and was short of frigates for patience:- Aboukir Nelson frigates to try to information gathering. The "It may be too was finally able get information papers back at home were full much for us to to eat and said on the of rumours and people were say that (Nelson) " Before this whereabouts of losing patience with Nelson. has not the time tomorrow, I other ships, quality which shall have gained forces. There In fact Buonoparte had arrived Buonoparte a peerage or was no radar or on the same day as Nelson seems to have, Westminster radio for departed from Alexandria. vulgarly called Abbey". information Had he still been there the long- gathering decisive battle would have headedness. It is purposes. taken place 7 years sooner. clear however There were 13 ships moored that he is now in the bay protected by the unfortunate.. battery at Aboukir. perhaps it may not be amiss to employ the gallantry of Admiral Nelson under the good fortunes of others, until his turn comes around." 1798 Battle of the Nile The French were unprepared Nelson of the The speed of (Aboukir Bay) for a battle and Nelson victory:- news arriving capitalised by going straight "Victory is not a was very slow. into the attack despite the strong enough It took 2 months English not knowing the depth name for such a for the news of of the bay and where they scene as I have the victory to get might founder. Five ships passed". through to went between the French London. All ships and the land and the Of the role of kind of rumours others the sea side. Foley's God-to Sir preceded it via decision to go inside made the William France. attack the more devastating. Hamilton. Nelson does not refer to this! "Almighty God Great victories The battle was a fairly had made me the generally led to stationary one. The two happy instrument a peerage for the admirals were both injured, in destroying the author of the Bruey's the French admiral cut enemy's fleet; victory. in two and Nelson wounded which I hope by shrapnel on the head. The will be a blessing A great naval English picked off the ships to Europe. You victory one by one and those at the will have the encouraged back could not move forward goodness to prints to be to help the front which had communicate produced and been attacked. The victory this happy event sold as well as was a complete one. L'Orient to all the courts songs to be the flagship blew up with in Italy". written and incredible force sending distributed and cannons 50 metres. The news new dances was taken to London but devised such as arrived only 2 months later. Lady Nelson's Nelson now spoke about the fancy. hand of God helping him. The captain of the Swiftsure Nelson finally had a coffin made up for made only a Nelson made from a piece of Baron as he was the L'Orient which landed on such a junior his ship. Admiral. 1798 Nelson goes to Naples Nelson's head injury and where he will spend 2 years reoccurence of malaria meant disastrous to his reputation. a miserable journey to Naples where he was to get the Vanguard repaired. His reception in Naples by the King and Queen and the Hamiltons was unparalleled. At a ball a special song had been written and ribbons and buttons had Nelson's name on them. late 1798 On Hamilton and Nelson's advice the Ferdinand King of Naples marched with 30000 ill trained soldiers on a mission to occupy Rome. This succeeded temporarily but they were soon ousted by the French. The French then followed through and marched to Naples. This rebounded badly on Nelson who now had to protect the royal family of Naples. The court was to move to its other base at Palermo in Sardinia. The Vanguard was loaded up with the king's treasure and after a horrendous storm they sailed for Sardinia. 1799 A very bad year for Fanny's son Josiah despite his Nelson rapid promotion was doing very badly taking to drink. His health was bad. Naples was in chaos with revolution breaking out in the form and looting and death. Slowly the tide turned with a Russian detachment bringing some discipline to the situation. Nelson left Sardinia and went to Naples to command operations. The resolving of the situation in Naples depending on complex negotiations and Nelson did himself little credit showing little mercy to the Republicans or to the Neopolitan sea captain Caracciolo whom he hanged. The rebels who were stopped from going back to Toulon in France were hanged. Nelson's treatment of Caracciolo is seen as distasteful and his treatment of the rebels politically inept and inhuman. Nelson received the dukedom of Bronte for his efforts from a grateful king. 1799 Nelson disloyal to new C Nelson's forces continued Spencer wrote to Minto (Jervis) in C Keith helping reduce the rebel Nelson saying wrote of Nelson influence in Naples, refusing that having "I hope he will to send forces to Keith whom helped sort out not [go home] he was patronising towards Naples he would for his own sake for having