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									   AIMsys – ALGAE INTEGRATED
      MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS
    Algae cultivation, waste water
management and CO2 sequestration
- A shared report of Frost & Sullivan



          Trieste, Italy 19-21st March 2012
 Company Vision and Mission

Algaetech aims to become the leading, innovative and
highly advanced algae research and development centre
in Malaysia and the largest supplier of algal products and
technologies in ASEAN.

                       • To be a Leader in Green Technology and Renewable Energy Solutions
                         Provider for the Nation.
                       • Algae R&D
                            • Basic: Extensive research on new ground-breaking technologies and
                              revolutionary products.
      VISION                • Applied: Scientific and analytical research on development of new
       and                    products and improvement of existing technologies.
     MISSION
                       • Pioneer and leader of alga-culture commercialization in Malaysia.
                       • Premier producer and supplier of algae biomass for commercial and
                         industrial requirements.
                       • Green technology solutions provider.
                       • Contribute to the human health and a greener world.




                                                                                                  2
Principle Business Activities


Algaetech Group’s activities are diverse but focused in several main areas:
   Consultancy in CO2 Sequestration, Carbon Credit Management and Integrated
   Renewable Energy Plant combined with algae cultivation and production;
   Research & Development of algae for functional food and biofuels;
   Developer for the “Algae Integrated Management System (AIMsysTM)”.
   Primary production of high value products and antioxidants such as Spirulina;
   Product marketing under brand named “Premia”;




                                                                                   3
Alliances and Support

•   Ministry of Science, Technology & Innovation
    (MOSTI), Malaysia
•   Malaysian Technology Development Corporation
    (MTDC), Malaysia
•   Standards & Industrial Research Institute of Malaysia
    (SIRIM) Bhd, Malaysia
•   Malaysian Biotechnology Corporation Sdn Bhd
    (BioTechCorp), Malaysia
•   Supreme Biotechnologies Limited, New Zealand
•   Biotech International R&D (BIRD), Egypt
•   Malaysian Institute of Microelectronic Systems Bhd
    (MIMOS), Malaysia
•   Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM), Malaysia
•   Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), Malaysia
•   Universiti Malaysia Sabah (UMS), Malaysia
•   Rhodes University, South Africa
•   Seambiotic Ltd, Israel




                                                            4
  Algaetech Presence in the Region
  Current and Future Office Expansion Plans
  Current Offices                              Current Offices
Algaetech International Sdn Bhd               Algaetech International
(HEAD QUARTERS)                               China Office, Guizhou
Algaetech International Research &
Development Centre (Algae
Laboratory)
Algaetech Exotica
                                               Future Offices
PT. 5517, Technology Park Malaysia,
57000, Bukit Jalil,                           Algaetech International
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia                        South Korea Office

Algaetech International (Batam,
                                              Algaetech International
Indonesia)
                                              Pakistan Office
Jl rasamala, Blok C1,
No.14 , Muka Kuning,                          Algaetech International Operation
Pulau Batam, Indonesia                        and Production Centre
Algaetech International (Jakarta Office)      Rompin, Pahang, Malaysia
Jln. Babakan Madang Km. 2,9,
Ds. Cipambuan Rt. 02/01,
Kec. Babakan Madang Kab.
Bogor West Java, 16810,
Indonesia.


                                                             *Not shown on map


                                                                             5
             2. Products and Services
This section covers the potential products that can be produced
 from algae strains and the services provided by Algaetech to
                  obtain these end-products.




                                                                  6
    Green Technology Solutions Provider


Algae Crude turning into Fuel and Energy
•    Algaetech aims to create new energy
     solutions that are environmental, scalable,
     and renewable.
•    They intend to be a turnkey solution
     provider in algal technology.
•    With this in mind, Algaetech targets to
     develop Green Crude production from algae
     to tap into the growing renewable energy
     sector.
•    By only utilizing sunlight, CO2, and AIMsysTM technology, the algae are turned into Green Crude,
     which can be refined into the three important liquid fuels used today; Gasoline, Diesel and Jet Fuel.
•    Algae Crude offers a complete drop-in replacement solution. Hence, there are no required changes
     to be made to the vehicles, pipelines, or distribution systems.




                                                                                                             7
 Overview of Products and Services

                Products                                                         Services
                                                           • Algae R&D and Consultation Services
                                                               •   Algae Commercialization Feasibility Study
• Algae cake and powder for pharmaceuticals,
  nutraceuticals, feedstock, industrial and                    •   Algae Identification and Analysis
  commercialization uses.                                      •   Algae Inoculations / Up-scaling
      • Haema                                                  •   Algae Pilot Projects

      • Spirulina                                              •   Algae Training Services

      • Nannochloropsis                                    • Algae Green Technologies Solution Provider
                                                               •   Additional Polishing for Wastewater Treatment Plant;
                                                               •   Bio-remediation Using Algae-based Water Treatment
                                                                   Systems;
                                                    ....
• End-products and value-added products.                       •   CO2 Sequestration and Carbon Capture;
      • Astaxanthin for Antioxidants; Health Food              •   Renewable Energy; etc.
        Supplements; etc.                                  • Project Implementation / Development
      • Spirulina for Health Food Supplements.             • R&D Laboratory
      • PremiaTM–tablets; Coffee, Teas, Cereals;               •   Methods of Growing Algae;
        Slimming Teas; etc.
                                                               •   Optimization of Algal Growth;
      • High Value Products (HVPs) for Food                    •   Algae Mass Production;
        Industries; Feedstock; Fertilizers;
                                                               •   Methodologies of Enhancing Growth of Certain
        Pharmaceuticals; Nutraceuticals; etc.                      Marine Microalgae;
                                                               •   Methods of Increasing Biomass Content in Selected
                                                                   Species.


                                                                                                                     8
   Products
   Collection of Algae at Algaetech’s Laboratory
                             Water Type/                                                                   Commercial Value/
     Culture Name                                          Brief Description
                             Environment                                                                  High Value Products
Nannochloropsis oculata
                                            A non-motile, greenish coloured cell with no
                                                                                                  • Energy rich-source food for larvae
                                            flagella. This species has very high EPA content
                             Marine water                                                           and rotifers.
                                            and possess approximately 66% oil content of
                                                                                                  • Source of biodiesel.
                                            the total cell mass.

Tetraselmis chuii
                                            A motile, green cell with 4 flagellum that emerge
                                                                                                  • Important live feed organism for
                                            from the anterior end of the cell. The significance
                             Marine water                                                           shrimp / prawn hatcheries.
                                            of the species is in the development of high
                                                                                                  • Used in biotech-diesel.
                                            productivity (20% of total biomass of algae oil).

Spirulina platensis
                                            Spirulina is a free-floating filamentous              • Spirulina contains about 60% (51–
                                            cyanobacteria characterized by cylindrical,             71%) protein. It is a complete protein
                                            multicellular trichomes in an open left-hand helix.     containing all essential amino acids.
                              Fresh water
                                            They occur naturally in tropical and subtropical      • Used as a feed supplement in the
                                            lakes with high pH and high concentrations of           aqua-culture, aquarium, and poultry
                                            carbonate and bicarbonate.                              industries.

Chlorella fusca, Chlorella
vulgaris, Chlorella G0138                                                                         • A natural, pure, whole food with all
                                            A non-motile species, with a cup shaped
                                                                                                    the materials to support life.
                                            chloroplast. This species has a high protein
                              Fresh water                                                         • Cracked cell wall Chlorella provides a
                                            content which is commonly used for human
                                                                                                    tremendous source of concentrated
                                            consumption.
                                                                                                    nutrition.



