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					         storyboard 4.3 2007_06_11                                             updated 2007_06_13




2_7.1 Demands of the monitoring programme
                                                                                              EX: Example               LV: Live session
                                                                                              TS: Text segment          FO: Forum
Filename     storyboard KNOWLEDGE BRIDGE                                                      FI: Figure                WFD : Glossary
Chapter:     2_7. Monitoring and Control                                                      AN: Animation             Water : Animation
Subchapter: 2_7.1 Demands of the monitoring programme                                         QE: Question & Exercise   Article 1 : Link
    Pagenumber:                          Lemma:Learning objective                             Glossary:
        -1-                                  Learning Objective
                                                                                                                        Annotation:
Number        Type                                    Description                              Item
                  The goal of this learning unit is to clarify the monitoring aspects that are
     1         TS outlined in the WFD and to recognise what aspects are important if you have
                  to set up a monitoring programme.




                     Objectives
                     • Being aware of the monitoring requirements of the WFD.
                     • Being able to choose appropriate parameters and monitoring locations
     2
                     based on available information.




              TS




              Cont
     3
               ent
                                                                                                                        requirements (10)



                                                                                              EX: Example               LV: Live session
Filename    storyboard KNOWLEDGE BRIDGE                                                       TS: Text segment          FO: Forum
Chapter:    2_7. Monitoring and Control                                                       FI: Figure                WFD : Glossary
Subchapter: 2_7.1 Demands of the monitoring programme                                         AN: Animation             Water : Animation


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                                                                                                    QE: Question & Exercise   Article 1 : Link
  Pagenumber:                                       Lemma:                                          Glossary:
      -2-                                    Background information
                                                                                                                              Annotation:
Number        Type                                  Description                                     Item
                     Background

                  Monitoring is a key operational aspect of the WFD. It is the tool through which
     1         TS
                  to assess water body status (chemical and ecological), pressures and
                  impacts (learning unit 2_5.2), set reference conditions (learning unit 2_4.2)
                  and, overall, check if the environmental objectives have been met.
                  Article 8 of the WFD sets the terms of how to use monitoring. Read article 8
     2         TS
                  in the text box 1 below.
     3         TS                                                                                                             see Annex 2_7.1 A page 2
                  Article 8 of the WFD requires the establishment of monitoring programmes by
                  member states, which had to be operational by the end of 2006 (‘at the latest
     4         TS six years after the date of entry into force of this Directive’; see box 1).
                  Paragraph 2 of article 8 refers to Annex V, which addresses the types, design
                  and frequency of monitoring (paragraph 1.3 of Annex V).
                                                                                                    EX: Example               LV: Live session
Filename    storyboard KNOWLEDGE BRIDGE                                                             TS: Text segment          FO: Forum
Chapter:    2_7. Monitoring and Control                                                             FI: Figure                WFD : Glossary
Subchapter: 2_7.1 Demands of the monitoring programme                                               AN: Animation             Water : Animation
                                                                                                    QE: Question & Exercise   Article 1 : Link




                                                                                         2
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  Pagenumber:                                           Lemma:                                         Glossary:
      -3-                                        I. Types of monitoring
                                                                                                                    Annotation:
Number        Type                                    Description                                      Item
                     I. Types of monitoring

                     For surface waters, there are three types of monitoring distinguished by the
                                                                                                       Glossary:
                     WFD:
               TS
    1             1) surveillance
               AN
                  2) operational
                  3) investigative monitoring



                     Surveillance monitoring must be applied in order to provide the information
                     needed for the design of appropriate measures. It must be used to determine
                     the initial overall surface water status in a catchment or sub-catchment. This
                     way, any water bodies that are at risk of failing to meet the environmental
                     objectives are identified.

                     Surveillance monitoring is also a supplementary part of the pressures and
                     impact analysis; after the pressures are identified, surveillance monitoring
                     can be used to assess the impact on the environment.
    2
                     This does however not hold for the first pressures and impacts analysis, as
                     this was due for the end of 2004, where the monitoring programmes were not
                     expected to be operational by the end of 2006 see learning unit 2_5.2:
                     Pressures and Impacts).

