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The American Revolution

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					THE AMERICAN
REVOLUTION
ENLIGHTENMENT REVIEW
   John Locke – contract theory of government and
    natural rights, wrote Essay on Human
    Understanding

   Jean Jacques Rousseau – government formed by the
    consent of the people, separation of church and state,
    wrote The Social Contract

   Baron de Montesquieu – three branches of
    government, checks and balances, wrote Spirit of the
    Laws

   The Enlightenment was trying to pull people away
    from the church.
THE GREAT AWAKENING
 Renewed dependence on God
 Revivals were started to spread pietism
  (individual’s devoutness and emotional union
  with God)
THE GREAT AWAKENING
 Was a religious response to the Enlightenment
  thinkers
 Central idea – having an emotional experience
  that brings one closer to God
GREAT AWAKENING KEY PEOPLE
 Jonathan Edwards – New England preacher and
  philosopher who tried to scare people into being
  “born again”
 George Whitefield – Philadelphia minister who
  warned people not to listen to ministers that had
  not been “born again”
FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR (1754-1763)
   1740s – the British and the French both wanted
    the Ohio River valley
       George Washington led the troops for the British, had
        to surrender (22 years old)
FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR
   Albany Conference – the
    British urged the
    colonies to form an
    alliance with the
    Iroquois
     Iroquois refused but
      stated that they would
      stay neutral
     British would have one
      supreme commander in
      the colonies
     Albany Plan of Union –
      wanted colonies to union
      to form a federal
      government (written by
      Benjamin Franklin); it
      was rejected
FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR
   1755 - General Edward Braddock was the new
    British commander, Colonel George Washington
    was his aide
       The British were ambushed by French and Native
        forces, Braddock was killed, and Washington stepped
        up
   This would go one for 2 years in the frontier, and
    then it would spread to Europe
     Became known as the SEVEN YEARS’ WAR
     Eventually became Spain, France, some natives vs.
      Britain
     Britain invaded Spain’s colonies of Cuba & the
      Philippines
TREATY OF PARIS (1763)
   Formally ended the war
     Eliminated French power in North America
     New France and Louisiana east of the Mississippi
      River (except for New Orleans) was turned over to
      Britain
     To get Cuba and the Philippines back, Spain would
      give Britain Florida
REVIEW: REASONS FOR ESTABLISHING THE
COLONIES

   Religious freedom
    (King controlled
    church)

   Escape poverty
    (unemployment)

   Escape oppression
    (King too powerful)

   Mercantilism (theory
    that government power
    depends on its wealth)
AFTER THE FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR…..
   The British were in debt from efforts to win the
    war and thought the colonies should have to pay
    for part of the war
       WAS THAT FAIR?
PROCLAMATION ACT OF 1763
 Colonists were beginning to try to establish land
  further into Native territory
 Natives, led by Ottawa chief Pontiac, attacked
  colonial land and homes
 King George did not want to pay for another war,
  especially over something that the colonies
  started
 He issued the Royal Proclamation of 1763 – drew
  a line North to South of the Appalachians and
  said that colonists could not settle west of the
  line without permission from the king
       Where they happy about this?
CUSTOMS DUTIES
   Customs duties were taxes
    on imports and exports
   The British government
    thought that the colonists
    were not charging enough
    and were allowing too
    many smugglers through
   The British government
    passes a law saying that
    smugglers would be sent to
    Nova Scotia (no jury, no
    common law)
      Arrested for smuggling
       – John Hancock, who
       was represented in
       court by a young lawyer
       named John Adams
SUGAR ACT (1764)
   Tax on sugar, molasses, silk, wine, coffee, etc.
       The colonies said that it hurt trade
   British government could also seize goods
    without due process
   James Otis claimed that they should not be taxed
    if they had no representation in the British
    government
       “No taxation without representation!”
STAMP ACT (1765)
   Tax on all printed
    materials
    (newspapers,
    pamphlets, posters,
    wills, mortgages,
    deeds, licenses,
    diplomas, dice,
    playing cards, etc.)
       First tax to be direct
        straight at the
        colonies
QUARTERING ACT (1765)

