Plant Life Cycles
Modified by Georgia Agriculture Education Curriculum Office
What is a Life Cycle?
• from the time a seed is planted until the
time that a seed is produced
What are the Life Cycles?
• Annuals, Biennials, & Perennials
• complete life
cycle in one
– can be summer
wheat, barley) or
• require two
– first season plant
second season seed
(sugar beet, carrot)
What is a Seed?
• package containing an embryo
(miniature plant) and food
• seeds are alive, need air
What is Germination?
• process where embryo changes to
seedling (growing plant)
What conditions are
necessary for germination?
2) correct temperature
4) some seeds need light
5) some seeds need help (break seed coat
[sunflower], remove a chemical from seed,
heat, chill [winter wheat])
What are Warm Season
• soil temperature must be 70 degrees F
or more for germination (corn, rice,
What are Cool Season
• soil temp below 70 degrees F (wheat,
How deep do seeds
need to be planted?
• the size of the seed determines
• larger seed = deeper
• corn = 4"
• bluegrass = 1/4"
1) seed absorbs water, swells
2) water activates enzymes which help
digest stored food
3) root grows
4) shoot emerges (is now a seedling)
What is vegetative
• plant produces
food for itself
• extra food is
stored in roots,
• when new stems are formed in grass
• stems of grass plants elongate rapidly
• process how plants get energy from its
How is food stored in
• form of carbohydrates (sugars)
How does respiration
Food + Oxygen --> Carbon
Dioxide + Water + Energy
What factors can influence
the rate of respiration?
1) high temps = high rate of
2) high amounts of light = high
3) high amounts of water = high
What is Photosynthesis?
• process of converting water and carbon
dioxide into food (sugar) and oxygen in
the presence of chlorophyll and light
• photosynthesis and respiration are
What is Transpiration?
• process of returning water to the air (in
the form of gas)
• 99% of water taken in by roots is
• Wilt = plant transpires more than it
What are Nutrients?
• elements needed by plants to grow
• needed in large amounts
• C, H, O, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S)
• plants get C, H, O from air and water
What are Primary
• N, P, K
What are Secondary
• Ca, Mg, S
9/17/2012• needed less
• needed in small amounts, but essential
• excess amounts are toxic
• Fe, Bo, Mn, Zn, Mo, Cu, Cl
16 Essential Nutrients
• C H O P K N S Ca Fe Mg B Mn Cu Zn
• An easy way to help remember
essential nutrients is with the help of
this sentence (each word or letter
stands for each nutrient): C Hopkins
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