                      Finally, this type of monitoring makes an assessment of any long-term
                     changes, both natural and anthropogenic.
                                                                                                                    Link to chapter 5.2
                     Operational monitoring zooms in on those water bodies that are at risk of
                     failing to meet the environmental objectives (as identified by the surveillance
                     monitoring programme) and further asses the causes for this.
                                                                                                       Glossary:
    3          TS These are the water bodies for which measures are to be designed. After
                  implementation of the programme of measures, the operational monitoring              objectives
                  programme looks for any changes in the status of these bodies, whether or
                  not as a result of the measures taken.



                                                                                             3
         storyboard 4.3 2007_06_11                                             updated 2007_06_13




                    Investigative monitoring, finally, focuses on areas with below good status,
                    where the reasons for this are unknown. It is in fact a separate monitoring
                    programme for ‘problem situations’ that need additional attention.                                       link to: General/Guidance
     4         TS
                                                                                                                             Document/ No 7
                    This includes events of accidental pollution, where the magnitude and impact
                    needs to be assessed. Follow this link and read the content of the WFD
                    Guidance Document, Annex V (paragraph 1.3)
                                                                                                   EX: Example               LV: Live session
Filename    storyboard KNOWLEDGE BRIDGE                                                            TS: Text segment          FO: Forum
Chapter:    2_7. Monitoring and Control                                                            FI: Figure                WFD : Glossary
Subchapter: 2_7.1 Demands of the monitoring programme                                              AN: Animation             Water : Animation
                                                                                                   QE: Question & Exercise   Article 1 : Link




                                                                                         4
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  Pagenumber:                                              Lemma:                                              Glossary:
      -4-                                            II. What to monitor?
                                                                                                                                         Annotation:
Number        Type                                        Description                                          Item

                     II. What to monitor?
                     The policy summary of Guidance Document No. 7 does not go into details on what
                     quality elements should be monitored. Annex V of the complete document provides
                     ‘key considerations for monitoring quality elements’ for the different (surface) water
                     body types. These considerations will be described shortly below.
     1         TS
                     In addition, a good understanding of the terms ‘quality element’ and ’parameter’ is
                     required. Please study paragraph IV (“Classification of ecological status”) of learning                             Link to: General/ Guidance
                     unit 2_4.2 on reference conditions.
                                                                                                                                         document/ No. 7 S
                                                                                                                                         Link to Chapter 2_4.2
     2          FI                                                                                                                       See annex 2_7.1 A page 4
                                                                                                               EX: Example               LV: Live session
Filename    storyboard KNOWLEDGE BRIDGE                                                                        TS: Text segment          FO: Forum
Chapter:    2_7. Monitoring and Control                                                                        FI: Figure                WFD : Glossary
Subchapter: 2_7.1 Demands of the monitoring programme                                                          AN: Animation             Water : Animation
                                                                                                               QE: Question & Exercise   Article 1 : Link
  Pagenumber:                                                Lemma:                                            Glossary:
      -5-                                              II. Surface Waters
                                                                                                                                         Annotation:
Number        Type                                        Description                                          Item




                                                                                                      5
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             Rivers
             Because of the variability of rivers throughout Europe and the pressures they
             are subject to, monitoring biological effects is complex.
             Choosing relevant quality elements will depend on the pressure, the size of
             the river, current data- and method-availability and local knowledge. As an
             example, this side step shows a table with key features of biological quality
             elements (from: section 3 of Guidance Document No. 7).                        Macroinvertebrates
                                                                                           biological quality element
             Similar tables are included in the Guidance Document on physic-chemical       macrophyte
1         TS
             and hydromorphological elements for rivers, lakes, transitional waters and    benthic algae
             coastal waters.                                                               phytoplankton
                                                                                           eutrophication
             Macroinvertebrates are widely used as a biological quality element for
             rivers because of their sensitivity to a wide range of pressures (organic
             pollutants, toxic chemicals, changes in hydrology and morphology). For
             assessing eutrophication macrophyte communities are especially relevant.
             Also benthic algae (like diatoms) and phytoplankton are useful indicators
             for eutrophication. Some of the above may be less useful in deep rivers
2         FI                                                                                                          see Annex 7.1 B 3 river


