1. What does it meant by diurnal? Active During day, asleep during night 2. Can the circadian system fully adapt to shift work? No 3. Name 3 consequences of shift work on general health Gastrointestinal disorder Sleep deprivation Cardiovascular morbidity. Reproduction health Mental health 4. What language does circadian come from? Latin German Spanish the answer is Latin 5. Working night shifts can increase the risk of heart disease than working in the day. What else is affected from doing night shifts? Personal problems, disruption of family and social life and gastrointestinal disorders as people eat at hours that do not fit in with their body clocks. 6. Are there any other problems associated with shift work? Substance abuse constipation and diarrhea, and loss of appetite 7. How many percent of all sickness absence from work in the UK is attributed to stress? (Cooper, 2001; Mental Health Foundation, 2000). (answer: b) a) 40 -70 b) 30-60 c) 15-20 8. Which is the most hazardous period of time while being on a driving shift? (answer: a) a) 3 am to 6 am b) 6 am to 8 am c) anytime after 2am 9. What are the work factors which influence the success of shift work? (3 answers might be enough) shift Rotation schedule length of shift job design Physical working conditions Direction and frequency of shift rotations of workload 10. What are some strategies for improvement of rotating shift work? The organisational level – primarily through the design of shift schedules, education and better facilities(tea, coffee, milk, heating, air-condition, lighting) The individual level – helping workers to get better sleep, a healthier diet, and reduction to stress. Make them feel they are in a cohesive team ( gambling like football tournament, European champion Football, playing Euro-million, free Friday dinner, They can take small naps (no longer than 2 hours) – Depends on working environment. 11 . What are the possible institutional costs of shift work? Unmotivated workers will have lowered work performance levels, and this will impact on the productivity of the organisation. Lack of vigilance due to less than optimum shift conditions can lead to reduced quality of production and increased work related problems may result. Additional effects could result from reduced communication between shifts and a breakdown of team work may occur. However this can be resolved by overlapping shifts, having a well established communication system including logging shift activities, but there is no guarantee that this will be accurately recorded 12. Give 3 common other, job related negative effects of shift work? Lack of Communication between staff on different shifts. Lack of ‘Teamwork’ Lack of Concentration while on duty Potential unsafe conditions Stress/fatigue Shift Lag 13. Name the 15 countries of the former USSR Russia, Belarus, Moldova, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Armenia, Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania. 14. How can you reduce poor job satisfaction for shift workers? Pay them? Support them 15. Who succeeded Winston Churchill as UK prime minister in 1945 Clement Atlee 16.:How can shift work operations be improved? A: Assessing the needs of the workforce as well as those of the organization is a vital step in improving shiftwork. It is important for the organization to get the worker's support in terms of the scheduling issues and should there be a union on site, the management and the union will need to work together and agree on a schedule that will be very specific in terms of work rules,pay and safety issues. Open discussions are vital in that they can allow for the schedules to be trialed before the actual implementation. 17. Q: It is a general understanding that shiftwork is complicated organizational issue, with so many adverse effects on the employee then why study it? A:In order to enable a proper analysis, conceptualise and understand the concept itself, with the objectiveand also to promote safety,wellbeing and minimize human error. 18. What are some of the social/mental healt effects you can expect a shift worker to experience? a. Nighttime shift workers may experience disturbed daytime sleep, good quality sleep, tiredness, irritability, and depression. They could feel isolated from their family and friends since they are at work when they can socialize and could also experience ill- health. 19. What are some of the guidelines for shiftwork design? Please name four out of the nine. a. Under ideal circumstances, shift workers should be between the ages of 25-50. b. Create single night shifts instead of consecutive nights; this will not alter the circadian rhythm significantly. c. Schedule the shifts with 24 hours of free time in between each shift. d. Schedule quickly rotating shifts instead of a slow one which will reduce the amount of consecutive shifts. e. Create a forward rotation shift. f. Shifts of 9-12 hours should be considered only for lightweight work and if proper time off and sickness/absence coverage is provided for the employees. g. Consider a specific shift pattern as follows: 7:00-15:00-23:00 or 8:00-16:00-24:00. h. Consecutive work days should be limited to 5-7, with some weekends given and 2 consecutive days off to assist with recovery. i. There should be at least one hot meal break per shift. 20. What are the different types of shiftwork? a. Fixed and rotational. Fixed shifts are at the same time and rotational get alternated. The rotation can be rapid (daily), intermediate (weekly) and slow (months or permanent). 21. What are the benefits of flexible rostering to the individual and to the organization? a. The individual feels they have more control over their working lives with flexible rostering thus improving staff satisfaction. b. 2 main arguments that support this: i. Reduces the conflict that could experienced between their home life and non-standard working hours ii. Reduce problems associated with staff retention and recruitment c. The organization benefits by creating annualized hours and self-rostering. 