                                                                                                                                         9
   Products
   Collection of Algae at Algaetech’s Laboratory
                           Water Type/                                                                        Commercial Value/
      Culture Name                                            Brief Description
                           Environment                                                                       High Value Products
Dunaliella salina
                                          Motile, unicellular, rod to ovoid shaped (9-11um) green
                                          algae. Simple to cultivate and does not clump or form           • Contains 8% to 10% beta-
                           Marine water   chains. Oil yeild of about 37% (organic basis).                   carotene by dry weight.
                                          Fast growing strains and therefore has high CO2                 • Source for bio-oil.
                                          sequestration rate as well.
Scenedesmus quadricauda,
Scenedesmus dimorphus                     Small non-motile colonial green algae consisting of cells
                                          aligned in a flat plate. Colonies most often have two or four   • The primary interest is for its
                            Fresh water   cells, but may have 6,16 or rarely 32 cells, and are              16% to 40% lipid content
                                          occasionally unicellular. Cells are usually cylindrical but       and its availabilities.
                                          may be more lunate, ovoid, or fusiform.


Haematococcus pluvialis                   A motile, fresh water organism. These algae require mainly
                                          Nitrogen, and Potassium along with Trace Metals and             • Astaxanthin content (4%),
                                          Vitamin for healthy growth. Any presence of salinity will put     which is powerful
                            Fresh water   the algae species under stress, inducing them to produce          antioxidant.
                                          Asaxanthin. The asaxanthin which is produced is a potent        • Source for Beta-carotene,
                                          antioxidant of a very high quality which, in current markets      lutein, and canthaxanthin.
                                          is in demand.
Ankistrodesmus                                                                                            • Ankistrodesmus posses high
                                          Cells are long and needle- or spindle-shaped, or
                                                                                                            tolerance for the copper
                                          sometimes curved or slightly crescent-shaped. The cells
                                                                                                            treatment that are commonly
                            Fresh water   lack mucilage and may be found individually, clustered,
                                                                                                            used to control algal growth
                                          twisted around each other, or in tufts among other algae.
                                                                                                            in water supplies, reservoirs
                                          The parietal chloroplasts sometimes have pyrenoids.
                                                                                                            and recreational areas.


                                                                                                                                        10
Products
Algae Value Chain
                                               Low
         High
                     SUPPLEMENTS &
                     NUTRACEUTICALS




                           FUNCTIONAL FOODS




                                                     Volume
 Value




                    ANIMAL FEED




                     CHEMICALS




                          BIODIESEL
                                              High
         Low



                                                              11
Algae Value Chain : Hype or Trend?




                                     12
Services
CO2 Sequestration with Algae
                 The key advantages of CO2 sequestration using microalgae are:
                 •   Flue gas containing CO2 and water can be fed directly to the
                     photo-bioreactor as high purity CO2 gas is not required for algae
                     cultivation.
                 •   Power plants that are powered by natural gas or syngas have
                     virtually no sulfur dioxide (SO2) in the flue gas. Other polluting
                     products such as nitrogen oxide (NOx) can be effectively used
                     as nutrients for microalgae.
                 •   Microalgae culturing yields high value commercial products that
                     will off-set capital and the operational costs of the process. In
                     addition to biofuel, algae are also used as the starting point for
                     high-protein animal feed, agricultural fertilizers, biopolymers /
                     bio-plastics, glycerin and more.
                 •   Algae can grow in temperatures ranging from below freezing to
                     158°F.
                 •   The entire process is renewable.




                                                                                          13
  Services
  Customized Solutions
Algaetech provides customized turnkey solutions for each of its
customers, depending upon the different needs and requirements of
each client. Algaetech will then identify potential solutions which will
help clients unlock their potential and achieve their objectives.


                                            What is the main objective
                                              of the algae plant?
          Do you have free CO2?                                               What is the available land-
                                                                                        size?




     Do you have free
                                                                                          Do you have available
    wastewater / carbon
                                                                                           fresh water / marine
         source?
                                                                                                  water?




                          What is your available                    What end-products do you
                                budget?                                want to produce?



                                                                                                                  14
  Services
  Project Implementation and Development
Below are the end-to-end consultation services that Algaetech provides as a Green Technology Solutions
Provider. Algaetech’s services span across project development and implementation from the early stages of site
selection up to the point where the plant is fully operational. The company provides customizable green solutions
to meet the needs of their customers.
                                                Phase 2: Design and Construction (Steps 4 to 7)

                 1                          6                               7
                                                  Construction
                         Site                                                      Plant
                                                and Engineering
                     Investigation                                              Commissioning
                                                    Support
Phase 1:
Feasibility
Study            2                          5                               8
(Steps 1 to 3)                                  Compliance and
                                                                                Operation and
                  Strain Selection                Regulatory
                                                                                Maintenance
                                                 Requirements
                                                                                                   Phase 3:
                                                                                                   Monitoring and
                 3                          4                               9                      Maintenance
                                                                                                   (Steps 8 and 9)
                  Feasibility Study                 Design                      Feedback and
                   and Business                  Specifications                   Business
                   Case Proposal                 and Planning                     Reporting



                                                                                                              15
Phase 1: Feasibility Study
 1 Site Investigation
                                                                                                           Construction and
                                                                                                                                 Plant
                                                                                      Site Investigation     Engineering
                                 In order to determine the best possible option for                           Support
                                                                                                                              Commissioning

                                 optimal algae cultivation, Algaetech surveys the
     1. Site
                                 actual potential plant site. This would also help
  Investigation                  determine suitability of the proposed area for       Strain Selection
                                                                                                           Compliance and
                                                                                                             Regulatory       Operation and
                                                                                                                              Maintenance
                                                                                                            Requirements
                                 installation of the microalgae facility.

                                                                                      Feasibility Study        Design         Feedback and
                                                                                       and Business         Specifications      Business
                    Consultation Services Provided                                     Case Proposal        and Planning        Reporting


                                    • Assessment of geographical factors such as
                                      land size, location, land topography and
Confirmation of key                   terrain.
engineering parameters and
                                    • Identification of potential constraints that
land use
                                      may hinder the microalgae facility.
                                    • Suitable plant discharge.
                                    • Availability of make-up water (water suitable
                                      for algae cultivation)
Availability and specification      • Power requirements (including
of site services / utilities          specifications and system capacity).
                                    • Availability of cooling water and
                                      compressed air.
                                    • Quality of CO2 available on-site as well as
Assessment of raw materials           wastewater resource.
available                           • Availability of seawater / freshwater sources
                                      in the surrounding areas.

                                                                                                                                          16
Phase 1: Feasibility Study
 2 Strain Selection
                                                                                                            Construction and
                                                                                                                                  Plant
                                                                                       Site Investigation     Engineering
                                After the actual site has been assessed,                                       Support
                                                                                                                               Commissioning

                                Algaetech will select the suitable algal strains to
     2. Strain
                                be cultured at the microalgae facility. The
     Selection                  proposed algal species would then be cultivated        Strain Selection
                                                                                                            Compliance and
                                                                                                              Regulatory       Operation and
                                                                                                                               Maintenance
                                                                                                             Requirements
                                and undergo R&D in the laboratory setting.

