Population Geography by S55x5R

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									NEW UNIT

GLOBAL CHALLENGES
   This unit of work is the study of HUMAN
    GEOGRAPHY.
   As the term suggests we will be focusing on the
    HUMAN ENVIRONMENT (Built).
   This unit is divided into three mini units
        o Population Geography
        o Cultural Geography
        o   Natural Resource Use




                                                  1
               Topic 1:
         Population Geography
         The changing nature, rate and distribution of
    1.0 the world’s population
    Population geography focuses on the number, structure, and
     distribution of human beings on the Earth’s surface.

    Demography is the statistical study of humans and the
     relationship to the land they occupy.




                                                                  2
    1.1   The changing nature of the world’s population

Snapshot of current world population
 In mid-2008, world population stood at 6.7 billion, up from 6.0
  billion in 1999.
 During the 20th century, nearly 90% of population growth took
  place in countries classified as Less Developed Countries (LDCs)
    81.7% of the world’s population live in LDC
    Around the world birth rates range dramatically from 1.2 to 8
     children per woman
    An estimated 33 million people infected HIV/AIDS at the end of
     2007 and over two-thirds of these are in sub-Saharan Africa
    The average life expectancy of people around the world is 68
     years
    People in More Developed countries live on average to 77 years
     of age
    People in Less Developed Countries live to 67.
    More than half of the world’s population lives on less than $2 per
     day.




                                                                          3
                           Table 1 Source: PRB (2008) World Population Prospects 2008

                   Countries with the Highest and Lowest Life Expectancy 2008
      Highest life                                   Lowest life
                          years                                         years
      expectancy                                     expectancy
1. Hong Kong, SAR           82                         Swaziland                33

2. Japan                    82                         Lesotho                  36

3. Switzerland              82                         Zambia                   38

4. San Marino               82                         Zimbabwe                 40

5. Italy                    81                         Mozambique               43

6. Australia                81                         Angola                   43
                                                       Central African
7. France                   81                                                  43
                                                       Republic
8. Iceland                  81                         Afghanistan              43

9. Sweden                   81                         Guinea-Bissau            45

10. Singapore               81                         Malawi                   46


Table 2 Data Sourced from: PRB (2008) World Population Prospects 2008

                                                                                        4
                Why study Population Geography?
   Population studies are crucial to understanding the challenges
    facing the world today.
   Important issues such as:
         o Should we reduce our population?
         o Should we let it continue to grow?
         o What are the impacts if we reduce our population?
         o What are the impacts if our population increases?
   By studying population geography we find that the answer to
    these seemingly simple questions which really are not that simple.