                       If you did not house
                        troops in your home,
                        you would have to pay
                        their rent somewhere
                        else
   The Sons of Liberty
    participated in
    meetings and
    demonstrations
    against new taxes
 Stamp Act Congress – organized boycotts of
  British goods
 Britain repealed the Stamp Act (1 yr. later) after
  losing money
 In it’s place, they passed the Declaratory Act –
  Parliament could make all laws for the colonies.
THE TOWNSHEND ACTS (1767)
 Introduced by Charles
  Townshend
 Main act: Revenue
  Act of 1767 – customs
  duties on glass, lead,
  paper, paint, and tea
  imported into the
  colonies
   The Townshend Acts also legalized the writs of
    assistance – general search warrants that
    allowed officers to enter your home in search of
    smugglers
 John Dickinson wrote
  Letters from a
  Pennsylvania Farmer
 Sam Adams and
  James Otis would
  start the “circular
  letter” saying that the
  money was being used
  to pay government
  salaries
 Britain ordered the Massachusetts assembly to
  be dissolved
 Boston, New York, and Philadelphia soon signed
  documents saying that they would no longer buy
  imports from Britain
   Virginia’s House of
    Burgesses (led by
    George Washington,
    Thomas Jefferson, and
    Patrick Henry) passed
    the Virginia
    Resolves saying that
    Virginia was the only
    people who could tax
    Virginians.
     Britain ordered the
      House of Burgesses to
      be shut down
     These men would form
      a convention and also
      boycott British goods
BOSTON MASSACRE (1770)
 Colonists were throwing rocks and snowballs at
  British troops (led by Captain Thomas Preston)
 Shots were fired, but the stories differed on who
  shot first and who said fire
 5 would die and 6
  were wounded
 First person killed –
  an African/Native
  American named
  Crispus Attucks
 WHO WAS TO
  BLAME?
   The Townshend Acts would be repealed, except
    for the tax on tea!
   The colonies remained pretty calm for the next
    two years after the Boston Massacre and the
    repeal of the Townshend Acts.
 1772 – Gaspee affair –
  British ship that
  patrolled the North
  American border,
  would search ships
  without
  warrants/colonists
  seized and burned the
  ship
 Jefferson set up the
  committee of
  correspondence to
  communicate with
  other colonies about
  what the British were
  doing; would unify the
  colonies
 1773 – Lord North passed the Tea Act to help the
  British East India Company sell their tea.
 With the help from the tax, the British tea could
  be sold at a lower price than the smuggled tea.
   In late 1773, the British shipped tea to four
    major ports. The committee of correspondence
    spread to word to not let the tea reach land
     New York & Pennsylvania – forced ships to return to
      Britain
     Charleston – seized the tea and stored it in a
      warehouse
   Boston – 150 men dressed as Indians and
    dumped 342 cases of tea in the Boston harbor
       Thousands cheered from the dock
   In response, Britain passed the Coercive Acts
    (1774)
       Boston’s port would close until they paid for the tea
       All officials in Massachusetts would be appointed by
        the King
       Trials of British soldiers would be transferred to
        Britain
       Town meetings banned
       Colonist had to provide housing to the 2,000 troops
        coming in to keep order (Led by General Thomas
        Gage)
 Quebec Act – king appointed leadership in
  Quebec and gave them more land (modern day
  Ohio, Illinois, Michigan, Indiana, and Wisconsin)
 Together, these will called the INTOLERABLE
  ACTS
THE FIRST CONTINENTAL CONGRESS
 Patrick Henry – called for war
 55 delegates (all colonies except Georgia), mostly
  split between war and compromise
   Passed the Declaration of Rights and Grievances
    – declared loyalty to the king but boycotted
    British goods because of the Coercive Acts
       Adjourned and would meet again in one year if there
        was still a problem with the British


   Main: Patrick Henry, George Washington, John
    Adams, Samuel Adams, John Jay, John
    Dickinson
 Redcoats – British
  soldiers
 Minutemen – Concord
  men who would “stand
  at a minute’s warning
  in case of alarm”
 Loyalists – Americans who backed the British
  (also known as Tories)
 Patriots (or Whigs) – rebelled against the British
   April 1775 – the British ordered General Thomas
    Gage to arrest the Massachusetts Provincial
    Congress, but he didn’t know where to find it. So
    he decided to seize the supply warehouse at
    Concord.
   700 British troops headed to Concord along a
    road that passed a town called Lexington.
 Paul Revere and William Dawes spread the word
  to Lexington – “The British are coming!”
 After warning, the two men with Dr. Samuel
  Prescott, went to warn Concord. Revere and
  Dawes were stopped by the British, but Prescott
  got through.
   When they reached Lexington, the British were
    met by 70 minutemen. The minutemen were
    ordered to disperse and were actually leaving
    when a single shot was fired. The British fired
    back killing 8 and wounding 10 minutemen.
       BRITISH VICTORY
   Then the British
    headed to Concord,
    they ran into 400
    colonial soldiers and
    retreated. They began
    heading back to
    Boston but the
    colonial militia began
    firing from behind
    trees and houses. The
    militia would
    surround the British
    and trap them in
    Boston.
       AMERICAN
        VICTORY
Colonial Death Toll   British Death Toll