                                                                                       Feasibility Study        Design         Feedback and
                                                                                        and Business         Specifications      Business
                    Consultation Services Provided                                      Case Proposal        and Planning        Reporting


Assessment of algal strains
                                   • Field survey to obtain local algal strains.
available on-site
                                   • Isolation of suitable local strains that can be
                                     cultivated on the large-scale.
                                   • Selection is done based on requirements
                                     on-site as well as to meet client needs.
Selection of suitable strain
                                   • Parameters to be considered includes water
                                     source availability (seawater versus
                                     freshwater), desired end-products (animal
                                     feed, biodiesel, nutrition etc.).
                                   • Optimization of algal growth and algae
                                     mass production.
Laboratory culturing of algal      • Methodologies for enhancing growth
strains and microalgae R&D           microalgae.
                                   • Methods of increasing biomass in selected
                                     species.


                                                                                                                                           17
Phase 1: Feasibility Study
 3 Feasibility Study and Business Case Proposal
                                                                                                          Construction and
                                                                                                                                Plant
                                                                                     Site Investigation     Engineering
 3. Feasibility                  In order to assist the client during the early                              Support
                                                                                                                             Commissioning

                                 planning stages, Algaetech provides a feasibility
  Study and
                                 study and other supporting documents to
Business Case                    highlight the business case behind the              Strain Selection
                                                                                                          Compliance and
                                                                                                            Regulatory       Operation and
                                                                                                                             Maintenance
   Proposal                      construction of the microalgae facility.
                                                                                                           Requirements



                                                                                     Feasibility Study        Design         Feedback and
                                                                                      and Business         Specifications      Business
                    Consultation Services Provided                                    Case Proposal        and Planning        Reporting


                                    • Preparation of the proposed plan for the
                                      microalgae facility.
                                    • Study the feasibility of constructing the
Proposal and feasibility study        microalgae plant based on the earlier
                                      assessments of site and desired end-
                                      products
                                    • Modeling of potential CO2 capture on-site.
                                    • Study the potential Return on Investment
Preparation of proposed               (ROI) of the proposed microalgae facility.
financial business case             • Cost and Benefit Analysis of the project
                                      based on operational projections.
                                    • Investigation into potential CDM savings
                                      that can be achieved by the construction of
Clean Development                     the microalgae plant.
Mechanism (CDM) consulting                                                                 Go / No go Decision
                                    • Computation of CDM emission reduction
                                      achieved with the sequestration of CO2.


                                                                                                                                         18
Phase 2: Design and Construction
 4 Design Specifications and Planning
                                                                                                       Construction and
                            Algaetech provides detailed process design            Site Investigation     Engineering
                                                                                                                             Plant
                                                                                                                          Commissioning
                                                                                                          Support
   4. Design                specifications and process engineering services
                            to ensure an optimal and economical plant
 Specifications             design is achieved. This includes detailed                                 Compliance and
                                                                                                                          Operation and
 and Planning               specifications for both the equipment and layout
                                                                                  Strain Selection       Regulatory
                                                                                                        Requirements
                                                                                                                          Maintenance

                            of the plant.
                                                                                  Feasibility Study        Design         Feedback and
                                                                                   and Business         Specifications      Business
                  Consultation Services Provided                                   Case Proposal        and Planning        Reporting


                               • Selection of the different cultivation systems
                                 available depending upon desired end-
Design of the microalgae         products as well as site suitability (e.g.
cultivation system               closed photo-bioreactors, open ponds etc.
                               • Design of AIMsysTM for algae cultivation.
                               • Selection of suitable equipment for the
                                 facility, depending upon what operating
Equipment selection
                                 system is employed (e.g. use of stainless
                                 steel equipment handling seawater etc.)
                               • Preparation of the Piping and
                                 Instrumentation Diagrams (P&IDs) - design
                                 for the entire plant and all the equipment
                                 required. Includes design and optimization
Plant design and planning        of main plant items.
                               • Modeling for mass and heat balances,
                                 biological information of microalgae,
                                 process simulations.


                                                                                                                                      19
Phase 2: Design and Construction
 5 Compliance and Regulatory Requirements
                                                                                                         Construction and
                                                                                                                               Plant
                                                                                    Site Investigation     Engineering
                              Prior to construction of the facility, Algaetech                              Support
                                                                                                                            Commissioning
5. Compliance                 provides consultation into the compliance and
and Regulatory                regulatory requirements which are necessary,
                                                                                                         Compliance and
 Requirements                 depending upon the local environmental laws           Strain Selection       Regulatory       Operation and
                                                                                                                            Maintenance
                                                                                                          Requirements
                              which govern the proposed site.

                                                                                    Feasibility Study        Design         Feedback and
                                                                                     and Business         Specifications      Business
                  Consultation Services Provided                                     Case Proposal        and Planning        Reporting


                                 • Investigation into waste discharge
                                   approvals for the proposed microalgae
Environmental compliance           facility.
requirements                     • Approvals for use of microalgae strains,
                                   nutrients and land for large-scale cultivation
                                   of microalgae.
                                 • Availability of local and foreign manpower,
                                   as well as projected cost for staff, as per
                                   any requirements from the local authorities.
Infrastructure and manpower
requirements                     • Compliance to any specific building
                                   requirements or facilities that need to be
                                   supplied in accordance with local regulatory
                                   guidelines.




                                                                                                                                        20
Phase 2: Design and Construction
 6 Construction and Engineering Support
                                                                                                           Construction and
                                                                                                                                 Plant
                                                                                      Site Investigation     Engineering
                                                                                                                              Commissioning
                                                                                                              Support
6. Construction                   Once planning has been completed, Algaetech
                                  assists with the implementation of the final
and Engineering                   design by providing construction and engineering                         Compliance and
                                                                                                                              Operation and
    Support                       support to the client.
                                                                                      Strain Selection       Regulatory
                                                                                                            Requirements
                                                                                                                              Maintenance




                                                                                      Feasibility Study        Design         Feedback and
                                                                                       and Business         Specifications      Business
                    Consultation Services Provided                                     Case Proposal        and Planning        Reporting


                                     • Execution of construction and infrastructure
Project management and                 installation of the microalgae facility.
implementation of project plan       • Project management services to ensure
                                       timely delivery of the project.
                                     • Calculation of materials and labour costs
                                       that will be required.
                                     • Recommendations for preferred companies
Engineering support                    and vendors that can be utilized for the
                                       construction process.
                                     • Recommendations for suitable charge-out
                                       rates (amount charged for services).
                                     • Confirmation of key engineering and
                                       development requirements.
Establishment of key facilities      • Confirmation of basic laboratory facility.
                                     • Key supply of technology and equipment
                                       necessary for the facility.

                                                                                                                                          21
Phase 2: Design and Construction
 7 Plant Commissioning
                                                                                                        Construction and
                                                                                                                              Plant
                                                                                   Site Investigation     Engineering
                             Once the microalgae plant has completed                                       Support
                                                                                                                           Commissioning

                             construction, commissioning of the facility will be
   7. Plant
                             carried out to ensure the plant operates as per
Commissioning                design. Any trouble-shooting will be carried out at   Strain Selection
                                                                                                        Compliance and
                                                                                                          Regulatory       Operation and
                                                                                                                           Maintenance
                                                                                                         Requirements
                             this stage to ensure smooth operations.

                                                                                   Feasibility Study        Design         Feedback and
                                                                                    and Business         Specifications      Business
                  Consultation Services Provided                                    Case Proposal        and Planning        Reporting


                                • Planning of commissioning schedule and
                                  operating instructions.
                                • Planning for materials and equipment for
                                  commissioning.
                                • Assistance for plant start-up.
Plant commissioning             • Establishing start-up and shutdown
                                  procedures.
                                • Trouble-shooting.
                                • Operational guidance/support.
                                • Implementation of AIMsysTM to allow real-
                                  time monitoring of plant on a global-scale.
                                • Piping and Instrumentation Diagram (P&ID)
                                  review.
Review of plans once plant
has been commissioned           • Operation manual review.
                                • Piping layout / 3D model review.