             Hydromorphological quality elements are also very important for determining
             ecological quality, because the biological elements vary in accordance with
             the characteristics and processes of the system. The physical structure and
             flow dynamics of the system influences the substrate, decomposition of
             organic matter and the interaction with the riparian zone (river bank).
             Where monitoring of biological elements was already well developed in the          Hydromorphological
             pre-WFD period, methods for hydromorphological monitoring need to be               decomposition of organic
3         TS further developed.                                                                 matter
                                                                                                substrate
             Basic physic-chemical quality elements include temperature, nutrients,             nutrients
             salinity and pH. These are all parameters that have a natural as well as
             potential polluting character; under natural conditions their values fall within a
             certain range, but outside this range there is a negative effect (e.g. nutrients
             causing eutrophication). It is important to recognise this in the monitoring
             programme.




                                                                                      6
         storyboard 4.3 2007_06_11                                               updated 2007_06_13




                                                                                                                               link to :section 5 of the policy
                                                                                                                              summary ("Quality elements
                                                                                                                              supporting the biological
                  Follow the links and read the texts. section 5 of the policy summary ("Quality                              elements") page 11, and section 7
     4         TS elements supporting the biological elements") page 11, and section 7 ("What                                 ("What quality elements and
                  quality elements and parameters should be monitored?"), page 13-15.                                         parameters should be
                                                                                                                              monitored?"), page 13-15. see
                                                                                                                              Annex 2_7.1 C
                                                                                                    EX: Example               LV: Live session
Filename    storyboard KNOWLEDGE BRIDGE                                                             TS: Text segment          FO: Forum
Chapter:    2_7. Monitoring and Control                                                             FI: Figure                WFD : Glossary
Subchapter: 2_7.1 Demands of the monitoring programme                                               AN: Animation             Water : Animation
                                                                                                    QE: Question & Exercise   Article 1 : Link
  Pagenumber:                                           Lemma:                                      Glossary:
      -6-                                         II. Surface Waters
                                                                                                                              Annotation:
Number        Type                                    Description                                   Item
                  Lakes
                  The key element influencing ecosystem structure and function in lakes and
                  reservoirs is anthropogenic eutrophication. Eutrophication lies at the basis
                  of various water quality problems such as algal blooms, oxygen depletion,
     1         TS                                                                                   Eutrophication
                  reduces transparency and fish deaths. Lakes, being standing waters, are
                  characterised by relatively high water residence times and a seasonal
                  variation in conditions caused by stratification and mixing. The physic-
                  chemical and biological processes that occur differ accordingly.
                     A key biological quality element for lakes is phytoplankton (diversity,
                     abundance and biomass), as it responds rapidly to physic-chemical changes.
                     Blooms of phytoplankton are evidence for eutrophication. Measurements of
                     chlorophyll-a concentrations can be used to assess trophic state and
                     phytoplankton biomass. Macrophytes (littoral vegetation; vegetation in the
                     shore zone) also play an important role in lakes together with their associated
                     epiphytic microflora, as they can function as sieves for inorganic nutrients and phytoplankton
     2
                     dissolved organic matter.                                                        bioaccumulation
                     Fish communities (composition, abundance and structure) can serve as
                     indicators for various, especially long-term, impacts because they have long
                     life cycles and are composed of several trophic levels. Fish species and
                     mussels are in some cases used in monitoring of organic substances and
                     heavy metals because of their high bioaccumulation capacity.


     3                                                                                                                        see annex 7.1 B 2 Lake


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                  Key hydromorphological quality elements include water residence time, lake
                  dimensions (volume, depth, surface area) and characteristics of the lake bed.
                  Water residence time directs processes like sedimentation, diffusion, turbidity
                  and nutrient supply. The higher the residence time, the more time there is for
                  biological interactions to occur. Surface to depth ratio influences the
                  development of littoral zones and their associated littoral flora, because it
                  determines the amount of substrate that is available. In Europe, most lakes     water residence time
     4         TS
                  are relatively shallow, which leads to the conclusion that the littoral zone    anaerobic
                  dominates over the pelagic (open water) zone.

                     Physico-chemical quality elements include oxygen and temperature, because
                     low oxygen demand and anaerobic conditions have a great influence on
                     productivity and stratification / mixing regimes in lakes.