22.. Who is making the decisions for shift work? HR? Business executives? Are thought given to the employees or solely to the product/clients and the amount of money that can be earned? Good question! 23 . Is the Human Resources department occupation normally have all skills needed to design shift systems Almost certainly not. 24. Think of the conveniences we know have because of shiftwork. Are there any industries that you think could eliminate shiftwork? 25. Should businesses give employees incentives to aid their wellness? a. For ex., if an employee doesn’t rest for a certain amount of time allotted to them on their shift to rest then they won’t be paid instead of encouraging employees to keep working through the “slow/rest” periods. b. Truck drivers in the US receive a bonus if they can get their shipment to a destination quicker than the predetermined contract. Supposedly, tired drivers (not just truck, but all) are the major cause of accidents not alcohol. 26. Should employers care more about productivity or their staff? What do you thin? 27. Could shift workers be working at more than one job therefore getting less sleep? If that is the case then wouldn’t it stand that it’s not the shiftwork that is negatively affecting the individuals but working at multiple jobs affecting the individuals. 28. Are there any benefits to shift work? 29. What are the possible personal consequences for someone doing shift work? Shift workers are have reported lower job satisfaction, need fulfilment, and emotional well-being compared to day workers and consequentially may face increased health and domestic problems, (Frost and Jamal, 1979.) However, those who are less suited to shift work often filtered out of shift work, leaving those who are less susceptible to the possible negative affects. Out of those who stay there are less reported health complains. The impact of shift work on social and family life has been reported, exemplified by higher rates of divorce and social isolation, although it possible that those with less social emphasis in their lives may select shift work 30. How might research which reports higher cognitive test performance at night be misleading to organisations, how could this be resolved? Even though it is recognised that people’s function is affected by their natural bodily cycles, for example Folkard, 1990 points out this relationship – often performance on complex and simple tasks can be seen to vary at different time of a day. There are other factors which may contribute towards enhanced night time performance. The absence of a manager has been shown to have an effect on performance, possibly giving the employees a sense of greater autonomy. Also the workload during the night is often lower than that of during the day, so a cognitive test may provide a welcome distraction to participants compared to those who during the day may not be as interested in the task. Resolutions to the issues presented could involve reducing the differences between day time and night time working environments, – this could include the inclusion of a manager at night - of course this may not be possible to implement institutionally. 31. What would some benefits be to assist night time shift workers? Some ideas that I have: a. Daytime or weekend clubs for employees. These could possibly include any children to help give families more time together. This would create a sense of community with the employees and would actually create loyalty for the company. b. Child care facilities c. Areas to rest and a lounge for employees where they can have hot food. The rest area could have cots in there and be a dark room for those that might like to sleep on their breaks. 32. Is shift work an organizational or individual issue? Should the organizations be more concerned about staff or about productivity? (money is the most important thing but planning on your staff could bring more long-term money) 33. What benefits can you get from shift work? Convenience (usually doing shift work you earn more) Taking care of your children (well, to the detriment of the couple) 34. There are many conditions that can have positive or negative effects on health. Try to list and explain them. Social conditions: for example the SES: if you are rich the shift work doesn't affect your health as much as it would affect someone poorer than you, in terms of having the possibility to pay someone to look after your children and clean your house, so you won't feel stressful and tired at the end of the day!!! the family composition: there's a difference between people who do shift work and live alone and people who live still with their parents (or in a big family, with babies and teen-sisters who want to listen to loud music in the afternoon while your trying to catch up on some sleep in the next room after your night shift!!!!) or still, housing conditions. (but these are just few examples :-) 35. What are the guidelines for shift work design? -there should be single night shifts rather than consecutive ones in order to not alter the circadian rhythm -plan 24 hours free time after each night shift ...to list a few.... 36. How can organizations meet the individual needs of workers? -flexible time for child care needs or long travel time to work, -time off for special family or community events, etc 37. Types of shift work: what can be considered and defined shift work? Every job that implicates working nights? the 8-16-24 shift pattern? or, simply, any job that require that workers do shift after "9-5, Mon-Fri" ? Even in the literature there is a debate about this issue. 