                                                                                                                                       22
Phase 3: Monitoring and Maintenance
 8 Operation and Maintenance
                                                                                                      Construction and
                                                                                                                            Plant
                                                                                 Site Investigation     Engineering
                               Once the plant has been commissioned,                                     Support
                                                                                                                         Commissioning

                               Algaetech provides project management services
8. Operation and
                               for operation and maintenance to ensure the
  Maintenance                  plant operates in accordance with its intended    Strain Selection
                                                                                                      Compliance and
                                                                                                        Regulatory       Operation and
                                                                                                                         Maintenance
                                                                                                       Requirements
                               design.

                                                                                 Feasibility Study        Design         Feedback and
                                                                                  and Business         Specifications      Business
                    Consultation Services Provided                                Case Proposal        and Planning        Reporting


                                 • Ensure that the microalgae facility is
                                   operated in a safe, reliable, and economic
                                   manner which is consistent with site
                                   operation and maintenance plans.
                                 • Assist to monitor and optimize plant
Plant operation and trouble-       operating performance with AIMsysTM.
shooting
                                 • Identify any problem areas in the plant and
                                   provide potential recommendations to
                                   overcome the challenges.
                                 • Pursue corrective actions to ensure
                                   optimization of plant design.
                                 • Carry out maintenance procedures such as
Plant maintenance
                                   plant inspection, servicing and repair
procedures
                                   activities.




                                                                                                                                     23
Phase 3: Monitoring and Maintenance
 9 Feedback and Business Reporting
                                                                                                    Construction and
                                                                                                                          Plant
                                                                               Site Investigation     Engineering
                                                                                                                       Commissioning
                                                                                                       Support
9. Feedback and            Once the facility is fully-operational, Algaetech
                           provides feedback and business reporting to
    Business               determine the operating and economic                                     Compliance and
                                                                                                                       Operation and
    Reporting              parameters of the working facility.
                                                                               Strain Selection       Regulatory
                                                                                                     Requirements
                                                                                                                       Maintenance




                                                                               Feasibility Study        Design         Feedback and
                                                                                and Business         Specifications      Business
                  Consultation Services Provided                                Case Proposal        and Planning        Reporting


                               • Data collection for plant output and CO2
                                 sequestration data when plant is fully
                                 operational.
Feedback on plant operations   • Reporting on any difficulties that may be
                                 faced at the plant.
                               • Monitoring of end-products output at the
                                 facility.
                               • Preparation of comprehensive Business
                                 Intelligence Reports for reporting to top
Preparation of business          management.
reports                        • Communication of relevant information to
                                 assist with any necessary business
                                 decisions.




                                                                                                                                   24
                3. Cultivation of Algae
This section provides the Raw Material Analysis on the resources
required for Algaetech’s algae process and methods of obtaining
                        these resources.




                                                                   25
 Overview of Raw Materials

Below is an overview of the main raw materials that feed into the algae cultivation system,
which are required in order to produce algal biomass. Each of these are discussed in detail
in the subsequent slides.


                                      Sunlight
                                                             Algae
                                                           Cultivation
         Algal strains                                      System
                                                                            Algal Biomass

                                      Seawater /
                                      Freshwater


         Nutrients

                                      Carbon dioxide
                                      (Flue gas)




                                                                                              26
Raw Materials Analysis
Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
                                                                        Quick Facts
    Carbon dioxide
    (Flue gas)                                        • Carbon dioxide (CO2) is sourced from the
                                                        exhaust gas of a nearby power plant.
                                                      • Microalgae is used to sequester some of the
                                                        CO2 emitted from the power plants.
     The flue gases leaving the plant are typically   • Exhaust gas temperatures typically range
     made up of ~75% nitrogen, 10-15% CO2, 8-
                                                        between 100 – 200 °C (with a heat recovery
     10% water, and small percentages of other
     constituents such as oxygen, sulfur, and           system in place).
     trace contaminants such as mercury.


                                                                  1 kg of dry biomass algae requires
                                                                  1.8 kg of CO2 gas.

                                                                   *10% CO2 content in the flue gas. Amount of CO2
                                                                  also depends on the type of biomass used in the
                                                                  power plant e.g. LNG, coal




                                                                                                               27
Raw Materials Analysis
Carbon Dioxide (CO2) - Piping of Flue Gas Onsite




                                     •   A 2” steel pipe is used to pull the air
                                         from the stack. The distance from
                                         the stack to the project site area is
                                         approximately 200m.
                                     •   Piping is insulated in order to avoid
                                         injury to the personnel onsite.
                                     •   A cooling pond system will be
                                         installed to reduce the temperature
                                         of the gases.



                                                                             28
Raw Materials Analysis
Algal Strains
                             Different microalgae species can be utilized depending upon the type of end-
                             products that are targeted.
        Algal strains
                             In the Batam Algae Lab, currently Nannochloropsis Oculata and Chlorella
                             Vulgaris are being cultivated. In Algaetech’s laboratory at Technology Park
                             Malaysia (TPM), the following species are available:

                              Application / Product that can be
   Microalgae species                                                 Type of Water
                              generated by species

   Nannochloropsis oculata    EPA production, CO2 capture             Marine water

   Spirulina platensis        Human food                               Fresh water

   Chlorella vulgaris         Human food                               Fresh water

   Chlorella fusca            Animal feed, wastewater treatment        Fresh water

   Scenedesmus quadricauda    DHA production                           Fresh water

   Haematococcus pluvialis    Astaxanthin production                   Fresh water

   Tetraselmis chuii          Aquaculture feed                        Marine water

   Dunaliella salina          DHA production                          Marine water

   Scenedesmus dimorphus      DHA production                           Fresh water

   Botryococcus braunii       Algae oil                                Fresh water



                                                                                                       29
Raw Materials Analysis
Sunlight
               Like plants, microalgae requires natural sunlight for the process of
               photosynthesis. The sunlight is delivered to the microalgae via transparent
    Sunlight
               tubes made from organic resin glass.

               In instances where natural sunlight is unavailable (during rainy days or cloudy
               weather) artificial light is delivered to the algae via fluorescent light tubes.
                                                             Close-up view of transparent
                                                             tubes, allowing penetration of
                               Artificial light source       sunlight
                               from florescent tubes




                                                                                              30
Raw Materials Analysis
Seawater/Fresh Water
                 The type of water source used on the microalgae plant may vary between
    Seawater /   sea / marine water or freshwater, depending upon what is available onsite,
    Freshwater   as well as what end-products are to be produced. Prior to being fed into the
                 system, the water undergoes several treatment steps such as filtration and
                 chlorine treatment.




                                                                Seawater is brought into the
                                                                microalgae plant via truck that
                                                                brings water from the sea. The
                                                                seawater is then stored onsite
                                                                in the Seawater Tank*.




                                                            *Photo shows actual algae facility at Batam


                                                                                                          31
Raw Materials Analysis
Nutrients

                In order to multiply and grow, microalgae require a sufficient supply of nutrients
    Nutrients   in dissolved form in the culture medium. In this instance, the media of choice is
                solid F2 media components. The nutrient media contains a mix of macro-
                nutrients, micro-nutrients, vitamins etc. to ensure robust growth of the
                microalgae.




                                                       Nutrients are added to the treated
                                                       seawater (now saline water) in the
                                                       Nutrient Tank*. A weighed amount
                                                       of solid F2 media components are
                                                       added to make media for the
                                                       algae to grow.