                                                                                                 EX: Example               LV: Live session
Filename    storyboard KNOWLEDGE BRIDGE                                                          TS: Text segment          FO: Forum
Chapter:    2_7. Monitoring and Control                                                          FI: Figure                WFD : Glossary
Subchapter: 2_7.1 Demands of the monitoring programme                                            AN: Animation             Water : Animation
                                                                                                 QE: Question & Exercise   Article 1 : Link
  Pagenumber:                                          Lemma:                                    Glossary:
      -7-                                        II. Surface Waters
                                                                                                                           Annotation:
Number        Type                                  Description                                  Item

                  Transitional waters
                  Transitional waters, being the transition between fresh- and saltwater
                  systems, are characterised by steep gradients and often large tidal
                  differences. Connected to this is a high natural spatial and temporal variability
                  in biological quality elements like for instance phytoplankton (chlorophyll-a).
                  This is also the case for macroalgae, but to a much lesser extent, making
                  them more suitable as a quality element in some transitional waters. In
     1         TS shallow transitional waters, sea grass communities may provide important          macrozoobenthic
                  indicators of human as well as natural impacts. Faunal indicators include
                  benthic invertebrates and fish. Sampling and analysing macrozoobenthic
                  biomass has as a disadvantage the extensive methodology and lack of
                  protocols. Fish species composition is a useful indicator for WFD purposes,
                  especially with the emphasis on the occurrence of migratory species and
                  spawning schools in the periods when these are expected. Fish abundance
                  and biomass is subject to high variability and therefore less suitable.



                                                                                         8
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                  Hydromorphological quality elements largely coincide with those for coastal
                  waters, as do the physic-chemical quality elements (see below). Especially
                  relevant in transitional waters is the hydrological budget (characterisation of
      2      TS                                                                                    hydrological budget
                  the type of transitional water: delta, estuary, lagoon, gulf…). In estuaries the
                  tidal volume (amount of water entering during high and low tide) is of
                  significant importance.
                                                                                                   EX: Example               LV: Live session
Filename    storyboard KNOWLEDGE BRIDGE                                                            TS: Text segment          FO: Forum
Chapter:    2_7. Monitoring and Control                                                            FI: Figure                WFD : Glossary
Subchapter: 2_7.1 Demands of the monitoring programme                                              AN: Animation             Water : Animation
                                                                                                   QE: Question & Exercise   Article 1 : Link




                                                                                         9
         storyboard 4.3 2007_06_11                                                updated 2007_06_13




  Pagenumber:                                            Lemma:                                        Glossary:
      - 8-                                         II. Surface Waters
                                                                                                                                 Annotation:
Number        Type                                    Description                                      Item
                     Coastal waters
                     In coastal waters, relevant biological quality elements are among others
                     phytoplankton, macroalgae / sea grasses and benthic invertebrates.
                     Phytoplankton is again subject to high variability, which should have
                     consequences for the sampling frequency. Macroalgae are an important
                     region-specific parameter, with usually high species diversity under natural
     1               conditions. Domination of species indicates eutrophication. Macroalgae
                     should be monitored not only for composition and abundance, but for
                     distribution, extension and variation in time and space, as it provides
                     information on the ecosystem’s stability. Sea grasses are not subject to these
                     temporal changes; monitoring distribution is sufficient and a high frequency is
                     not necessary.
              TS
     2        FI  Baltic Sea                                                                                                     see Annex 2_7.1 B 1
                  The list of hydromorphological quality elements clarified in Annex V is quite
                  extensive; they include tidal regime (e.g. direction of dominant current), wave
                  exposure, depth variations and structure of the intertidal zone and coastal
     3         TS bed. Chemical and physic-chemical elements include transparency, thermal
                  conditions, oxygenation conditions, salinity and nutrient conditions. In most
                  EC countries, these parameters are all routinely measured as part of existing,
                  national monitoring programmes.
                                                                                                       EX: Example               LV: Live session
Filename    storyboard KNOWLEDGE BRIDGE                                                                TS: Text segment          FO: Forum
Chapter:    2_7. Monitoring and Control                                                                FI: Figure                WFD : Glossary
Subchapter: 2_7.1 Demands of the monitoring programme                                                  AN: Animation             Water : Animation
                                                                                                       QE: Question & Exercise   Article 1 : Link
  Pagenumber:                                            Lemma:                                        Glossary:
      - 9-                                         III. Groundwater
                                                                                                                                 Annotation:
Number        Type                                    Description                                      Item




