UNICEF WES: an overview by ZyECgmN

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									CHILDREN UNDER THREE YEARS
       IN FORMAL CARE
    IN CEE/CIS COUNTRIES

    THE BIG PICTURE IN THE REGION




                  Presentation by Jean-Claude Legrand
                 Senior Regional Advisor Child Protection
                       UNICEF Regional Office CEE-CIS
 Separation: More children continue to be separated
 from their families. Children below three are, in general,
 at higher risk of family separation than older children
Probability of losing parental care for children 0-2 and children 0-17 in 2009
(number of cases per 100,000 children of relevant age)




                     NB: data for other CEE/CIS countries were not available through TransMonEE.
  Numbers: The « positive » overall decrease of the
  rate of institutionalisation of children 0-3 hides
  « negative » country specificities

A look at today’s numbers                   Proportion of children 0-
                                            3 in institutions by
                                            location (as of 2012)
Rates: Rate of children 0-3 in residential care in 2000
and 2009 (by country and by sub-region)
Trends: A look at the trends in rates 2000 - 2009
                Number of young children in institutions          Rate (per 100,000 children 0-3 years)
                2000     2005     2007     2009     2011    2000       2005    2007    2009    evolution
                                                                                                between
                                                                                               2000/2009
South Eastern Europe
Bulgaria         3,375   2,960    2,715    2,334    2,421   1,244      1,095   956     780       - 37%
Romania          2880     446        -      575      641       -          -      -      66         N/A
Albania           168     124      134      131        -      78         65     75      76        - 3%
Bosnia & Herz.    328     330      207      397        -     180        216    133     298       + 65%
Croatia             -      -         -        -      140       -          -      -       -         N/A
Montenegro         19     34        28       23       28    3.04       5.44    4.48    3.68      +21%
Serbia              -      -       214      174       84       -          -      -      41         N/A
TFYR of            70     99       106       98        -      68        108    118     108       + 59%
Macedonia
Turkey              -      -        -        -      882       -          -       -       -
Western CIS
Belarus          1,300    1,250   1,083    1,113    1,110   356        353      287    275       - 23%
Moldova           355      361     361      288      279    223        247      241    188       - 16%
Russian         19,345   20,621   18,480   17,767     -     383        358      309    273       - 29%
Federation
Ukraine          4,969   5,200    4,398    3,704    3,666   308        318      249    191       - 38%
Caucasus
Armenia            80     74       80        67     131      32        34       37      29        - 9%
Azerbaijan        197     156      105      122     51       42        32       18      20       - 52%
Georgia           187     224      222      120     85       96        121      119     56       - 42%
Central Asia
Kazakhstan       2,476   2,095    2,134    1,692    1,653   286        207      184    169       - 41%
Kyrgyzstan        254     258      238      269      206     63        63       53      55       - 13%
Tajikistan        192     174      169      299      278     28        25       23      39       + 39%
Turkmenistan      232     232      219       -       219     49        52       48       -        N/A
Uzbekistan        766     706      752       -        -      35        34       35       -        N/A
Percentages: A look at the percentages of children 0-3
among children 0-17 in institutions




 NB: 22,2% is the average percentage of children 0-3 among children 0-17 (if
 we consider that all age groups are equal – it is therefore an approximation.
 Access to services: There is too little use of foster
 care for children 0-3

Percentage of CEE/CIS countries with foster care for children 0-3 (as of 2012)
    The rights of children 0-3 are violated and
    unrealized when they are placed in institutions
Rights of      Impairments linked to institutionalisation
children 0-3

                Survival and Development Rights
Right to develop to one’s fullest potential

Right to health

Rights to adequate food


Right to protection of a family life                        .