                                                       The nutrients will then be pumped
                                                       together with the saline water as it
                                                       enters the reservoir tanks.



                                                             *Photo shows actual algae facility at Batam


                                                                                                           32
Case Study: Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Sequestration
         Project for Algae Cultivation
This section elaborates on Algaetech’s microalgae biomass cultivation
  and production at the algae facility located in Batamindo Industrial
                       Park, Batam, Indonesia.




                                                                         33
Algae Facility
Fact Sheet

Description                   Details

                              •   5 Modules – Integrated System
Modular System                •   28.8 KM – The longest Photo-Bioreactor for Nannochloropsis in the world
                              •   400,000 litres of culture
                              •   PMMA Impact Modified
Tubes Used
                              •   UV Protected
                              •   1 Module = 120 Meter
                              •   2 Sides / Lines
                              •   24 Layers Per Line = 48 layers per module
Module Specs
                              •   Water Volume in PMMA Tube = 35 M3 per module
                              •   Water Volume In Reservoir = 45 M3 per module
                              •   Total Working Volume = 80 M3
                              •   Saline Water / Replenishment By Waste Water
Type Of Water /Water Source
                              •   Sea Water / Recycled Water
                              •   From Power House Plant
CO2 Source
                              •   Tapped from flue gas stack

CO2 Volume                    •   5,000m3 Flue Gas, 1,000kg / Day

                              •   Using Algae Integrated Management System (AIMsysTM)
Control / Monitoring System
                              •   Online and real-time monitoring



                                                                                                            34
Algae Facility
Introduction – Batam Project
                Background
                •   In the Batam plant, the cultivation and production of algae biomass uses AIMsys (Algae
                    Integrated Management System) for CO2 sequestration that is introduced by Sasaran Biofuel
                •   The project is financed by PT Tatajabar Sejahtera (PTTS), an Indonesian company
                    incorporated with a business focus on alga culture and production of microalgae biomass.
                •   The plant is constructed on a 1.2 hectares of facility area at Batamindo Industrial Park,
                    Indonesia.
                Current Status
                •   The plant has been running for almost 1 year, with Algaetech completing 2 harvest cycles of
                    microalgae pilot runs. While a large portion of the plant has been completed, the CO2
                    sequestration segment of the facility has not been installed.
                •   As of June 2011, the microalgae cultivation infrastructure was readily available, with plans to
                    construct the CO2 sequestration unit and open pond facilities underway in August 2011.

                                Project Objectives
                            –   To capture a proportion of the CO2 flue gas from the gas engines used to
                                generate power for Gallant Venture Ltd’s Batamindo Industrial Park.
                            –   To demonstrate the feasibility of mitigating CO2 emissions through the diversion
                                of the CO2 to open algae ponds and photo-bioreactors with flue gas feedstock.
                            –   To demonstrate production of algae for biomass in photo-bioreactors. The oil-
                                rich strains will be further processed into biofuel and other value-added products
                                using Sasaran’s latest technology.
                            –   To quantify the absorption of CO2 emitted due to burning of fossil fuels in the
                                power plants and to qualify the project under the Clean Development
                                Mechanism (CDM).


                                                                                                                35
 Algae Facility
 Process Flowchart
The production and recovery of the microalgae process in the Batam plant consists of
four major stages:-




              Preparation                                     Culturing




               Biomass                                       Harvesting


                                                                                   36
Algae Facility
Actual Batam Plant Site (before site was constructed)




                  Location of Power Plant




                                            Location of site




Source: GoogleEarth Maps



                                                               37
Algae Facility
Actual Batam Plant Site (after site was constructed)




                                                       38
Helicopter View of Plant




                              Green House
                                                              Storage Tanks




                                                                                     Modular Photo-Bioreactors
Prototype Photo-Bioreactors




                                                                              Each Modular Photo-Bioreactor
                                                                                measures 120m in length


        Centrifuge Machine                  Harvesting Pond


                                                                                                                 39
Algae Facility
Plan Layout of Batam Plant




                             40
    Algae Facility
    Individual Sections of Plant
No    Area           Process Stage            Details                                                           Status

                                              Where cultures are observed and monitored under a controlled
                     Inoculation, Culturing
1     Laboratorium                            aseptic environment to avoid cross contamination from other       Functioning
                     and Cultivation
                                              species of algae.

      PBR            Inoculation, Culturing   A closed system which is useful for evasion of contamination
2                                                                                                               Functioning
      Prototype 1    and Cultivation          during up-scale or inoculation before going to raceway ponds.

                     Inoculation, Culturing   Area to store the transferred cultures from the laboratorium in
3     Green House                                                                                               Functioning
                     and Cultivation          10L Blue Bottles and 60L columns.

      Cooling                                 A cooling pond system used to cool carbon dioxide flowing from    Not yet
4                    Preparation
      System                                  power plant.                                                      constructed

5     Workshop       -                        -                                                                 -

      PBR            Inoculation, Culturing   A closed system which is useful for evasion of contamination
6                                                                                                               Functioning
      Prototype 2    and Cultivation          during up-scale or inoculation before going to raceway ponds.

      Centrifuge     Harvesting &
7                                             Area to begin the separation of algae from water.                 Functioning
      Process        Dewatering

      Greenhouse
                     Harvesting &             Area to harvest algae cultures in open conditions after the PBR
8     Harvesting                                                                                                Functioning
                     Dewatering               stage.
      Pond


                                                                                                                          41
    Algae Facility
    Individual Sections of Plant
No    Area           Process Stage            Details                                                          Status

      AIMsysTM
                                              Algaetech’s patented system for monitoring and controlling the
9     Control        Overall                                                                                   In progress
                                              overall process.
      Room


      Command
10                   Preparation              Tanks containing sea water, nutrients and other tanks.           In progress
      Control Tank

      PBR Module     Inoculation, Culturing   A closed system which is useful for evasion of contamination
11                                                                                                             Functioning
      Area           and Cultivation          during up-scale or inoculation before going to raceway ponds.




                                                                                                                             42
 Algae Facility
 About Nannochloropsis
 Why Nannochloropsis oculata?
                                                                                  Brief Description
     High lipid content.
     Unique chemical characteristics - absence of chlorophyll b and c.   • Unicellular.
     Presence of xanthophylls pigment, high content of specific sterol   • A free-floating microalga.
     and EPA (Eicosapentanoic Acid).                                     • Cells are subspherical in shape,
                                                                           measuring 2 - 4 µm in diameter or
     Stable behavior during the cultivation.
                                                                           cylindrical, measuring 3 - 4 x 1.5
     High nutritional profile.                                             µm in size.
     Quality of Nannochloropsis oil is ideal for biodiesel production.   • Yellow-green parietal chloroplast.
                                                                         • Pigments typically
                                                                           eustigmatophycean (Antia &
    Nannochloropsis biomass is a suitable feedstock for
 commercially valuable products.                                           Cheng, 1982).
                                                                         • Zoospores are not produced.
Taxonomy                                                                 • Typically a marine species.
Empire         : Eukaryota
Kingdom        : Chromista
Subkingdom     : Chromobiota
Infrakingdom   : Heterokonta
Phylum         : Heterokontophyta
Class          : Eustigmatophyceae
Order          : Eustigmatales
Family         : Monodopsidaceae
Genus          : Nannochloropsis
Species        : Oculata


                                                                                                            43
   Algae Facility
   Process Flowchart – Preparation
            Preparation
• The preparation / inoculation process is an up-scaling process whereby the algae is cultured, observed and monitored under a
  laboratory controlled aseptic environment. This is to ensure the growth of main subspecies and to avoid potential cross
  contaminations from other species of algae.
• The process begins with the culturing of algae in a Petri dish in the laboratory, with successfully grown strains transferred to a
  conical flask. As the algae multiply, they are transferred to a small 250mL flask, then to a 1L flask. Subsequently, they are
  transferred to a 10L Blue Bottle and finally to a 60L column, which are located in the Green House.
• When a sufficient amount of Blue Bottles are obtained, the cultures are transferred into 20,000L Prototype Photo-Bioreactors (P-
  PBR) before they are put into the 100,000L Raceway pond.
• Finally, the cultures are inoculated into the 320,000L Open Pond, which as of now is still yet to be constructed, or the 400,000L
  Modular Photo-Bioreactors (M-PBR) which are available onsite.
• Each inoculation requires a total volume of 10-20% of culture for the next vessel.