 Dead – 94            Dead – 273
 Wounded - 213        Wounded – 174
SHOT HEARD ‘ROUND THE WORLD
2ND CONTINENTAL CONGRESS
   Decided to “adopt” the
    militia that had the
    British surrounded
    and name it the
    Continental Army
       General and
        Commander in Chief =
        George Washington
 Before Washington could get to his new army,
  the British sent 2,200 troops up to Breed’s Hill
 Colonial commander named William Prescott
  said “Don’t fire until you see the whites of their
  eyes!”
 The colonial army was waiting and when the
  British got within 50 yards, they opened fire;
  they held off two waves of the British but had to
  retreat after running out of ammo
 This was called the BATTLE OF BUNKER HILL
       1,000 British deaths
 American army – new confidence
 British army – new leaders….. Thomas Gage
  resigned and William Howe took over
OLIVE BRANCH PETITION
   July 1775 – John Dickinson wrote The Olive
    Branch Petition declaring loyalty to the King and
    asked for him to call off soldiers; things could be
    worked out peacefully
   At the same time, a group of Patriots raided
    Quebec to try to get the French to help them; not
    successful
 The King refused and said that their would be no
  compromise.
 The Patriots began negotiating with the Natives
  for help.
 The Patriots seized control of Boston when the
  British were evacuated
 The King shut down all trade with the colonies
  and ordered a naval blockade
 The British hired 30,000 German soldiers
   1776 – Thomas Paine published Common Sense
   But where says some is the King of America? I'll
    tell you Friend, he reigns above, and doth not
    make havoc of mankind like the Royal Brute of
    Britain...let it be brought forth placed on the
    divine law, the word of God; let a crown be placed
    thereon, by which the world may know, that so
    far as we approve of monarchy, that in America
    THE LAW IS KING.
       Thomas Paine, Common Sense, 1776
   Everything that is right or reasonable pleads for
    separation. The blood of the slain, the weeping
    voice of nature cries, 'tis time to part.
       Thomas Paine, Common Sense, 1776
   The Sun never shined on a cause of greater
    worth.
       Thomas Paine, Common Sense, 1776
   July 4, 1776 – the
    Declaration of
    Independence was
    issued
     Complete
      independence from
      British
     To be called the
      United States of
      America
     Officially started the
      American Revolution
   We hold these truths to be self-evident that all
    men are created equal; that they are endowed by
    their Creator with certain inalienable rights; that
    among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of
    happiness.
   We must all hang together, or most assuredly we
    shall all hang separately. – Benjamin Franklin
  STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES
Colonial Advantages                    British Advantages
Fighting on home ground; guerilla      Well-trained, well supplied army and
warfare                                navy
Good decisions by generals             Wealth of resources
Fighting for rights and freedoms       Strong central government
French alliance: loans, navy, troops
Colonial Disadvantages                 British Disadvantages
Untrained soldiers; small army         Fighting in unfamiliar, hostile
                                       territory
Food and ammo shortages                Fighting far away from Britain and
                                       resources
Weak & divided central government      Troops indifferent; not much support
                                       at home
BATTLES – 23 TOTAL BATTLES IN THE
AMERICAN REVOLUTION
 Lexington/Concord
 Bunker Hill
       Both prior to Declaration of Independence
BATTLE OF LONG ISLAND - 1776
 Washington fled because of being outnumbered,
  took army to New York
 When followed, Washington fled New York

 New York became the British headquarters for
  the rest of the war
       Both considered British victories
   Washington sent
    Captain Nathan Hale
    to spy on the British
     Hale was disguised as
      a Dutch schoolteacher
     Captured and hanged
     Last words: “I only
      regret that I have but
      one life to lose for my
      country.”
BATTLE OF WHITE PLAINS – OCT. 1776
 Washington forced to retreat AGAIN
 British headed to Philadelphia where the
  Continental Congress was meeting
 It became a race between the British and
  Patriots
   As winter approached, fighting stopped
     Harsh conditions and scarce food
     Armies usually agreed not to fight in the winter
THOMAS PAINE WRITES AN AMERICAN
CRISIS

