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Al Qaeda – Terrorism Today Agence France-Presse Updated: Aug. 16, 2010 Al Qaeda is a terrorist network of Islamic extremists created by Osama bin Laden, the Saudi-born mastermind behind the Sept. 11, 2001, attacks on the United States. Mr. bin Laden, the 17th of 51 children of a wealthy Yemeni builder, inherited an estimated $300 million and created Al Qaeda, whose name is Arabic for "the base." Initially the group brought together Islamic fighters dedicated to driving the Soviet Union out of Afghanistan. After the Soviet pullout, the group eventually found a wider goal: creating a "caliphate'' of Islamic states. In 1996, Mr. Bin Laden issued a "declaration of war'' against the United States, vowing to drive it from Saudi Arabia and other Muslim countries. In the years before 9/11, Mr. bin Laden had already become America's most wanted terrorism suspect, with a $5 million reward on his head for his alleged role in the August 1998 truck bombings of two American embassies in East Africa that killed more than 200 people, as well as a string of other terrorist attacks. The F.B.I. also named the leader of Al Qaeda as a prime suspect in the suicide bombing of the American destroyer Cole, which was attacked in Aden harbor, on Oct. 12, 2000, with the loss of 17 sailors' lives. In the aftermath of Sept. 11, the United States military forces engaged Al Qaeda in the mountains of Afghanistan, killing and capturing some of its leaders and hobbling the group in the early years. They had a mandate to bring in Mr. bin Laden "dead or alive," in the words of President Bush. Over the next few years Al Qaeda was driven from its havens in Afghanistan, and many of its leaders were caught or killed. Mr. bin Laden and his network successfully relocated to Pakistan 's tribal areas, where Al Qaeda rebuilt much of its ability to attack from the region and broadcast its messages to militants across the world. But as pressure from Pakistani forces increased there, a growing number of Qaeda members are believed to have relocated to countries like Yemen and Somalia, where local conflicts or instability offer new opportunities. In its first year and a half in office, the Obama administration has expanded a secret war against Al Qaeda, a war built around using "the scalpel'' instead of "the hammer,'' in the words of President Obama's top counterterrorism adviser, John O. Brennan. In roughly a dozen countries — from the deserts of North Africa, to the mountains of Pakistan, to former Soviet republics crippled by ethnic and religious strife — the United States has significantly increased military and intelligence operations, pursuing the enemy using robotic drones and commando teams, paying contractors to spy and training local operatives to chase terrorists. The White House has intensified the Central Intelligence Agency's drone missile campaign in Pakistan, approved raids against Qaeda operatives in Somalia and launched clandestine operations from Kenya. The administration has worked with European allies to dismantle terrorist groups in North Africa, efforts that include a recent French strike in Algeria. And the Pentagon tapped a network of private contractors to gather intelligence about things like militant hide-outs in Pakistan and the location of an American soldier currently in Taliban hands. Obama administration officials point to the benefits of bringing the fight against Al Qaeda and other militants into the shadows. Afghanistan and Iraq, they said, have sobered American politicians and voters about the staggering costs of big wars that topple governments, require years of occupation and can be a catalyst for further radicalization throughout the Muslim world. Yet such wars come with many risks: the potential for botched operations that fuel anti- American rage; a blurring of the lines between soldiers and spies that could put troops at risk of being denied Geneva Convention protections; a weakening of the Congressional oversight system put in place to prevent abuses by America's secret operatives; and a reliance on authoritarian foreign leaders and surrogates with sometimes murky loyalties. In March 2002, several hundred bedraggled foreign fighters -- Uzbeks, Pakistanis and a handful of Arabs -- fled the towering mountains of eastern Afghanistan and crossed into Pakistan's South Waziristan tribal area. Savaged by American air power in the battles of Tora Bora and the Shah- i-Kot valley, some were trying to make their way to the Arab states in the Persian Gulf. Some were simply looking for a haven. They soon arrived at Shakai, a remote region in South Waziristan of tree-covered mountains and valleys, and in North Waziristan. Venturing into nearby farming villages, they asked local tribesmen if they could rent some of the area's walled family compounds, paying two to three times the impoverished area's normal rates as the militants began to lay new roots. In many ways, the foreigners were returning to their home base. In the 1980s, Mr. bin Laden and hundreds of Arab and foreign fighters backed by the United States and Pakistan used the tribal regions as a staging area for cross-border attacks on Soviet forces in Afghanistan. Over the years American and NATO forces based across the border in Afghanistan have launched missile strikes against Al Qaeda and the Taliban, which also fled its base in Afghanistan to regroup in Pakistan with renewed force. In the spring of 2009, the Central Intelligence Agency sent drone aircraft over the mountains of northwest Pakistan, launching intensified attacks against Al Qaeda as well as Taliban leaders. Michael E. Leiter, one of the country's top counterterrorism officials, said in June 2010 that American intelligence officials estimated that there were somewhat "more than 300" Qaeda leaders and fighters hiding in Pakistan's tribal areas, a rare public assessment of the strength of the terrorist group that is the central target of President Obama's war strategy. Taken together with the estimate by the C.I.A. director, Leon E. Panetta, that there are about 50 to 100 Qaeda operatives now in Afghanistan, American intelligence agencies believe that there are most likely fewer than 500 members of the group in a region where the United States has poured nearly 100,000 troops. As pressure increased on Al Qaeda in Afghanistan and Pakistan, new branches of it arose in Yemen and Somalia, two chronically unstable nations. Yemen is a testing ground for the "scalpel" approach Mr. Brennan endorses. Administration officials warn of the growing strength of Al Qaeda's affiliate there, citing as evidence its attempt on Dec. 25 to blow up a trans-Atlantic jetliner using a young Nigerian operative. Some American officials believe that militants in Yemen could now pose an even greater threat than Al Qaeda's leadership in Pakistan. The officials said that they have benefited from the Yemeni government's new resolve to fight Al Qaeda and that the American strikes — carried out with cruise missiles and Harrier fighter jets — had been approved by Yemen's leaders. The strikes, administration officials say, have killed dozens of militants suspected of plotting future attacks. Despite the airstrike campaign, the leadership of Al Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula survives, and there is little sign the group is much weaker. Attacks by Qaeda militants in Yemen have picked up again, with several deadly assaults on Yemeni army convoy. Al Qaeda's Yemen branch has managed to put out its first English-language online magazine, Inspire, complete with bomb-making instructions. As a test case, the strikes have raised the classic trade-off of the post-Sept. 11 era: Do the selective hits make the United States safer by eliminating terrorists? Or do they help the terrorist network frame its violence as a heroic religious struggle against American aggression, recruiting new operatives for the enemy? Al Qaeda has worked tirelessly to exploit the strikes, and in Anwar al-Awlaki, the American- born cleric now hiding in Yemen, the group has perhaps the most sophisticated ideological opponent the United States has faced since 2001.