                                                                                Small 250mL Flask                       1L Flask


                                                                        Algae Up-Scaling Process
        Lab culture                           Conical flask




       Modular Photo-                        Prototype Photo-
    Bioreactors (M-PBR)                    Bioreactors (P-PBR)                      60L Column                       10L Blue Bottle


                                                                                                                                   44
Algae Facility
Process Flowchart – Preparation
                                        Preparation

                           Prototype Photo-bioreactor (P-PBR) :-
                           • In the Batam plant, there are 2 P-PBRs installed, of volume
                             20,000L each.
                           • The PBR technology is simply an improvement of the
                             photosynthesis process and involves the conversion of light
                             energy into chemical energy by living organisms.
                           • The PBR offers advantages such as :
                             – CO2 consumption of up to 2.88 MT / 1 MT of biomass produced
                               giving the process further environmentally-friendly attributes.
                             – Better protection from outside contamination and better control
                               of the algae culture.
                             – Large surface-to-volume ratio which enables higher algae cell
                               densities.
                             – Better control of gas transfer and therefore reduced
                               evaporative losses of the growth medium.
                             – More uniform temperature and therefore a stable level of
                               culture growth.
                             – An automated control system monitors which ensures constant
                               feeding of both major and micro nutrients.




                                                                                               45
   Algae Facility
   Process Flowchart – Cultivation
       Cultivation
• The cultivation process begins after the up-scaling process, and is achieved in the raceway / open ponds or Modular Photo-
  bioreactors.
• This where the algal cultures are grown at a large scale for commercialization. In some instances, the algae is subjected to
  environmental changes to promote the production of a red pigmentation which signifies the presence of Astaxanthin.
• After cultivation, the culture will be transferred to a series of centrifugation process for obtaining wet biomass.
• This is then subjected to further drying with spray drier/drum drier for efficient and controlled drying process.

Raceway / Open ponds:-
• A race-way pond is made 100m x 8m between 30 to 50cm
  deep. Circulation is generated by a paddle wheel. Total
  volume is 320,000L.
• During daylight hours the algae culture is continuously fed in
  front of the paddle wheel where the mixing is most effective.
• As of June 2011, the raceway / open ponds had yet to be
  constructed.

                                                                      • However, the open ponds are not yet constructed at
                                                                        the site. Therefore, the harvest pond is carrying out the
                                                                        function for now.
                                                                      • There are a total of 3 harvesting ponds available in the
                                                                        Batam plant.
                                                                      • Volume for each of the harvesting ponds is 20m3 or
                                                                        100,000L.


                                                                                                                                    46
Algae Facility
Process Flowchart – Cultivation
                                          Cultivation
                             Modular Photo-bioreactor (M-PBR) :-
                             • There are 5 modules of the M-PBR located at the far end of the
                               Batam site, as seen on their graphical plan.
                             • During the site visit, these modules were already fully
                               constructed. But the modules were not fully functioning and
                               was undergoing a cleaning process to remove biofilms from the
                               inner surface of the tube.
                             • This cleaning process normally includes about 8 people and
                               takes a duration of about 1 week to complete.




                                                                                            47
Algae Facility
Process Flowchart – Cultivation
                                        Cultivation
                         Cleaning the Modular Photo-bioreactor (M-PBR)
                         • Currently at the Batam site, the M-PBR cleaning process is conducted
                           manually and would require full shutdown of the M-PBR inoculation
                           process.
                         • Biofilms are formed when contaminants and bacteria enter into the PBR.
                           This will then encourage the buildup of these green films around the inner
                           surface of the PPMA tubes. The formation of biofilms on the inner surface
                           of the PBR would restrict sunlight from reaching the algae, affecting overall
          Biofilms         growth.
                         • Currently, small plastic resin beads are used to remove the biofilm. These
                           beads travel along the inner surface of the tube and will loosen the biofilms
                           so that they are easier to remove.
                         • The team are also researching a new, more efficient method to simplify the
                           cleaning process. They have developed a “Pigging” system to speed up
                           the cleaning process but the method has not been tested yet.


                                                                    Plastic resin beads




                                                                                                    48
  Algae Facility
  Process Flowchart – Harvesting
              Harvesting
• After the cultivation process, harvesting occurs just behind the paddle wheel in the raceway pond. The culture medium is
  required to go through a separation process to separate the liquid phase from the solid phase which contains the biomass. The
  biomass in the Batam plant is separated from the liquid phase using the process briefly described below:-


    Decanting Centrifugation                                                                                  Paddle Wheel

 This process involves spinning of the growth medium at high speeds in a circular basket
 with a filter screen located inside of the baskets. The centrifugal force generated causes
 the drainage of growth medium which leaves a much denser algae cake in the centrifuge
 basket (up to 30% concentration). The harvesting and dewatering stage is likely to use a
 combination of technologies to maximize the algae cake concentration which then reduce
 the energy required to dry the algae.




        Filter Bag used for Centrifuge
   Hole size = 1 micron, Capacity = 2L/hour                Centrifuge Machine 1                             Centrifuge Machine 2


                                                                                                                                   49
 Algae Facility
 Process Flowchart – Harvesting
• Other harvesting and dewatering processes also offered by Algaetech are:-


 Flocculation
This process typically requires the addition of edible flocculants, which are used to aggregate the algae and increase the rate
of settling. The algae is then collected into a settling chamber whereby it will then be removed. However, further dewatering is
still required.

 Dissolved/Induced Air Flotation
In this process, pressurised air is added to the culture. When the depressuring process happens, micro-bubbles will be then
formed. These bubbles attach themselves to the algae and then rise to the top where they are skimmed and collected for
further dewatering.


  Filtration
A number of filtration technologies can be used for the dewatering process, e.g. filter press, belt press/thickener and rotating
drum press. The algae cake concentration is dependent on the inlet condition of the culture and the filtration technology
applied. Algaetech indicates that solids concentration of the algae cake, which are collected in the filter, can go up to about
30wt%.




                                                                                                                                   50
   Algae Facility
   Process Flowchart – Bio-refining
            Bio-refining
• After the harvesting and dewatering stage, the concentrated algae cake is typically about 20-30wt% solids. Therefore, further
  drying processes are requires to remove the remaining water prior to further processing. The process offered in the Batam plant
  is as follows:-

   Sun Drying
 Sun drying involves a simple process of exposing the algae cakes to
 sunshine and allow them to lose water content through natural evaporation.
 This process does not require other additional heavy equipment and can be
 done in an open area.