                                                                                            10
         storyboard 4.3 2007_06_11                                               updated 2007_06_13




                     Groundwater
                     Groundwater monitoring is dealt with separately in the WFD (Annex V: 2) and
                     Guidance Document 7 (section 4) receiving equal attention as surface
                     waters. An important aspect of groundwater monitoring is the fact that the
                     WFD requires the monitoring of quantitative status, recognising the fact that
                     groundwater is generally used as source for drinking water. Annex V section
     1
                     2.1 deals with this aspect, regarding monitoring frequencies and selection of
                     sites, and the establishment of a groundwater level monitoring network.
                     Furthermore, monitoring of chemical status is required; also here surveillance
                     and operational monitoring are distinguished. Important considerations in
                     selecting monitoring sites are groundwater bodies that are at risk of
                     deterioration as a result of anthropogenic influences and locations where
              TS     aquifers cross member states boundaries.


     2
              FI                                                                                                                see Annex 2_7.1 ???
                  A number of key parameters to be sampled are stated in Annex V of the
                  WFD. These are oxygen content, pH, conductivity, nitrate and ammonium.
     3         TS The frequency with which to monitor these is not exactly specified, but a
                  ‘minimum of once per annum’ has to be abided. The frequency has to be
                  chosen such that it is sufficient to detect the impacts of relevant pressures.
     4          FI                                                                                                              see Annex 2_7.1 a page 9
                                                                                                                                Link to :section 7, page 14
                  Additional read section 7, page 14 "Groundwater quantitative status" and                                      "Groundwater quantitative status"
                  "groundwater chemical status and trends"; section 8, page 16 groundwater of                                   and "groundwater chemical status
     5         TS
                  the summary of GD 7.                                                                                          and trends"; section 8, page 16
                                                                                                                                groundwater of the summary of GD
                                                                                                                                7. see Annex 2_7.1 C
                                                                                                      EX: Example               LV: Live session
Filename    storyboard KNOWLEDGE BRIDGE                                                               TS: Text segment          FO: Forum
Chapter:    2_7. Monitoring and Control                                                               FI: Figure                WFD : Glossary
Subchapter: 2_7.1 Demands of the monitoring programme                                                 AN: Animation             Water : Animation
                                                                                                      QE: Question & Exercise   Article 1 : Link
  Pagenumber:                                         Lemma:                                          Glossary:
      - 10-                         IV. Protected areas: additional requirements
                                                                                                                                Annotation:
Number        Type                                   Description                                      Item



                                                                                           11
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                  Special attention should be given in the monitoring programmes to areas that
                  have a protected status due to drinking water abstraction purposes or habitat
                  and species protection (Annex V: 1.3.5). For drinking water abstraction points
                  (more than 100 m3 a day) this especially has consequences for the
                  monitoring frequency: depending on the number of people served these
     1            locations should be monitored with a frequency of at least 4, 8 or 12 times per
                  year. All priority substances discharged and all significant other pollutants
                  have to be taken into account here. An important note relating to drinking
                  water abstraction areas is that these requirements are for surface water
                  abstraction points; the Directive does not give any additional monitoring
              TS  requirements for groundwater bodies.
                  As for ecological protection areas, these must be included in the operational
                  monitoring programme as far as they are identified as being at risk of failing
     2         TS the environmental objectives. This identification will be based on the
                  outcomes of the impact assessment (see learning unit 5.2: Pressures and
                  Impacts) and surveillance monitoring
                  Additional read about protected areas in the GD 7: page 10-11: protected                                    Link to: page 10-11 see Annex
     3         TS areas and wetlands.
                                                                                                                              2_7.1 C
                                                                                                    EX: Example               LV: Live session
Filename    storyboard KNOWLEDGE BRIDGE                                                             TS: Text segment          FO: Forum
Chapter:    2_7. Monitoring and Control                                                             FI: Figure                WFD : Glossary
Subchapter: 2_7.1 Demands of the monitoring programme                                               AN: Animation             Water : Animation
                                                                                                    QE: Question & Exercise   Article 1 : Link
  Pagenumber:                                       Lemma:                                          Glossary:
      -9-                                     Questions/Training (1)
                                                                                                                              Annotation:
Number        Type                                  Description                                   Item
                  1. Study Annex V: 1.3 of the WFD, on the designs of surveillance, operational
     1         QE and investigative monitoring. Also study Annex V: 2.4, which describes the
                  same for groundwater monitoring.
                  a) What are the main criteria distinguishing the various types of surface water
     2         QE
                  monitoring? Click here to see sample solution!




