Russia - Get Now DOC by 807aZ58a


									1. What does it meant by diurnal?

Active During day, asleep during night

2. Can the circadian system fully adapt to shift work?


3. Name 3 consequences of shift work on general health

Gastrointestinal disorder
Sleep deprivation
Cardiovascular morbidity.
Reproduction health
Mental health

4. What language does circadian come from?


the answer is Latin

5. Working night shifts can increase the risk of heart disease than working in
the day. What else is affected from doing night shifts?

Personal problems, disruption of family and social life and gastrointestinal
disorders as people eat at hours that do not fit in with their body clocks.

6. Are there any other problems associated with shift work?

Substance abuse constipation and diarrhea, and loss of appetite

7. How many percent of all sickness absence from work in the UK is attributed to
stress? (Cooper, 2001; Mental Health Foundation, 2000). (answer: b)

a)   40 -70
b)   30-60
c)    15-20

8. Which is the most hazardous period of time while being on a driving shift?
(answer: a)
a) 3 am to 6 am
b) 6 am to 8 am
c) anytime after 2am

9. What are the work factors which influence the success of shift work? (3 answers
might be enough)

     shift Rotation schedule
     length of shift
     job design
     Physical working conditions
     Direction and frequency of shift rotations of workload

10. What are some strategies for improvement of rotating shift work?

     The organisational level – primarily through the design of shift schedules, education
and better facilities(tea, coffee, milk, heating, air-condition, lighting)
     The individual level – helping workers to get better sleep, a healthier diet, and
reduction to stress.
     Make them feel they are in a cohesive team ( gambling like football tournament,
European champion Football, playing Euro-million, free Friday dinner,
     They can take small naps (no longer than 2 hours) – Depends on working

11 . What are the possible institutional costs of shift work?

Unmotivated workers will have lowered work performance levels, and this will impact on
the productivity of the organisation. Lack of vigilance due to less than optimum shift
conditions can lead to reduced quality of production and increased work related problems
may result. Additional effects could result from reduced communication between shifts
and a breakdown of team work may occur. However this can be resolved by overlapping
shifts, having a well established communication system including logging shift activities,
but there is no guarantee that this will be accurately recorded

12. Give 3 common other, job related negative effects of shift work?

     Lack of Communication between staff on different shifts.
     Lack of ‘Teamwork’
     Lack of Concentration while on duty
     Potential unsafe conditions
     Shift Lag

13. Name the 15 countries of the former USSR
Russia, Belarus, Moldova, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Armenia, Turkmenistan,
Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania.

14. How can you reduce poor job satisfaction for shift workers?

Pay them? Support them

15. Who succeeded Winston Churchill as UK prime minister in 1945

Clement Atlee

16.:How can shift work operations be improved?

A: Assessing the needs of the workforce as well as those of the organization is a vital step
in improving shiftwork. It is important for the organization to get the worker's support in
terms of the scheduling issues and should there be a union on site, the management and
the union will need to work together and agree on a schedule that will be very specific in
terms of work rules,pay and safety issues. Open discussions are vital in that they can
allow for the schedules to be trialed before the actual implementation.

17. Q: It is a general understanding that shiftwork is complicated organizational
issue, with so many adverse effects on the employee then why study it?

A:In order to enable a proper analysis, conceptualise and understand the concept itself,
with the objectiveand also to promote safety,wellbeing and minimize human error.

18. What are some of the social/mental healt effects you can expect a shift worker to

a.     Nighttime shift workers may experience disturbed daytime sleep, good quality
sleep, tiredness, irritability, and depression. They could feel isolated from their family
and friends since they are at work when they can socialize and could also experience ill-

19.    What are some of the guidelines for shiftwork design?

Please name four out of the nine.

a.    Under ideal circumstances, shift workers should be between the ages of 25-50.
b. Create single night shifts instead of consecutive nights; this will not alter the
circadian rhythm significantly.
c.    Schedule the shifts with 24 hours of free time in between each shift.
d. Schedule quickly rotating shifts instead of a slow one which will reduce the amount
of consecutive shifts.
e. Create a forward rotation shift.
f.    Shifts of 9-12 hours should be considered only for lightweight work and if proper
time off and sickness/absence coverage is provided for the employees.
g.    Consider a specific shift pattern as follows: 7:00-15:00-23:00 or 8:00-16:00-24:00.
h. Consecutive work days should be limited to 5-7, with some weekends given and 2
consecutive days off to assist with recovery.
i.     There should be at least one hot meal break per shift.

20.    What are the different types of shiftwork?

a.    Fixed and rotational. Fixed shifts are at the same time and rotational get
alternated. The rotation can be rapid (daily), intermediate (weekly) and slow (months or

21.    What are the benefits of flexible rostering to the individual and to the

a.     The individual feels they have more control over their working lives with flexible
rostering thus improving staff satisfaction.
b. 2 main arguments that support this:
                                         i. Reduces the conflict that could experienced
between their home life and non-standard working hours
                                       ii. Reduce problems associated with staff
retention and recruitment
c.     The organization benefits by creating annualized hours and self-rostering.