  • Other bio-refining processes also offered by Algaetech are:-


   Drum Dryer
 The wet cake is dried through contact with hot drying gas (usually air) in a
 rotating drum. The drum is also fitted with internal blades to help transport the
 cake from the feed end to the dry end. Its advantages are the evaporation
 capacity of up to 15T water/hour, high throughput capacity, wide control range
 and low capital cost.

   Spray Dryer
 Spray dryer process is normally used when the algae is required to be quickly and hygienically dried. These algae cakes are
 generally used in the pharmaceutical and nutraceutical industries.


                                                                                                                                51
4. Algae Integrated Management System (AIMsysTM)

   This section explains the overall flowchart of the key processes
          and equipment involved in Algaetech’s AIMsysTM.




                                                                      52
Algae Integrated Management System (AIMsysTM)
Introduction
             •   Algaetech’s Algae Integrated Management System (AIMsysTM) is used for:-
                   –   Efficiency and productivity / an integration/combination of high technology
                       and biology factors
                   –   Monitoring and computerized automation control system for cultivation, pH,
                       salinity, temperature, media injection, etc.
             •   The AIMsysTM has and offers:-
                   –   High quality sensors
                   –   Triggers or alarms for any flawed or inconsistent conditions
                   –   Remote control system for monitoring and immediate corrective action
                   –   Customized report and analysis

                   AIMsysTM is divided and composed of
                   four main operational processes:                     4
                                                         3

                                           2



                               1




                                                                                                 53
      Algae Integrated Management System (AIMsysTM)
      Overview of Process Flowchart
Legend: -
Blue box – equipment                                      Power Plant
                                                                                           Flue Gas
                                                                                                                           Cooling System                   1
Brown box – processes                                                                      Chamber
Purple line – algae flow
Red line – water/chemicals flow
Green line – CO2 flow                                                                              UV and Treatment
Orange line – combination flow                                 Recycling Tank
                                                                                                       System



         Seawater tank                   Four stages of
                                                                      Treatment tank                                           Holding Tank
          (from sea)                       filtration


                                                              Addition of Chlorination                    Nutrient Tank
                                                              followed by Anti- chlorination



                                                                                                                                                   2
                                                                  10% of volume                            10% of volume         Reservoir
             Laboratorium                     Greenhouse                             Prototype PBR
                                                                                                                                  Tanks

                                                                                                      Polymer Tank
                                   3
                                       Centrifuge              Harvesting             Harvesting
                                                                                                                               Modular PBR
                                        machine                  Pond                   Tank

       Drying/Extracts
  4                               End-products: food and health food supplements; HVPs; feedstock; fertilizers; pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals, waste to
              Other processes     wealth; renewable energy; biodiesel; etc.)


                                                                                                                                                            54
 Algae Integrated Management System (AIMsysTM)
 Key Processes and Equipment
Stage 1: Preparation - Process
                                                                             Tanks

• The preparation stage begins with the filling of seawater
  into the SEAWATER tank. The seawater is then filtered in the
  SEAWATER FILTER tank. The filtration process consists four
  stages of filtration.
• The first stage is the treating of the seawater with activated
  charcoal. The activated charcoal will absorb impurities such as
  chemicals (chlorine) and some heavy metal by attaching to it.
• The second filtration stage is when the seawater passes through a
  10micron filter which removes large particles such as soft metals
  (aluminium, copper, tin).This process is crucial to avoid the large
  particles from blocking the smaller porous size filters in the following
  filtration processes.
• Thirdly, a 5micron filter is used to remove hard metals (like iron,
  chromium, nickel).
• In the last filtration step, the seawater passes through a filter with
  pore size of 0.1micron. This process is important because it
  eliminates any remaining living contamination that could interfere
  with the growth of the algae.




                                                                                     55
Algae Integrated Management System (AIMsysTM)
Key Processes and Equipment
Stage 1: Preparation - Process
• Currently, the seawater is now saline water and is collected in the
  SALINE TANK before flowed into the TREATMENT TANK. Once in
  the TREATMENT TANK, the saline water and recycled water (water
  that comes from the end of the process during centrifugation) is
  sterilized with a chlorine solution for a period of 24 hours.
• Then later the water is treated with an anti-chlorine solution to make
  it adaptable for algae growth.
• Nutrients from the NUTRIENT TANK are then added into the saline
  water. A specifically weighed amount of solid F2 media components        M-PBR

  are added to produce media suitable for the algae to grow.




                                                                                   56
Algae Integrated Management System (AIMsysTM)
Key Processes and Equipment
Stage 1: Preparation - Equipment
(1) Seawater Tank
This is to store seawater, which is brought by trucks that obtained the water from the sea. The capacity
of this tank is 35m3. The water is then filtered in the process described on the previous slide.

(2) Treating Water Tank
After the water is cleaned and filtered, it will be moved to the treatment tank, where the two treatment
processes occur. The capacity for this tank is 21m3.
     • First process – chlorination (6-12 hours), chlorine solution will be added to sterilize and
       deactivate any bacteria or small living organisms which were not filtered earlier.
     • Second process – anti-chlorination (6hours) is to neutralize the chlorine solution and make the
       water adaptable for algae growth.




                                                                                                           57
Algae Integrated Management System (AIMsysTM)
Key Processes and Equipment
Stage 1: Preparation - Equipment
(3) Holding Tank
The function of this tank is to store the cleaned and treated water before it is utilized in the following
processes. The capacity of stored water is 35m3.

(4) Nutrient Tank
This is where the nutrient (macro nutrients, micro nutrients, vitamins etc) are stored. The nutrients will pump
together when the water enters the reservoir tanks.




                                                                                                              58
Algae Integrated Management System (AIMsysTM)
Key Processes and Equipment
Stage 2: Culturing/Cultivation - Process
• The following process is culturing, which is also known as the Photo
  Bioreactor (PBR) stage and it comprises of two categories:-
    – Dark stage: The media is first injected into the RESERVOIR
      TANK with the algae; this stage is called as the dark stage. This
      tank acts as a circulation buffer for the algae culture in the
      circulation process of the PBR.
    – Light stage: The light stage takes place in the PHOTO
      BIOREACTOR TANK, enabling the cultures to undergo
      photosynthesis and cell division, which allows the biomass to       M-PBR

      increase.




                                                                                  59
 Algae Integrated Management System (AIMsysTM)
 Key Processes and Equipment
Stage 2: Culturing/Cultivation - Process
• The culture is transferred from the RESERVOIR TANK to the PBR TANK
  and back through modules attached to the start and end of the PBR
  TANK tubes, which consist of 24 tubes attached to two modules.
• The modules attached at the start are called the inlet, while the modules
  attached at the end of the tubes are called outlets. The inlet module
  allows the culture to enter into the first four tubes (flow starts from the
  bottom) which will reach the other end of the module and is transferred to
  the next four tubes, moving in an “S” direction until the last of the 24
  tubes. The flow will then enter into the RESERVOIR TANK in the same
  manner.
• The supply of CO2 provided to the PBR comes from trapping the flue gas,
  which are combusted by the generators. The flue gas collected from the
  power plant would be at a temperature of 200°C. Therefore, prior to being
  introduced into the PBR, it has to be cooled to 30°C. This cooling process
  is achieved using a HEAT EXCHANGER (COOLING SYSTEM) which will
  pass the gas through pipes containing liquid at room temperature.
• The gas will then be pressurized by the BLOWER which will be collected
  and stored in the FLUE GAS CHAMBER as compressed CO2. Then, by
  using the Solenoid Valve controls, CO2 gas is allowed to enter the PBR
  based on the pH conditions.