 “the harder the
  conflict, the more
  glorious the triumph”
 “These are the times
  that try men’s souls.”
BATTLE OF TRENTON
   Washington was about to do something drastic
     On Dec. 25, 1776, Washington led 2,400 men across
      the icy Delaware River
     Captured/killed 1,000 Hessians (British aide)
     Continental victory
BATTLE OF PRINCETON – JAN. 3, 1777
 Washington leads his army to Princeton, holding
  off and defeating three groups of the British
  army
 Continental victory

 Raised the morale of the Americans
BATTLE OF BRANDYWINE CREEK – SEPT.
1777
   British General Howe wanted to capture
    Philadelphia and the Continental Congress
     Defeated Washington and captured Philadelphia
     Continental Congress escaped
VALLEY FORGE
   Washington’s army
    settled in Valley Forge
    for the winter
     Bad conditions, little
      food = 2,500 left dead
     Washington gets
      training for his men
      from two Europeans
         Marquis de Lafayette –
          French
         Baron Friedrich von

          Steuben - Prussia
BATTLE OF SARATOGA
   British General Burgoyne took 8,000 troops into
    New York
       British were being helped by the Iroquois Indians
   Burgoyne ended up surrendering to American
    General Horatio Gates
BECAUSE OF SARATOGA
 1778 - French recognized America as an
  independent nation and allied with them for war
 Spain allied with the French, making them
  “unofficial” allies with America
   The Americans and the French began seizing
    British ships and taking their cargo
 Dec. 1778 – British seized Savannah, GA
 May 1780 – British seized Charles Towne, SC



   New British Commander = General Charles
    Cornwalis
BATTLE OF KING’S MOUNTAIN
   The British, led by
    Banastre Tarleton
    (Tavington in The
    Patriot) and Patrick
    Ferguson, tried to
    take over the
    Appalachian
    Mountains
     Defeated by the wild
      “mountainmen”
     Southerners started
      creating their own
      militias against the
      British
   American General Nathanial Greene organized
    hit-and-run raids on the British
       Many led by Francis Marion, known as the “Swamp
        Fox” (Benjamin Martin or the “ghost” in The Patriot)
THE BATTLE OF YORKTOWN
   The British, led by Cornwalis, wanted to invade
    Virginia because that was where the French were
    sending in supplies
   Benedict Arnold – American general who sold
    info to the British. When discovered, he fled to
    Great Britain and joined their military
 Cornwalis and Arnold were demolishing Virginia
  until they came across American General
  Anthony Wayne
 The British retreated to Yorktown, Virginia
   Washington ordered all military to surround
    Yorktown
       Washington’s aide – Alexander Hamilton
   October 19, 1781 – Cornwalis and the British
    surrendered
TREATY OF PARIS
   September 3, 1783:
     1. The United States
      of America was an
      independent nation
      (border = Mississippi
      River)
     2. Florida went back
      to Spain
     3. African colonies
      and the Caribbean
      went to Spain
   From the list below select 7of the events, people,
    or occurrences from American History and in the
    three-step procedure of:
     1) providing an approximate DATE
     2) and appropriate ILLUSTRATION
     3) an insightful ANNOTATION create a visual
      timeline of America from 1776-1783. Dates do not
      have to be exact, illustrations do not have to be
      perfect, and annotations do not have to be overly-
      lengthy. However, you must demonstrate a
      meaningful understanding of the content material,
      and its context and chronology.
   Battles/Events:
Princeton             Brandywine Creek       Bunker Hill
Saratoga              Lexington/Concord      Valley Forge
King’s Mountain       Trenton                White Plains
Yorktown              New York City          Long Island
TOTAL CASUALTIES
British                    Americans

   Around 24,000 killed      Around 27,000 killed
    or wounded                 or wounded

   $375.6 million            $151 million
THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION – HOW IT
CHANGED SOCIETY
   Republic – power resides with a body of citizens
    who vote in their representatives
   Each state needed a written constitution
ROLE OF WOMEN
 Running the family
  and household
 Spies and couriers

 Cooking and nursing
  on the battlefield
 Some took up arms




   After the war: schools
    for girls established
    and literacy increased
ROLE OF AFRICAN AMERICANS
   Fought in the
    American Revolution

 Freed if served for the
  Continental Army
 Led to the increased
  demand of
  emancipation
WHAT HAPPENED TO THE LOYALIST?
   They fled!
       To England, or British controlled North America
        (modern day Canada)

				
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