"Dwarfism and Gigantism"
Dwarfism, Gigantism, and Acromegaly By: Megan Sanford Dwarfism • AKA: Growth Hormone Deficiency and Hyposecretion of the GH – A person of short stature – Disproportionate body parts – “Pituitary Dwarfism” – 1 in every 3800 births Shortest Man to ever Live: Gul Mohammed: 22.5 inches tall, lived to age 29 Dwarfism cont. • Little Peoples of America (LPA) • Caused by deficiency of Pituitary Gland – Limited production of GH, called somatotrophin • Growth failure, distorted facial appearance, delayed bone age and many organ problems Shortest Woman to ever Live: Pauline Musters: 23 inches tall, lived to age 19 Treatments for Dwarfism • Daily injections of Human Growth Hormone (HGH) • Since 1985, new types of HGH have been developed from a genetically-engineered bacteria – Ex: rhGH • $10,000-40,000 a year depending on severity Gigantism • "Pituitary gigantism" and Hypersecretion of the GH • Bone growth in an excess amount • Can result in “hoarseness, sleep apnea, joint pain, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, insulin resistance, visual impairment and severe headaches” (MedNet, 1) Tallest Man to ever Live: Robert Wadlow: 8’11.1”, lived to age 22 Gigantism cont. • Gigantism, when purely inherited, is characterized by the top 1% of the population • Treatment is limited to surgery and certain growth stunting medicines Tallest Woman to ever Live: Zeng Jinlian: 8’1.75”, lived to age 17 Acromegaly • Syndrome where the pituitary gland produces excess HGH after epiphyseal plate closure • Affects adults in mid- life • HGH abuse is linked to several forms of acromegaly Abnormal growth of mandible Acromegaly cont. • Symptoms: “severe disfigurement, soft tissue swelling of internal organs (heart, kidneys, and vocal chords) and of hands, feet, nose, lips, ears, chin, and skin and premature death” (eMedicineHealth, 2) • Treatments: surgery, drug: Bromocriptine (reduces GH secretion), and drug: octreotide (stops GH production) Pictures