lost the be "set at liberty and he will at French/Spanish fleet as he to attend to some least I hope take himself had done. other points Malta first. He He was made acting Cin C in where the does not seem at Keith's absence. assistance of the all conscious of fleet will the sort of During this period Nelson was probably be very discredit he has becoming besotted with Lady essential to the fallen into..But it Hamilton, sharing a house cause of his is hard to with her and her husband majesty and his condemn and William. allies." used ill a hero, as he is in his own News of the relationship was element, for spreading to England where being foolish the times reported about Lady about a woman Hamilton's "admiral who has art attitudes". enough to make fools of many Wrote a short account of his wiser than an life to John McArthur editor admiral." of the Naval Chronicle complaining that he had no children by his wife. He was now very much in love with Emma Hamilton. His squadron took the last two French survivors of the Battle of the Nile. 1799 Napoleon becomes First English parliament unwilling Consul and asked for peace to sue for peace with a republican government although it was now on reasonable terms with the new North American one. Nelson's policies in Naples came in for criticism indirectly. He was lucky not to be named directly and that the debate in parliament took place at night. Nelson meanwhile enjoyed a period of inactivity including a five week cruise of the Med. with the Hamiltons. Nelson remembered this for its "days of ease and nights of pleasure" under the nose of William Hamilton. Nelson and Emma's child was conceived on this cruise. 1779/1800 Nelson returns Nelson had considerably Spencer wrote to home with the Hamilton's difficulty getting back to Keith overland England as he couldn't take a "Private. I hope ship out of the Med where all it will not be were needed. Keith wanted long before Lord to see the back of him. Nelson arrives in Nelson travelled back this part of the overland with the Queen in world. His tow via Vienna where Nelson further stay in was shown off by Lady the Hamilton like a keeper with a Mediterranean bear. cannot I am sure contribute either After being well-received to the public throughout Europe meeting advantage or to the great and the good he his own." finally took the packet to Yarmouth. The position was dubious for the Hamilton's on their return as he had no money and Emma was 6 months pregnant. Nelson had not yet decided to break with his wife to whom he still wrote with some tenderness. Nelson and the Hamiltons stayed the night at Yarmouth after having being pulled around the town in carriages by people and firework and bonfire displays. 1800 A triumphant Nelson was well received The caricature homecoming for Nelson everywhere although King had the words " George who was on the verge Pho the old of madness was ambiguous man's pipe is due to all Nelson's foreign always out , but honours on his coat. The yours burns with papers all alluded to his full vigour." adultery with Emma. Nelson replies Cruikshank produced a "Yes I'll give particuarly damaging you such a caricature called Smoking smoke I'll pour a Attitudes. whole broadside Nelson tried to sort out the into you". prize money he claimed he was owed and had been claimed by St Vincent. Nelson was ridiculed and honoured in equal measure. He was in despair emotionally as neither he nor Emma could divorce. At this time he broke with Fanny who had had enough of hearing about Emma . However she tried on several occasions to get back together with him and enjoyed the support of Edmund her father in law. 1801 The fleet is sent to the The fleet was put under the Baltic to keep its eye on the command of Sir Hyde Parker Russian/Scandinavian alliance Emma gave birth to Nelson's daughter Horatia who was immediately put out to a wet nurse. They had an elaborate code for talking about the child incase intercepted by William and had the baby christened with the name Bronte backwards and anagrams of their names. Nelson was soon off again to Torbay. He was now paying generous maintenance payments half his income to Fanny although was attracting rididule still for his relationship with Emma. 1801 Nelson and the Battle of Nelson's aim was to "strike His father wrote On attacking Copenhagen. quick and home". Nelson was to him after his both powers at not C in C but gave his ideas son Maurice had the same time readily which was to hit the died, "The measure Danes and Russians at the chastisingly may be thought same time, boldly. bold but I am of Negotiations with the Danes Step forth and opinion the having failed Nelson was save your self boldest measures given permission to take a today whilst it is are the safest." small squadron into the port to still called attack the Danish ships and today.. to stationary defences of recover and Copenhagen. It was a close preserve your