Right to leisure and recreation
Rights of      Impairments linked to institutionalisation
children 0-3


                    Protection Rights
Freedom from discrimination


Protection from abuse and neglect


Protection from sale, trafficking and abduction
Rights of      Impairments linked to institutionalisation
children 0-3
                    Participation Rights
Respect for the views and feelings of the young child

Right to a private life

The right to a personal history




  CEE/CIS States have
  an obligation to
  Respect, Protect and
  Fulfil the rights of
  children 0-3
  contained in the CRC
 1) An equity issue …

Western Europe Vs. Central and Eastern Europe…

          Reasons for the                        Reasons for the
       institutionalisation of                institutionalisation of
   children below 3 years of age         children below 3 years of age
   in Western Europe countries               in Central and Eastern
                                                Europe countries
                        parental abuse
                        or neglect                          parental
                                                            abuse or
                                                            neglect
                        orphans
                                                            true orphans


                        disability
                                                            disability


                        social reasons
                                                            social
                                                            reasons


Source: EU Daphné Programme (2004)
Specialists Vs. Mothers…
a case study from the Karaganda oblast, Kazakhstan (2011)
The profile of a mother who is forced to abandon
a child …

       “aged about 25, with more than 3 children,
     illiterate or without completed education,
  unemployed before the birth of the abandoned
   child, with about BGN 85 monthly income per
   household member, with Roma ethnic identity
 (54.7%), living in a village or in a small town, the
  father is unknown or reluctant to recognize the
                        child”.
UNICEF Bulgaria (2010)
PERSONAL AND FAMILY FACTORS


- Unity and stability of the family:
- .
- Age of the mother:

- Size of the family:

- Health of parents and children:

- Disability of the parents or the child:

- Low level of education of the parents

- Parental abuse and neglect (lack of statistics)

- Financial issues:

Any factor, including financial issues is sufficient to lead to
institutionalization but set the stage for conditions by which other elements
can lead to institutionalization.
MAIN SOCIAL AND INSTITUTIONAL FACTORS

Societal factors:

- Socialism inheritance: “Professionals”/”State” know best; defectology
  tradition;
- Stigmatisation of children with disabilities
- Vulnerable groups deprived of adequate support
- Migration of parents
- Abandonment and relinquishment as loving choices (parents
  “offering a better future”);

Institutional factors:

- Weaknesses within the health sector
- Lack of coordination and decentralization of social services:
- Lack of legal prohibition of placement of infants in residential
  institutions
- Lack of community-based social services to support parents to
  take care of their children.
THE WAY FORWARD



 FOCUSING ON RESULTS
UNICEF’s Call to Action: END PLACING CHILDREN
UNDER THREE YEARS IN INSTITUTIONS
              The 5 core interventions:

           1. Legislative changes limiting to last resort, and setting strict
              conditions for, the placement into institutional care of children
              below three years;
           2. Allocation of resources giving priority to the development of
              appropriate local services allowing alternative solutions for
              children below three with special attention to the needs of
              children with disabilities;
           3. Proper budget allocation for supporting vulnerable families
              through the development of appropriate family-based
              responses and services;
           4. Capacity-building and standards of practice for maternity
              ward and paediatric hospital staff to support parents of
              newborns with a disability and parents from most vulnerable
              groups, in order to discourage institutionalisation;
           5. Partnership with media and civil society to promote social
              inclusion of children deprived of parental care and children
              with disabilities.
    Helping governments …

-   Establish a monitoring system of
    abandonment and relinquishment from
    maternity hospitals

-   Establish patronage nurses and
    home-visitation
                                             Communic
                                             ations
-   Improve interaction between social       Romania
                                             and
    welfare services and health services     Azerbaijan


-   Encourage early mother-to-child
    relationship

-   Improve health and social care
    professionals’ training

-   Establishment of standards of practice
Helping society ….

                                        -   Help the general public to be aware of
                                            children’s rights and the risks of
                                            institutionalisation for children below
                                            three years

                                        -   Help families to understand more
                                            social services available

                                        -   Help the public understand the foster
                                            care system

                                        -   Help people understand
                                            discrimination (children of Roma
                                            origin and children with disabilities)

“Every Child Needs a Family” campaign
(Croatia)

								
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