                                                                     5
Bring on the population debate
Treasury's recent Intergenerational Report shows Australia heading towards a population of 36
million people by 2050.
                                                    wrong and dangerous". He and others on both
The politics of the current                         sides of politics also concede privately that the
population debate are not hard to issue of asylum seekers is once again a big issue
                                                    across many electorates.
read.                                               There's plenty of Australians who don't like the
The Coalition is returning to an old playbook,
                                                    idea of people rocking up on boats from faraway
tapping into concerns about an increasing
                                                    places, nor do they much like the idea of high
number of asylum seekers arriving by boat and
                                                    immigration; an ironic yet historic truth about
linking that to the overall issue of immigration.
                                                    this country of immigrants, many of us are
That in turn links into people's fears about
                                                    frightened by the idea of being "overrun".
rocketing house prices, water shortages and a
fluctuating job market in recent troubled times     I was speaking to one cabbie recently who told
and bingo - a scare campaign is born. One           me Kevin Rudd had lost his vote because he
underlined nicely by Treasury's recent              couldn't stop the boats coming as he promised
Intergenerational Report shows Australia heading and asylum seekers were now being brought to
towards a population of 36 million people by        the mainland. He then admitted he himself was
2050. A scary number that nicely wraps around a an asylum seeker granted refugee status after,
lot of current scary pressures. And a scary         wait for it, arriving on a leaky boat.
number that the Opposition then promises to cut. It's a complex issue for any government to
In reply the Prime Minister, in an effort to calm   manage and that's what Tony Abbott is counting
people's fears, returns to a favourite playbook of on.
his, putting in place a process for dealing with    Time for some more facts.
our population future which the Coalition           The Opposition says it will cut immigration
dismissively describes as coming up "with a plan numbers in order to keep our population levels at
for a plan". By appointing Tony Burke as            a manageable level, reducing the immigration
Australia's first Population Minister the Prime     intake down from 300,000 per year under Labor
Minister is responding to people's concerns, he's now to around 180,000 per year or below.
acting, but let's be honest, he's not in any hurry
                                                    The shadow minister says 300,000 is "out of
and Minister Burke is instructed to come up with
                                                    control" and getting immigration to a sustainable
the basis of population policy in 12 months time.
                                                    level will obviously mean cuts right across the
That's after the election.
                                                    program, though he doesn't say where.
A scare campaign countered by a delaying tactic.
                                                    It's true immigration numbers did shoot up under
Both disguised as responsible policy.
                                                    Labor but most of the increase was in the
That's the bald politics of it, now how about       temporary visa categories of foreign students
some facts.                                         and temporary workers brought in under the 457
Let's take the easy one first.                      visa scheme. In both categories the surge began
Asylum seekers arriving by boat are NOT a threat under the Howard government.
to our population levels and have no place in this At the end of the last financial year of the
debate. Australia takes around 13,500 refugees      Howard government, the net migration intake
every year, a number that is capped, so boat        was at 230,000 per year.
arrivals granted refugee status end up as part of Demographer Peter McDonald says immigration
that 13,500, reducing the number taken from         levels are about to plummet to around 180,000
what's called 'the orderly refugee migration        per year and that the Government and the
program'.                                           Opposition both know it. That's because the Rudd
So if our level of population is the issue, and the Government has closed the loophole in the
immigration numbers within that, you can safely overseas student program which basically saw
leave asylum seekers out of it.                     international colleges spring up around the
So why are Tony Abbott and his immigration          country offering cooking and hairdressing
shadow, Scott Morison, linking the two? Well it     courses, but in reality they were little more than
does feed into Tony Abbott's consistent criticism backdoor visa factories.
of Kevin Rudd's performance. If you can't           Earlier this year the Rudd Government changed
manage our borders how can you manage the           the skilled migration entry conditions and cut the
bigger issue of our immigration levels?             link between studying here and gaining a visa,
But critics believe there's some dog whistling      and in response overseas student applications
going on too? One senior Liberal described it to    have dropped by 17 per cent.
me as a "clear and deliberate message that is       The Government also slashed the number of 457