22..   Who is making the decisions for shift work? HR? Business executives? Are
thought given to the employees or solely to the product/clients and the amount of
money that can be earned?

Good question!

23 .   Is the Human Resources department occupation normally have all skills
needed to design shift systems

Almost certainly not.

24.    Think of the conveniences we know have because of shiftwork. Are there any
industries that you think could eliminate shiftwork?

25.    Should businesses give employees incentives to aid their wellness?
a.     For ex., if an employee doesn’t rest for a certain amount of time allotted to them on
their shift to rest then they won’t be paid instead of encouraging employees to keep
working through the “slow/rest” periods.
b. Truck drivers in the US receive a bonus if they can get their shipment to a
destination quicker than the predetermined contract. Supposedly, tired drivers (not just
truck, but all) are the major cause of accidents not alcohol.

26.     Should employers care more about productivity or their staff?

What do you thin?

27.    Could shift workers be working at more than one job therefore getting less

If that is the case then wouldn’t it stand that it’s not the shiftwork that is negatively
affecting the individuals but working at multiple jobs affecting the individuals.

28.     Are there any benefits to shift work?

29.     What are the possible personal consequences for someone doing shift work?

Shift workers are have reported lower job satisfaction, need fulfilment, and emotional
well-being compared to day workers and consequentially may face increased health and
domestic problems, (Frost and Jamal, 1979.) However, those who are less suited to shift
work often filtered out of shift work, leaving those who are less susceptible to the
possible negative affects. Out of those who stay there are less reported health complains.
The impact of shift work on social and family life has been reported, exemplified by
higher rates of divorce and social isolation, although it possible that those with less social
emphasis in their lives may select shift work

30.    How might research which reports higher cognitive test performance at
night be misleading to organisations, how could this be resolved?

Even though it is recognised that people’s function is affected by their natural bodily
cycles, for example Folkard, 1990 points out this relationship – often performance on
complex and simple tasks can be seen to vary at different time of a day. There are other
factors which may contribute towards enhanced night time performance. The absence of
a manager has been shown to have an effect on performance, possibly giving the
employees a sense of greater autonomy. Also the workload during the night is often
lower than that of during the day, so a cognitive test may provide a welcome distraction
to participants compared to those who during the day may not be as interested in the
task. Resolutions to the issues presented could involve reducing the differences between
day time and night time working environments, – this could include the inclusion of a
manager at night - of course this may not be possible to implement institutionally.
31. What would some benefits be to assist night time shift workers? Some ideas
that I have:

a.    Daytime or weekend clubs for employees. These could possibly include any
children to help give families more time together. This would create a sense of
community with the employees and would actually create loyalty for the company.
b. Child care facilities
c.    Areas to rest and a lounge for employees where they can have hot food. The rest
area could have cots in there and be a dark room for those that might like to sleep on their

32. Is shift work an organizational or individual issue?

Should the organizations be more concerned about staff or about productivity? (money is
the most important thing but planning on your staff could bring more long-term money)

33. What benefits can you get from shift work?

Convenience (usually doing shift work you earn more)
Taking care of your children (well, to the detriment of the couple)

34. There are many conditions that can have positive or negative effects on health.
Try to list and explain them.

Social conditions: for example the SES: if you are rich the shift work doesn't affect your
health as much as it would affect someone poorer than you, in terms of having the
possibility to pay someone to look after your children and clean your house, so you won't
feel stressful and tired at the end of the day!!! the family composition: there's a difference
between people who do shift work and live alone and people who live still with their
parents (or in a big family, with babies and teen-sisters who want to listen to loud music
in the afternoon while your trying to catch up on some sleep in the next room after your
night shift!!!!) or still, housing conditions. (but these are just few examples :-)

35. What are the guidelines for shift work design?

-there should be single night shifts rather than consecutive ones in order to not alter the
circadian rhythm
-plan 24 hours free time after each night shift list a few....

36. How can organizations meet the individual needs of workers?

-flexible time for child care needs or long travel time to work,
-time off for special family or community events, etc

37. Types of shift work: what can be considered and defined shift work? Every job
that implicates working nights? the 8-16-24 shift pattern? or, simply, any job that
require that workers do shift after "9-5, Mon-Fri" ?

Even in the literature there is a debate about this issue.

38. How can shift work be improved?

Limiting the number of night shifts worked in a row,
reducing long work shifts and overtime
avoiding quick shift changes
giving enough rest breaks, etc

39. In the UK, there is no specific health & safety legislation on shift working. Why?
Who has the the responsibility to control, organize and plan the shift work?