                                                                                         12
    storyboard 4.3 2007_06_11                                               updated 2007_06_13




              Monitoring locations: the purpose of surveillance monitoring is to assess
              the overall surface water status, without being water body specific.
              Operational monitoring zooms in on the water bodies at risk. This is reflected
              by the selection of monitoring points: surveillance monitoring is to be carried
              out on a sufficient number and a representative selection of water bodies to
         Answ
3             assess the overall status of a catchment or sub-catchment. Operational
          er
              monitoring on the other hand is required for all ‘at risk’ water bodies. In the
              case of point source pressures monitoring points have to be taken in each
              water body subject to that pressure; in the case of diffuse pollution and
              hydromorphological pressures a selection from the water bodies under
              pressure is appropriate.
              Quality elements: Surveillance monitoring, being for overview purposes,
              requires inclusion of all biological, hydromorphological and physic-chemical
              quality elements, whereas operational monitoring requires monitoring of only
              those quality elements indicative of the pressures to which the water body is
         Answ subject. Operational monitoring can thus be said to be lead by the pressures
4
          er and impact analysis.
              Investigative monitoring, finally, is performed in special ‘problem’ cases to
              determine the causes for not meeting the objectives. As such there are no
              specific requirements on what should be monitored and where and when.



5         QE b) How many types of groundwater monitoring are specified? What are the
             main criteria distinguishing the various types of groundwater monitoring?

6         QE
               Click here to see sample solution!                                                see next row




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         storyboard 4.3 2007_06_11                                                 updated 2007_06_13




                     Two:
                     1) Surveillance
                     2) Operational Monitoring

                     The criteria for surveillance and operational monitoring of groundwater are
                     different from those for surface waters.

                   Surveillance monitoring does not provide an overview of the general
                   groundwater status, but is already confined more or less to bodies identified
              Answ as being at risk. In addition, a selection of water bodies not at risk must be
     7
               er included for comparison.

                     Operational monitoring is to be carried out solely on water bodies at risk.

                     For surveillance monitoring a fixed set of parameters are specified in article
                     2.4.2.

                     This is not the case for operational monitoring, in which the chemical status of
                     bodies at risk must be determined.

                                                                                                        EX: Example               LV: Live session
Filename    storyboard KNOWLEDGE BRIDGE                                                                 TS: Text segment          FO: Forum
Chapter:    2_7. Monitoring and Control                                                                 FI: Figure                WFD : Glossary
Subchapter: 2_7.1 Demands of the monitoring programme                                                   AN: Animation             Water : Animation
                                                                                                        QE: Question & Exercise   Article 1 : Link
  Pagenumber:                                          Lemma:                                           Glossary:
      - 10-                                      Questions/Training (2)
                                                                                                                                  Annotation:
Number        Type                                    Description                                  Item
                  2) Look at Annex V: 1.1 of the WFD, which specifies for each water body type
     1         QE the quality elements required for assessing ecological status. The list of
                  quality elements is not the same for each water body type.
                  a) Explain why phytoplankton biomass is not included in the quality element
                  package for rivers, but is for the other water body types. Tip: use the table in
                  the side step to find the reasons for the apparent limited applicability of this                                link to side step. See Annex 2_7.1
     2         QE
                  quality element in rivers. List the five most important arguments not to use                                    D
                  phytoplankton biomass methodology in rivers. Click here to see sample
                  solution!