                                                                                                    6
visas, used by business to fill immediate skill       emissions if we're increasing our population at
shortages. The category had swelled during the        such a rate?
boom times at the end of the Howard years and         And speaking of climate change, what if our
in the early days of the Rudd Government, but         Pacific neighbours find themselves drowning as
the demand for workers during the global              sea levels rise, won't there be an expectation
financial crisis fell.                                that we will reach out and invite them in to dry
Peter McDonald says we will see a lift-off in the     land - literally to dry land?
457 visa category again soon because it's the         The Opposition calls for a plan to rein in our
only way to sustain the latest resources boom         immigration numbers in a bid to manage our
and give mining companies access to the labour        population levels yet it presents little in the way
force they need.                                      of a plan for substantial cuts to our carbon
In contrast, he says our overseas education           emissions.
industry will shrink steeply, not just because of     There's also scant, conflicting and confusing
the changes made by the Rudd Government but           detail about its intentions when it comes to
also because of fierce international competition      immigration levels. In fact now Scott Morrison
in this profitable education market.                  says a cut to immigration is not official
The high Australian dollar makes us less              Opposition policy. So what is the policy?
competitive. Add to that the pressure universities    The Opposition Leader's call for unspecified cuts
in the United Kingdom and the United States are       to immigration has displeased the business
under, due to shrinking endowments for                community which regards immigration as vital
American universities as a result of the GFC and      for economic growth and also made many in his
substantial cuts to British university budgets, and   own party room unhappy that this important and
you can bet they will be actively in the hunt for     divisive issue was unleashed in the guise of
more foreign students to boost their coffers.         opposition policy without being discussed
Overseas students are a money spinner, in this        internally first.
country bringing in $17 billion per year and          When Tony Abbott announced his generous and
creating tens of thousands of jobs.                   controversial paid parental leave scheme funded
Another fact worth noting in this debate over         by a tax on business without clearing it with his
immigration and population levels is the number       colleagues he described it as a "leaders call"
of New Zealanders moving here. There's                which he promised would be a "rare thing". Not
currently over 500,000 Kiwis living in this           one month later and he seems to have made
country, that's 100,000 more than there were          another one, even more controversial.
just 5 years ago, and the bulk of the new arrivals    In January Tony Abbott said he has no problem
are choosing to live in Queensland, adding to the     with increasing Australia's population as long as
considerable population pressure building up in       we've got the infrastructure to deal with it. He
parts of that state.                                  appeared to be endorsing the Prime Minister's
Yes, the thought of 36 million Australians is         backing for a big Australia, albeit with caveats.
overwhelming if you're stuck in traffic in Sydney,    Fair enough. Bring on the population debate,
trying to find a house to buy, let alone afford, in   because without a plan to sustainably support a
south-east Queensland, or worried about reliable      30 million plus population many Australians will
drinking water supplies in Adelaide.                  start to resist and resent immigration and that
That's why we do need a population policy.            will always be a difficult debate to have and to
What we don't need is a scare campaign around         manage. But If Tony Abbott is sincere about a
immigration to kick it off.                           sustainable population policy lets dump the ad
                                                      hoc, contradictory and inflammatory talk and get
A population policy is about a lot more than
                                                      serious about it.
immigration. It's about our national
infrastructure, our roads and hospitals and           Fran Kelly is a presenter on the ABC's Radio
suburbs and public transport. It's about housing      National Breakfast program.
supply and an affordable housing market. It's
about jobs.
Its about the environment and sustainability.
Former Australian of the year Tim Flannery says
this continent should only support a population of
less than 16 million. In 1994 the Keating
government had a committee for long-term
strategies chaired by Barry Jones which found 23
million was our optimum population level.
Yet we are on a path to 36 million. How will our
parched landscape cope with that, where will the
water come from, how will we reduce our carbon

                                                                                                            7
Debate on population targets immigrants
STEPHANIE PEATLING January 24, 2010

Australia should consider whether                 trying to stop that debate by attributing that
immigration can continue at existing levels       motive to people,'' Mr Morrison said.
as part of a comprehensive population             His comments follow a speech by the
analysis aimed at determining how many            Opposition Leader, Tony Abbott, on Friday
people the country can support, the Federal       night in which he said Australians were
Opposition says.                                  worried about the rise in the number of boat
Concerns about infrastructure, housing and        people, the ability of migrants to obey the
environmental sustainability should be            law and the strain new arrivals put on
considered when setting the number of             resources.
people allowed to immigrate each year,            Mr Morrison said state and local
Coalition immigration spokesman Scott             governments should take a greater role in
Morrison said. ''Population policy is a           planning for more people.
legitimate debate we have to have and it
should be free from any suggestion that it's      ''The Federal Government has to take
related to race.''                                responsibility for it [immigration numbers],
                                                  but state and local governments need to be
Population policy was a void that needed to       more part of [that decision] because they're
be filled, he said. ''It's getting to the point   the ones who have to live with it,'' he said.
where we can't afford not to [have one]. We
can't just keep going as is.''                    Concerns about roads, housing, the strain
                                                  on the health system and environmental
Treasury modelling released last year             sustainability all needed to be considered
forecast the population would increase            as part of population policy, he said.
more than half to 35 million by the middle of
the century. The increase will come from          An annual planning day of governments
migration, more women reaching child-             should be held to discussion population, he
bearing age and higher fertility rates.           said.
Prime Minister Kevin Rudd welcomed the
modelling, saying he was in favour of a big
Australia. But it prompted criticism from
Labor backbencher Kelvin Thomson, who
has questioned whether the country can
support such a population.
Mr Thomson has called for dramatic cuts to
immigration levels.
Mr Morrison said he did not believe
Australia should ''shut the door'' to
immigrants but ''given that immigration
accounts for almost 60 per cent of
population growth, we can do something
about it''.
He acknowledged population was a difficult
issue because it often sparked debate
about racism.
''I don't want to see it frustrated by people
either bringing that element to the debate or