                                                                                60
Algae Integrated Management System (AIMsysTM)
Key Processes and Equipment
Stage 2: Culturing/Cultivation - Equipment
(1) Photo-Bioreactor (light stage) and Reservoir Tank (dark stage)
  • Photo-Bioreactor (PBR) consists of a series of clear PPMA tubes assemble in vertical which allows the
    algae to be exposed to the light (either sunlight or artificial light). There are 5 modules and for each
    module there is 1 reservoir tank located in the plant. The volume for one reservoir is 35m3. The length
    of the PBR is 120 m and the volume for one PBR is 45m3. So the total volume of one module is 80m3.
  • Seawater and nutrients will be pumped together into Module 1 along with 10% of the total volume from
    the prototype 1 and 2 (or 8m3 is algae culture). A 15kW pump will be placed at each module to
    circulate the water in the system.
  • CO2 gas will be pumped into the system to help increase the growth of algae inside the PBR as the
    algae undergo photosynthesis.
  • After the algae is grown and ready to be harvested, 10% of the volume
    of the first module will be transferred to modules 2, 3, 4 and 5. The
    same volume of seawater and nutrients that was added into module 1
    will be used for the transfer to module 2 to 5. Now all modules will
    operate simultaneously and the total operating volume for the system
    is 400m3.
  • After about two weeks, the algae are ready to harvest. 30% volume
    from each module (or 120m3 of algae) will be transferred into the
    harvesting tank and harvesting pond with overflow system. Seawater
    will be injected to the system to recover the volume loss during the
    harvesting process. Then the culturing process will continue as usual.

                                                                                                               61
Algae Integrated Management System (AIMsysTM)
Key Processes and Equipment
Stage 2: Culturing/Cultivation - Equipment
(2) Carbon dioxide - CO2
CO2 gas is an important factor to the system because it is required by the algae in the photosynthesis
process. The CO2 is supplied into the system from a power plant which is located next to the algae
cultivation plant. However, the CO2 gas obtained from the power generation plant is at elevated
temperatures. The CO2 gas needs to be cooled down to room temperature before entering the photo-
bioreactor. This is achieved by using a heat exchanger and passed through a blower.




                                                                                                         62
Algae Integrated Management System (AIMsysTM)
Key Processes and Equipment
 Stage 3: Harvesting - Process

• After sufficient time has passed in the PBR, the
  algae is collected in the HARVESTING POND
  where the harvesting and dewatering process
  starts. With sufficient growth of algae, the biomass
  is extracted uses a CENTRIFUGATION
  MACHINE.

• This machine will filter the algae biomass into a container that spins at a high speeds, collecting the
  biomass at the bottom. The water that is filtered through will be recycled. The recycled water is put
  through the UV TREATMENT SYSTEM to be neutralized so that the water is free from bacteria and any
  contamination. The water is then flowed back into the TREATMENT TANK and is recycled into the
  preparation process again.




                                                                                                            63
Algae Integrated Management System (AIMsysTM)
Key Processes and Equipment
Stage 3: Harvesting - Equipment
(1) Harvesting Tank and Harvesting Pond
    • The harvesting tanks available in the plant will have a
      capacity of 20m3. The total capacities for all 3 tanks
      are 60m3.
    • Flocculants will be added to make the algae coagulate
      into larger particles. A total of 60m3 of algae to be     Harvesting Pond
      harvested will flow to each of the harvesting ponds,
      each holding up to 20m3. The algae will continue
      culture further here.
(2) Centrifuge Machine
    • The wet biomass or algae cakes are collected from the
      harvesting tanks and harvesting ponds and flowed into
      the centrifuge machine. The machine will separate the
      wet biomass from the water and the excess water is        Centrifuge Machine
      recycled.
    • The water then will undergo a UV treatment process to
      destroy any bacteria or living organisms inside the
      water before being flowed into the treating water tank.
      The recycled water will be treated inside the treatment
      tank and will be reused. The wet biomass will be put
      through the drying process.

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Algae Integrated Management System (AIMsysTM)
Key Processes and Equipment
Stage 4: Bio-Refining – Process
• The bio-refining process occurs after the biomass is collected
  from centrifugation.
• The biomass undergoes a drying process to evaporate the
  remaining water.
• After the dry biomass is obtained, it then refined and
  processed according to the desired end-products.

Stage 4: Bio-Refining – Equipment
(1) Biomass Drying
The wet biomass will undergo either a natural drying process using
sunlight or other drying processes using a spray dryer, drier or drum
rotary. The final product will be obtained in flake form. The flakes will be
crushed into small particles. This will be then formed into algae cake
which is also known as dry biomass.
(2) Refining
Depending on the intended purpose of the algae (for e.g. Biodiesel), the
dried biomass will be put through further refining. For example, the
biomass may be fed through a soxhlet apparatus and purification for
diesel extraction.


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5. Ongoing Projects and Industry Partnerships
 This section covers the clients and collaborators of Algaetech’s
                      projects and activities.




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Projects Within Algaetech International


 Company                                     Activities / Projects                             Status


                Joint Venture with PT Algaetech Indonesia for Spirulina and Hatchery
                production centre at Sentul Jakarta.
                – Technology transfer, collaboration and technology knowledge for fish         Ongoing
                   hatchery and nursery, culturing, harvesting and bio-processing as well as
                   the international marketing.

                Sales & Marketing of algae nutritional product under brand “PREMIA”
                – Premia Spirulina-EX, as well as several other products based on Spirulina
                  such as coffee, tea, cereal, slimming tea, green tea, chewies and etc.       Ongoing
                – Currently, the PREMIA product has been marketed in Malaysia and
                  Indonesia.
  Algaetech
International   Research and Development of Algae strains.
                                                                                               Ongoing
                – Production of high value products, particularly from microalgae.

                Microalgae Research and Development Training Class in the Algaetech
                Laboratory.
                – Provide a training workshop to the general public, to boost the use of
                                                                                               Ongoing
                  microalgae as a new future trend.
                – Hands-on experience in basic lab techniques, and theoretical basics to
                  understand the cultivation of microalgae.




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Clients of Algaetech
Corporate
Country            Clients                                Activities / Projects                      Status


                                       Development of Additional Treatment for Palm Oil Mill
                                       Effluent and Lechate using an “Algae-based water              Ongoing
                                       management system”.
           MyAgri Nutribio Sdn Bhd


                                       NDA Signed                                                    Ongoing
                Air Asia Berhad

                                       Government Grant for Research and Development of Algae
                                       Biofuel:-
                                       – Cultivation of microalgae “Nannochloropsis Aculata” for      Done
Malaysia      Ministry of Science,
                                          primary production of Bio-diesel (able to produce lipids
           Technology and Innovation
                                          which are suitable for conversion into biodiesel).


                                       Government Grant for Cultivation of Haematococcus
                                                                                                     Ongoing
             Malaysia Technology       Pluvialis for Primary Production of Astaxanthin.
           Development Corporation

                                       Research & development of Algae Jet Fuel at the
                                       Aerospace Malaysia Innovative Center (AMIC) which is led
             European Aeronautic       by EADS and Rolls Royce.                                      Ongoing
             Defence and Space         Algaetech will develop a R&D team to focus on the
            Company N.V. (EADS)        pilot/commercial plant for the production of Algae Jet fuel


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Please contact us:

Mr. Syed Isa Syed Alwi
CEO
Algae Research Centre (ARC)
PT5517, Technology Park Malaysia
57000 Kuala Lumpur, MALAYSIA
syedisa@gmail.com
syedisa@algaetech.co.my



www.algaetech.com.my
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