run thing with the British private and ships taking a lot of fire. publick good. Parker told Nelson in a flag Riches and message to discontinue the honour are in action and Nelson chose to one hand and ignore it. The Danes semi- there are surrendered and Nelson probable means proposed a truce. He made yet left to secure out not to be in a hurry for the in the other truce although the British length of days." ships were in quite a predicament. Wounded were exchanged and the next day he went to meet the crown prince. Even here he was mobbed by people wishing to see him or so he claimed. An armistice was concluded to untangle the Danes from the Russians. The disobeyed order and the truce were the main things to come out of this engagement. Nelson's legend was built up on this and his putting his blind eye to a telescope. The truce was to help him get his ships out but some interpreted it as cowardice rather than as a ruse de guerre. Essentially he bought time. The "victory" happened very quickly but was received ambiguously-Nelson was made a Viscount as a result. Shortly after the emperor of Russia died and the danger was past. July 1801 Nelson returns to Nelson was back enjoying his England and the Hamiltons celebrity whilst Napoleon was starting to think of invading Britain having won peace in Austria and Naples. Nelson was put in charge of the charge and he wanted to attack the most likely places from which an invasion would come, notably Boulogne. On the 4th August he carried out a bombardment of Boulogne which served little purpose and then an unsuccessful attempt to destroy gunboats in the port in a kind of commando operation. There was a lot of criticism of him and his big-headed choice of passwords Nelson and Bronte. Seamen too were becoming very critical of the way he played fast and lose with their lives. He wanted to be back on the high seas and not in his backyard. He was also beset with family problems with his father at odds with him and William constantly begging for him to intervene on his behalf. Peace was declared with France and suddenly Nelson could relax again. Nelson appeared in the House William of Lords and made some not Huskisson said very well received speeches. of him:- "I was obliged to He was living by then at Lord Nelson for Merton with the Hamiltons giving me and it was costing him a anything that fortune. could create a smile on such a The house was full of grave and awful parephenalia relating to subject ..How Nelson's victories. can ministers allow such a fool Edmund Nelson died and to speak in their Nelson did not even go to the defence." funeral although he paid for it. Fanny attended the funeral and received a generous letter from Susannah Bolton (Maurice's wife) informing her that she would no more be communicating with her. 1802 Nelson and the Hamiltons six week grand tour to the Midlands and Wales 1803 William Hamilton died. In summer 1803 the French wars broke out again and Nelson sails from Portsmouth in the Victory. 1803 Nelson was miserable at Nelson was missing Emma On his injuries sea and feeling ill a lot. He Wounds received finally got the prize money by Lord Nelson due to him that St Vincent had His eye in claimed. Corsica His Belly off 1804 asked to come home Cape St Vincent Napoleon made himself His arm at emperor. Tenerife His Head in Egypt Tolerable for one War. 1805 Napoleon plans for Nelson chased the French decoying the English fleet were fleet across the Atlanctic . set in motion. The other half of the French fleet hadn't got out of Brest so Napoleon's plan wasn't going to work. Nelson returned home arriving on 20th August. Nelson had called up his coffin and had it engraved in anticipation of his death. It was then reported that the Spanish and French fleets were at Cadiz so Nelson was off to confront them. 1805 21st October Trafalgar The British were outnumbered 33 to 27 but their seamen were much more experienced. Nelson planned that the British should attack the centre and rear of the curving enemy line. Nelson as C in C was to break the line although it wasn't his job to do so. At 11.15 he hoisted the signal "England expects that every man will do his duty". He was conspicuous in his undress uniform. After the initial engagement it was a massacre with the ships close up together. There were marksmen up above in the French rigging and Nelson was a sitting duck. The last hours of his life are the most minutely described of any one. Nelson asked not to be thrown overboard and after his death was put into a 100 litre barrel of brandy. The battle resulted in completed destruction of French and Spanish sea power with many undamaged ships being damaged or destroyed in the storms that struck the next day. 6th November news of the The state funeral of Nelson battle arrived in London. was the most amazing site and was deliberately stage managed.
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