                                                                                                   8
            Population Growth and Decline in Singapore


 Z
        ero, possibly even negative         same prime minister in 1986,
        population growth" was the          reflecting     fears    that    the
        1972 slogan proposed by             stringencies     of   the    earlier
 the prime minister of Singapore,           campaign had gone too far. From
 an island country in Southeast             concern that overpopulation would
 Asia. His country's population,            doom the country to perpetual
 which stood at I million at the end        Third World poverty, Prime
 of the Second, World War, had              Minister Lee Kuan Yew was
 doubled by the mid-1960s. In               moved to worry that population
 support, the government decreed            limitation would deprive it of the
 "Boy or girl, two is enough" and           growth potential and national
 refused maternity leaves and               strength implicit in a youthful,
 access to health insurance for             educated work force adequate to
 third    or   subsequent      births.      replace and support the present
 Abortion and sterilization were            aging population. His 1990
 legalized, and children born fourth        national budget provided for
 or later in a family were to be            sizable long-term tax rebates for
 discriminated against in school            second children born before the
 admissions policy. In response,            mother is 28. Not certain that
 birth rates by the mid-1980s fell to       financial    inducements     would
 below the level necessary to               suffice to increase population, the
 replace the population, and                Singapore government annually
 abortions were terminating more            reviews its offer to take 100,000
 than one-third of all pregnancies.         Hong Kong Chinese who might
                                            choose to leave when China takes
   "At least two. Better three. Four        over their territory in 1997.
 if you can afford it" was the
 national slogan proposed by that

Paste this sheet and answer the following questions in your workbook
   1) What was the Singapore Government’s policy on population
      growth in the 1972?
   2) Why was this policy implemented?
   3) How did they encourage this policy?
   4) What was the consequence of this policy in 1980’s?
   5) What was the policy of the Singapore Government in 1986?
   6) How did they encourage this new policy?
   7) What were the implications if they did not change their policy?


                                                                               9
    1.2         The changing rate of the world’s population

Birth Rate:      How many live births per 1000 people
Death rate: How many deaths per 1000 people
Rate of Natural Increase: ( Birth Rate  Death Rate ) %
                                           10




Figure 1 Comparison of rates of natural increase (source: www.prb.org)

    The human species dates back at least 3 million years.
    They were originally hunters and gatherers with the total global
     population not exceeding 10 million.
    However, as agriculture was introduced, communities evolved
     that could support more people.
    World population expanded to about 300 million by A.D. 1 and
     continued to grow at a moderate rate.
    After the start of the Industrial Revolution in the 18th century,
     living standards rose and widespread famines and epidemics
     stoped in some regions.