                                                                                             14
         storyboard 4.3 2007_06_11                                                  updated 2007_06_13




                    - presence is generally low, variability high
                   - presence is usually flow-related; especially in fast flowing rivers
              Answ phytoplankton is often absent due to low residence times,
     3
               er - currently not in common use across Europe,
                   - no international standard methodology,
                   - In general: low to moderate applicability for rivers
                     b) Transparency is another quality element apparently not deemed relevant
     4         QE
                     or applicable to rivers. Explain why. Click here to see sample solution!
                   Transparency is a relevant parameter in relation to vegetation (light
                   permeability). Especially the larger lowland rivers do not generally contain
              Answ
     5             vegetation in the river bed itself. Furthermore, rivers are characterised by
               er
                   high sediment loads. Transparency is therefore not a strong indicator for the
                   (ecological) water quality in rivers.
                   c) Are there any other notable differences (or similarities) in the lists of quality
     6
                   elements? Click here to see sample solution!
                   There are some quality elements that are specific to water body type
                   characteristics, such as residence time for lakes or tidal regime and wave
                   exposure in coastal areas. However, there is also a list of general quality
     7             elements that are the same for all water body types. These are the (physic-)
                   chemical quality elements supporting the biological quality elements and they
                   have as a general feature that they have a natural range of values, but are
                   potential polluters above or below those values.
                                                                                                          EX: Example               LV: Live session
Filename    storyboard KNOWLEDGE BRIDGE                                                                   TS: Text segment          FO: Forum
Chapter:    2_7. Monitoring and Control                                                                   FI: Figure                WFD : Glossary
Subchapter: 2_7.1 Demands of the monitoring programme                                                     AN: Animation             Water : Animation
                                                                                                          QE: Question & Exercise   Article 1 : Link
  Pagenumber:                                          Lemma:                                             Glossary:
      - 11-                                      Questions/Training (3)
                                                                                                                                    Annotation:
Number        Type                                     Description                             Item
                  3) Assessing benthic invertebrate biomass requires taking approximately 200
                  samples per sampling station. To determine biomass (which is expressed as
                  g ash-free dry weight m-2) several steps need to be taken (determining wet
     1         QE
                  weight, dry weight and finally ash-free weight). Explain the consequences of
                  these facts for the reliability of these monitoring data. Mark the correct
                  answers.




                                                                                              15
         storyboard 4.3 2007_06_11                                                updated 2007_06_13




                     Due to the great number of samples the results are very reliable because
                     mistakes balance each other. (wrong)

                     Standardised methods and quality assurance protocols are available (wrong)

                     Both the sampling methodology and the protocol for analysis pose high
                     methodological bias on the monitoring results (many steps in which sampling
                     variations can accumulate and mistakes made). (correct)
     2         QE                                                                                                                make as Multiple choice.
                     standardised methods and quality assurance protocols are not available.
                     (Correct)

                     Benthic invertebrate biomass therefore is not a very reliable quality element
                     (correct)

                     Benthic invertebrate biomass therefore is a very reliable quality element
                     (wrong)


                                                                                                       EX: Example               LV: Live session
Filename    storyboard KNOWLEDGE BRIDGE                                                                TS: Text segment          FO: Forum
Chapter:    2_7. Monitoring and Control                                                                FI: Figure                WFD : Glossary
Subchapter: 2_7.1 Demands of the monitoring programme                                                  AN: Animation             Water : Animation
                                                                                                       QE: Question & Exercise   Article 1 : Link
  Pagenumber:                                         Lemma:                                           Glossary:
      - 12-                                     Questions/Training (4)
                                                                                                                                 Annotation:
Number        Type                                 Description                                         Item
                  4) The WFD gives minimum requirements on monitoring frequencies of
                  surface waters (see the table in Annex V: 1.3.4). The table shows for each
     1         QE
                  water body type the same minimum frequency for the biological quality
                  elements.
                  a) Explain why this may not be appropriate for some biological quality
     2         QE
                  elements. Click here to see sample solution
                   Some biological quality elements, such as phytoplankton, will show high
              Answ
     3             seasonal variability, especially in transitional waters. A six-monthly monitoring
               er
                   frequency will in this case not be sufficient to take this into account.




