Study Guide by R5te8vj

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									                                       Microlife Study Guide
Biology = the study of living things

Microbiology = the study of living things t0o small to be seen with the naked eye

Microscopes

    -   Parts of a microscope
            o Base- sturdy bottom piece of microscope that keeps it sitting upright
            o Arm – sturdy upright piece that is used to carry a microscope
            o Stage – rectangular area with a hole in it where you place the microscope slide to be
                 viewed
            o Eyepiece – lens that you look into; 10x on our microscopes
            o Objective lens – series of three lenses that can be rotated to change the magnification;
                 4x, 10x and 40x on our microscopes
            o Stage clips – used to hold a microscope slide in place on the stage
            o Diaphragm – controls the amount of light; 5 is the most, 1 is the least
            o Light source – provides the light necessary to see specimen
            o Focus knob – adjusts distance between lens and specimen
            o Microscope slide – what the specimen is placed on to be viewed
            o Cover Slip – placed over a specimen when making a wet mount slide
    -   Types of microscopes
            o Optical (light) – what we have; the most common; uses light to see object
            o Electron – able to view very small objects
            o Simple microscope = 1 lens; magnifying glass or hand lens
            o Compound microscope = at least 2 lenses combined
    -   Lens
            o Piece of glass or other transparent material that is curved to bend light
            o Convex lens curves outward ()
            o Concave lens curves inward )(
    -   Use of the microscope
            o Microscopes flip an image upside down and backwards
            o Focusing
                      Find and center the specimen first on low power
                      Start with the most light (diaphragm at 5)
            o Carrying
                      Always carry with two hands
                      Carry with one hand on the arm and another under the base
            o Precautions
                      Never touch the lens
                      Be careful when switching from the low power to the high power lens so that it
                         does not hit the specimen or slide
                     Handle microscope slides by the edges
   -   Power of magnification
           o (eyepiece lens) x (objecti ve lens)
           o our microscopes go from 40x (low) to 400x (high)
   -   Field of View
           o the area that is visible when you look into the eyepiece of a microscope
           o the higher the power of magnification, the smaller the field of view

Germ Theory

   -   Germ = microbe that causes disease
   -   Anton van Leeuwenhoek
            o Father of microscopy; developed best microscope of the time
            o Observed moving things in pond water and called them animalcules or very little
               animals
   -   Robert Hooke
            o Coined the term cell after looking at a piece of cork
   -   Matthius Schleiden
            o Said that all plants are made of cells
   -   Theodor Schwann
            o Said that all animals are made of cells
   -   Karl Theodor Ernst von Siebold
            o Said that microbes are made up of cells
   -   Rudolph Virchow
            o Said that all living cells arise from other living cells
   -   Cell theory = all living things are made up of cells
   -   Ignaz Semmelweiss
            o Hand washing reduces the risk of infectious disease
   -   Louis Pasteur
            o Microbes (germs) cause infectious disease
            o Microbes can be killed with heat (pasteurization)
   -   Robert Koch
            o Specific microbes cause specific diseases
   -   Florence Nightingale
            o Cleanliness is important in patient care
   -   Joseph Lister
            o Chemicals can kill microbes (Listerine mouthwash)
   -   William Halsted
            o Surgeons wear gloves to prevent spread of microbes
Cells/Cells Structure

    -   Organisms can be made of unicellular (1 cell) or multicellular (more than 1 cell)
    -   Cells = the basic building blocks of all living things
    -   Tissues =
    -   Organs =
    -   Organelles = structures that make up a cell
            o Chloroplast
                      Only found in plant cells; make the plant green
                      Uses the sun’s energy to make food (photosynthesis)
            o Cell wall
                      Only found in plant cells
                      Gives the cell it’s rigid shape
            o Nucleus
                      Control center (brain) of the cell
            o Nuclear membrane
                      Separates the nucleus from the rest of the cell
            o Cell membrane
                      Controls what gets into and out of the cell
            o Cytoplasm
                      The liquid substance between the nuclear membrane and the cell membrane
                      Where the organelles are located
            o Ribosomes
                      Make protein; made in the nucleus and then located in the endoplasmic
                         reticulum
            o Endoplasmic reticulum
                      Transports proteins throughout the cell
            o Vacuole
                      Storage compartment for water, food, and waste
            o Mitochondria
                      Powerhouse of cell; energy producer

Microbes

    -   Protist
            o     Can be seen even on low magnification (40x)
            o     Single celled or multicelled organisms
            o     Control the earth’s bacteria population; they eat bacteria
            o     Eukaryotic (have a nucleus)
                       Protozoans = animal like protists
                                Rhizopods
                                       o Move with pseudopods or false feet; Amoeba
                                Cilliates
                                     o Move with tiny hair-like projections called cilia; Paramecium
                             Flagellate
                                     o Moves with a long, whip-like structure; Euglena
                             Parasite (sporozoa)
                                     o Lives off of another living object
                       Plant-like protists (algae)
                             Make their own food through photosynthesis like a plant
                             Producers of oxygen
                       Fungi
    -   Virus
            o Can only be seen with an electron microscope
            o Not living; must have a ‘host’ cell to function
            o Not made up of cells
            o Viruses that make you sick are called pathogenic
    -   Bacteria
            o Can be seen on an optical microscope at high magnification (400x)
            o Single celled; Prokaryotic (no nucleus)
            o Most common microbe; oldest form of life

Classification

    -   Grouping living things according to similar characteristics; also called taxonomy
    -   Aristotle first classified things as either plant or animal
    -   Binomial nomenclature = 2 name naming system; genus and species; developed by Carolus
        Linnaeus

    -   Kingdom         King                      (largest)
    -   Phylum          Phillip
    -   Class           Came
    -   Order           Over
    -   Family          From
    -   Genus           Geneva
    -   Species         Switzerland               (smallest)

    -   There are six kingdoms in the classification system – plants, animals, protists, fungi, bacteria,
        and archaebacteria

								
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