                                                                         10
   Population growth accelerated.
   The population climbed to about 760 million in 1750 and reached
    1 billion around 1800
   World population growth accelerated after World War II, when the
    population of less developed countries began to increase
    dramatically.
   After millions of years of extremely slow growth, the human
    population indeed grew explosively, doubling again and again; a
    billion people were added between 1960 and 1975;
                                World Population Milestones

                                 World Population Reached . . .
                                           1 billion in 1804
                            2 billion in 1927 (123 years later)
                             3 billion in 1960 (33 years later)
                             4 billion in 1974 (14 years later)
                             5 billion in 1987 (13 years later)
                            6 billion in 1999 (12 years later)
                           Table 3
           Source UNESCO Teaching and Learning for a Sustainable future 2002 CD ROM Griffith University



   Throughout the 20th century each additional billion has been
    achieved in a shorter period of time.
   Human population entered the 20th century with 1.6 billion
    people and left the century with 6.1 billion.




                                                                                                          11
Figure 2 (source www.prb.org)

          Spatially, most of the rapid population growth rate has
           occurred in the developing countries of the world.
          That is, the economically poorer countries which can not
           afford the rapid increase of people are the ones that are
           getting more people.




                                                                       12
Doubling Times
   Population grows geometrically (1, 2, 4, 8 …), rather than
    arithmetically (1, 2, 3, 4 …), which is why the graph shows an
    exponential growth

   This exponential growth rate in population geography is often
    examined by how long it will take for a population to double.

   The term used to indicate a population doubling rate is called
    DOUBLING TIME.

   So, if a population was 1,000 in the year 1950 and it doubled to
    2,000 by the year 1970. We would say the doubling time has
    been 20 years. The shorter the doubling time the greater the
    population growth rate is. Short doubling times are worrying as
    the resources, infrastructure needed to cater for the increase in
    population are often not available.

    Table 4. Estimated Doubling Times (source www.prg.org)
    World Population Growth and Approximate Doubling Times since 1 C.E.
            Year                Estimated Population         Doubling Time (Years)
             1                       250 million
           1650                      500 million                    1650
           1800                       1 billion                      150
           1930                       2 billion                      130
           1975                       4 billion                      45
            ?                         8 Billion                       ?


     A simple formula is used to predict how long it will take for a
    population to double
                   69            .
       (rate of natural increase)


                                                                                     13
  Rates of Natural Increase and Doubling Times
                                                                         Projected year
             Pop in                                 Rate of                of doubled
                                                              Doubling
 Region       2008       Birth Rate   Death Rate    Natural                population
                                                               Time      (2008 + double
            (millions)                             Increase
                                                                              time)


 World

 Africa
  Nth
America
  Sth
America
Central
America
  Asia

Oceania

 Europe

Australia

  Table 5


  Rates of Natural Increase and Doubling Times
                                                                         Projected year
             Pop in                                 Rate of                of doubled
                                                              Doubling
 Region       2008       Birth Rate   Death Rate    Natural                population
                                                               Time      (2008 + double
            (millions)                             Increase
                                                                              time)


 World

 Africa
  Nth
America
  Sth
America
Central
America
  Asia

Oceania

 Europe

Australia

Table 5
                                                                                          14
  Handout




Figure 1




    Figure 2


               15
Age Sex Structure
   Another important tool in analysing the rate of change in a
    population is age and sex structure.
   The age-sex structure determines potential for future growth of
    specific age groups, as well as the total population.
   For these reasons, the age structure has significant government
    policy implications. A population of young people needs a
    sufficient number of schools and, later, enough jobs to
    accommodate them.
   Countries with a large proportion of older people must develop
    retirement systems and medical facilities to serve them.
   Therefore, as a population ages, needs change from childcare
    and schools to jobs, housing, and medical care.
Population Pyramids
   The age-sex structure of a country can be studied through
    population pyramids.
   Males are shown on one side and females on the other.
   The overall shape of the pyramid is an indicator for slow growth,
    fast growth, or decline.
   The horizontal bars show the percentage (or in some cases the
    actual numbers) of males and females in each age group.




                                                                      16
Three Patterns of Population Change, 2000
Figure 3 Source: United Nations, World Population Prospects, The 1998 Revision.