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         storyboard 4.3 2007_06_11                                              updated 2007_06_13




                  b) Have another look at the part of the table in Annex V:1.3.4 with the
                  biological quality elements. Make a grounded recommendation for adaptation
                  of those monitoring frequencies. Explain why for a certain quality element in a
     4         QE
                  certain water body type the monitoring frequency should be higher or lower in
                  a practical situation. Use the following words monthly, weekly, two-weekly,
                  three-monthly. Click here to see sample solution
                   Phytoplankton: At least three-monthly or monthly monitoring in lakes,
                   because eutrophication is the main issue here. Eutrophication can vary
              Answ seasonally (agricultural runoff). In transitional and coastal waters                                       Make a cloze. The orange words
     5
               er phytoplankton is characterised by extremely high natural spatial and temporal                               are the correct answer.
                   variability; monitoring should be carried out at least monthly, but preferably
                   weekly or two-weekly.
                                                                                                    EX: Example               LV: Live session
Filename    storyboard KNOWLEDGE BRIDGE                                                             TS: Text segment          FO: Forum
Chapter:    2_7. Monitoring and Control                                                             FI: Figure                WFD : Glossary
Subchapter: 2_7.1 Demands of the monitoring programme                                               AN: Animation             Water : Animation
                                                                                                    QE: Question & Exercise   Article 1 : Link
  Pagenumber:                                       Lemma:                                          Glossary:
      - 13-                                   Questions/Training (5)
                                                                                                                              Annotation:
Number        Type                                 Description                                      Item
                  5) Explain in your own words the stepwise cycle of measure – monitoring –
                  review that is a continuous process throughout the six-yearly cycle of the
     1         QE
                  River Basin Plan. Make a scribble of this cycle. Click here to see sample
                  solution
                  In the programme of measures, which is an integral part of the River Basin
                  Management Plan, measures are formulated for all bodies of water in order to
                  reach at least ‘good’ status. Monitoring is performed in order to assess the
                  effectiveness of the measures, among other things. Towards the end of the
                  RBMP-cycle the measures will be reviewed based on the monitoring data.
                  This essentially means that the water body’s new status is being assessed, to
     2         QE
                  check if the objectives have been met. If objectives are met, measures to
                  improve status are no longer necessary for that water body, only to maintain
                  status. If objectives have not been met, the reason for this has to be
                  determined. Based on this, additional measures can be established, if
                  possible, which should be included in the new RBMP and made operational
                  within three years of their establishment.
     3          Fi                                                                                                            see Annex 2_7.1 A page 13
                                                                                                    EX: Example               LV: Live session
Filename      storyboard KNOWLEDGE BRIDGE                                                           TS: Text segment          FO: Forum

                                                                                         17
         storyboard 4.3 2007_06_11                                       updated 2007_06_13




Chapter:    2_7. Monitoring and Control                                                  FI: Figure                WFD : Glossary
Subchapter: 2_7.1 Demands of the monitoring programme                                    AN: Animation             Water : Animation
                                                                                         QE: Question & Exercise   Article 1 : Link
  Pagenumber:                                     Lemma:                                 Glossary:
     - 14 -                           Further reading and References
                                                                                                                   Annotation:
Number        Type                              Description                              Item

                  The EEA prepared a document that shows how waterbodies in the 18 EEA
            1 TS  countries are monitored. You want to know more? Click to the link to                             In a textbox Link to Annex 2_7.1 E
                  Further reading
                  - • WFD CIS Guidance Document no. 7: Monitoring under the Water
     2         TS Framework Directive – Working Group 2.7 Monitoring, European
                  Communities, 2003.
                  -
                  References
                  - • WFD CIS Guidance Document no. 7: Monitoring under the Water
     3         TS Framework Directive – Working Group 2.7 Monitoring, European
                  Communities, 2003.
                  -
                  MODULE 2_7.2




                                                                                 18
         storyboard 4.3 2007_06_11   updated 2007_06_13




Annotation to
Nijmegen




(Here we need an
example for a
successful
implemented
monitoring
system. E.g.
monitoring
programme of a
specific rive)r. If
you have is
perfect if not we
can not change it!




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storyboard 4.3 2007_06_11   updated 2007_06_13




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storyboard 4.3 2007_06_11   updated 2007_06_13




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storyboard 4.3 2007_06_11   updated 2007_06_13




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storyboard 4.3 2007_06_11   updated 2007_06_13




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storyboard 4.3 2007_06_11   updated 2007_06_13




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                                   28
         storyboard 4.3 2007_06_11   updated 2007_06_13




picture
ground water: I
will make a
drawing!




                                            29

				
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