40. What are the benefits to shift work?

       Being able to organise your life because you know when you will be working
(family time, childcare, when to be home for activities)
       The company can have production 24 hours a day 7 days a week.
       Convenience (shops, petrol stations open when we need them)
       Can adapt to the situation that you are given (Rotation shift work)
       Can get extra money

41. What social conditions aid the wellness of the individual that does shift work?

o      Family knowing the schedule in advance and they will know when it will be ʽokayʼ
to make a noise or not.
o      Earplugs and eye covers
o      Well balanced diet (what and when)
o      Sleep at the correct time to aid in the alertness of the individual when they have to
o      Having bright lights (where available) to keep the individuals who have to work
night shifts awake and alert.
o      Good facilities for the staff
o      Provide opportunities to socialize with other members of the organisation
o      Take leisure time seriously
- Understanding managers
Discussion Questions:

1. Did consumerism drive the workforce to create shift work? (Give evidence to support
your answer).

2. Shift work is defined as any time outside those of 6am and 6pm. (Hughes and Stone,
There are many businesses that have longer hours than these. These businesses would
have arrived at these hours because the people have asked for more produces and thus
would have to supply these products. Or the nature of the machinery that makes certain
products, that were invented to minimise labour, need to be run at all times to keep
productivity at the maximum. If this were the case then how will these businesses
function if not manned during these 24-hour days. There is no way that one person can
run/ do what needs to be done because there are other aspects that affect productivity
namely fatigue, family and social pressures and that it is just not possible to work for 24
hours a day (Scott, 2008; Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 2007 and
Peate, 2007).

3. There are many organisations that require they be open 24 hours. Police, Hospitals,
Airports, shops, hotels, shepherds, bakers (Harrington, 1972) etc and these all require
people to be there to regulate and do the job specified to each profession. If this were not
the case then how would humankind cope? The population (in the western world) have
become accustomed to having all these aspects of life on hand.

4. Thus it could be argued that as people have become more accustomed to having their
needs met promptly, there would have to be some systems in place to help with these
things. Shift work.

5. Organisations that employ people to do shift work should take an interest in the people
that are there. If the management of the organization were only interested in getting the
job done then their productivity would depend on the mental and physical health of the
individuals working there. If their employees were always ill and absent, their
productivity would decrease and the expenses would increase. It is more expensive to
hire part time staff or locum staff to do a permanent staff members work load. Individuals
who have to do shift work in unpleasant and even pleasant environments have adverse
reactions most of the time. Physiological effects of disturbed sleeping patterns, fatigue,
health problems (cardiovascular, reproductive, respiratory, digestive, immune system) as
well as Psychological effects of stress ʽShift lagʼ; attention and memory errors and an
increase in accidents and injuries. All this happens whilst someone is doing shift work,
do the organisations cater for these effects? If the organisation were to provide some
basic solutions then they might increase productivity. If the staff are moderately content
and quite like to go to work they might be willing to work harder and increase
productivity anyway. Small differences like hot meals available, childcare provided for
night shift workers, listening to the employees needs and giving them space to take a
break whilst at work. Stop offering incentives to get the job done quicker, in less time but
with the negative aspects of the fatigue and the like unconsciously added in.
5 Organizations want productivity and efficiency, while the workers ask for more time
for themselves. The ability in juggling productivity requirements with employee demands
can be difficult and requires well balanced solutions.

6. Do organizations that use a rotating shift system care more about the productivity
rather than their staff. Obviously a factory will produce more if the workers work during
the night because the production doesn't stop. The more you work the more you produce..
Therefore, the shift work issue is an organizational decision that does not consider the
human factor, disregarding how making your staff happier will, probably, reduce the
amount of mistakes or slips on workplace.

 7. I worked for more than one year in a residential home doing shifts (the common three
shift rotation) and I personally think is a horrible experience as you cannot see your
friends and your family as much as you like (I remember once I haven’t seen my dad for
two weeks because he does shift work as well). I was working alone and when I had a
day off my friends were all at work. and, it really affects your health and well being…I
could not sleep easily and I was often irritable!

9. Regarding the negative effect the shift work has on the body clock, we noticed that
there are different points of view.

10. A real example:

A friend of mine who was working as recruitment officer (Mon-Fri 9-5) decided to
change his job. He didn't feel satisfied: everyday was the same, and, yes, the job was
good enough but the salary wasn't that exciting. So he decided to work for the London
underground company, doing night shifts. The salary was very tempting, and also he
thought he would have started a course to become a certified electrician during the day.
Months later he realized that was not a good choice: he was always tired, sleeping in the
morning, missing the lectures, no contacts with friends, and also his girlfriend was quite

Someone could argue that was a personal choice, but this is just to show how a shift work
can negatively affect your life.

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