38. How can shift work be improved? Limiting the number of night shifts worked in a row, reducing long work shifts and overtime avoiding quick shift changes giving enough rest breaks, etc 39. In the UK, there is no specific health & safety legislation on shift working. Why? Who has the the responsibility to control, organize and plan the shift work? 40. What are the benefits to shift work? Being able to organise your life because you know when you will be working (family time, childcare, when to be home for activities) The company can have production 24 hours a day 7 days a week. Convenience (shops, petrol stations open when we need them) Can adapt to the situation that you are given (Rotation shift work) Can get extra money 41. What social conditions aid the wellness of the individual that does shift work? o Family knowing the schedule in advance and they will know when it will be ʽokayʼ to make a noise or not. o Earplugs and eye covers o Well balanced diet (what and when) o Sleep at the correct time to aid in the alertness of the individual when they have to work o Having bright lights (where available) to keep the individuals who have to work night shifts awake and alert. o Good facilities for the staff o Provide opportunities to socialize with other members of the organisation o Take leisure time seriously - Understanding managers Discussion Questions: 1. Did consumerism drive the workforce to create shift work? (Give evidence to support your answer). 2. Shift work is defined as any time outside those of 6am and 6pm. (Hughes and Stone, 2004) There are many businesses that have longer hours than these. These businesses would have arrived at these hours because the people have asked for more produces and thus would have to supply these products. Or the nature of the machinery that makes certain products, that were invented to minimise labour, need to be run at all times to keep productivity at the maximum. If this were the case then how will these businesses function if not manned during these 24-hour days. There is no way that one person can run/ do what needs to be done because there are other aspects that affect productivity namely fatigue, family and social pressures and that it is just not possible to work for 24 hours a day (Scott, 2008; Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 2007 and Peate, 2007). 3. There are many organisations that require they be open 24 hours. Police, Hospitals, Airports, shops, hotels, shepherds, bakers (Harrington, 1972) etc and these all require people to be there to regulate and do the job specified to each profession. If this were not the case then how would humankind cope? The population (in the western world) have become accustomed to having all these aspects of life on hand. 4. Thus it could be argued that as people have become more accustomed to having their needs met promptly, there would have to be some systems in place to help with these things. Shift work. 5. Organisations that employ people to do shift work should take an interest in the people that are there. If the management of the organization were only interested in getting the job done then their productivity would depend on the mental and physical health of the individuals working there. If their employees were always ill and absent, their productivity would decrease and the expenses would increase. It is more expensive to hire part time staff or locum staff to do a permanent staff members work load. Individuals who have to do shift work in unpleasant and even pleasant environments have adverse reactions most of the time. Physiological effects of disturbed sleeping patterns, fatigue, health problems (cardiovascular, reproductive, respiratory, digestive, immune system) as well as Psychological effects of stress ʽShift lagʼ; attention and memory errors and an increase in accidents and injuries. All this happens whilst someone is doing shift work, do the organisations cater for these effects? If the organisation were to provide some basic solutions then they might increase productivity. If the staff are moderately content and quite like to go to work they might be willing to work harder and increase productivity anyway. Small differences like hot meals available, childcare provided for night shift workers, listening to the employees needs and giving them space to take a break whilst at work. Stop offering incentives to get the job done quicker, in less time but with the negative aspects of the fatigue and the like unconsciously added in. 5 Organizations want productivity and efficiency, while the workers ask for more time for themselves. The ability in juggling productivity requirements with employee demands can be difficult and requires well balanced solutions. 6. Do organizations that use a rotating shift system care more about the productivity rather than their staff. Obviously a factory will produce more if the workers work during the night because the production doesn't stop. The more you work the more you produce.. Therefore, the shift work issue is an organizational decision that does not consider the human factor, disregarding how making your staff happier will, probably, reduce the amount of mistakes or slips on workplace. 7. I worked for more than one year in a residential home doing shifts (the common three shift rotation) and I personally think is a horrible experience as you cannot see your friends and your family as much as you like (I remember once I haven’t seen my dad for two weeks because he does shift work as well). I was working alone and when I had a day off my friends were all at work. and, it really affects your health and well being…I could not sleep easily and I was often irritable! 9. Regarding the negative effect the shift work has on the body clock, we noticed that there are different points of view. 10. A real example: A friend of mine who was working as recruitment officer (Mon-Fri 9-5) decided to change his job. He didn't feel satisfied: everyday was the same, and, yes, the job was good enough but the salary wasn't that exciting. So he decided to work for the London underground company, doing night shifts. The salary was very tempting, and also he thought he would have started a course to become a certified electrician during the day. Months later he realized that was not a good choice: he was always tired, sleeping in the morning, missing the lectures, no contacts with friends, and also his girlfriend was quite upset. Someone could argue that was a personal choice, but this is just to show how a shift work can negatively affect your life.
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