   The country pyramids shown above represent different stages of population growth going on
    today.

   The first pyramid, representing the population of the Democratic Republic of Congo, with its
    wide base and narrow top, is typical of a young population. This shape is the result of high birth
    rates that feed more and more people into the lowest bars and in turn shrink the relative
    proportion at the oldest ages. As the death rate declines, more people survive to the
    reproductive ages and beyond. The births they have further widen the base of the pyramid.
    This shape is common in many less developed countries that have experienced improvements
    in life expectancy but continue to have high birth rates. It reflects both a history of rapid
    population growth and the potential for future rapid growth.

   The second pyramid is typical of a slowly growing population. The United States is an
    example of a country in slow growth. The United States has had declining fertility and mortality
    rates for most of this century. With lower fertility, fewer people have entered the lowest bars of
    the pyramid, and as life expectancy has increased, a greater percentage of the "births" have
    survived until old age. As a result, the population has been aging, meaning that the proportion
    of older persons in the population has been growing. This trend was interrupted by the postwar
    baby boom, 1946–1964, when birth rates climbed again. (The bulge of the baby-boom
    generation can be seen in the pyramid for ages 35–54 in 2000.) After 1964, birth rates
    continued their downward trend until the late 1970s. As the last members of the baby boom
    approached their childbearing years during the 1980s, the number of births rose again, peaking
    in 1990. These children, the youngest generation, are represented by the slightly widening
    base of the pyramid. Even though the number of births per woman is lower than ever before,
    the population continues to grow because of the children and grandchildren of the huge baby-
    boom generation.

   The third pyramid shows countries that have reached zero population growth or are
    experiencing negative growth because of low birth rates and an old age structure coupled with
    minimal net migration. While Germany's death rate exceeds its birth rate, its population
    continues to grow because of migration. Pyramids in which the proportions of the population
    are fairly evenly distributed among all age groups are representative of many highly
    industrialized societies. Germany's old population reflects an extended period of low birth and
    death rates. While fewer children have been born, most of those born survive through to old
    age. The net effect is zero growth or no natural increase. Germany's pyramid also shows the
    effect of higher mortality among males. In an industrialized society, females generally
    outnumber males after age 40. This trend is particularly evident in Germany's oldest age group.
.


                                                                                                   17
Answer the following questions in your work books.

   1. What characteristics does a population pyramid showing rapid
      growth have?
   2. What type of countries does this represent?
   3. What characteristics does a population pyramid showing slow
      growth have?
   4. What type of countries experiences this?
   5. What characteristics does a population pyramid showing zero
      or negative growth have?
   6. What type of countries experiences this?
   7. Why is it important to analyse the age sex structure of a
      society?




                                                                  18
    1.3    The changing distribution of the world’s population




Figure 4. World Population Distribution by Region, 1800–2050 (source www.prb.org)

     In 1800, Asia had 65 percent of the world’s population and
      Europe had 21%
    By 1900, Europe's share of world population had risen to 25
     percent, caused by the population increase that accompanied the
     Industrial Revolution.
    Some of this growth spilled over to the Americas, increasing their
     share of the world total
    However, Europe is predicted to lose its share of the world’s
     population by the year 2050 down to 7%.




                                                                                    19
20
Using information from the map in figure 4 and your knowledge of population
geography so far, complete the following cloze exercise.


The Changing distribution of the world’s population.
The distribution of the world’s population has a distinct
pattern of where people are and will be. In 2008 it was
estimated that the world’s population was __________
people. The region with the most people in 2008 was
________, which is _______% of the world’s population.
The next highest region is _________, which has about
_____% of the world’s population. Central and South
___________ has _____% of the world’s population.
Unfortunately, these regions have many of the poorest
countries in them, too. These figures show that most of the
world’s population are distributed in __________
D___________ countries. In contrast North A__________
and E__________ collectively have _______% of the
world’s population. In these regions many of the world’s
w_____________ countries are located in them.




                                                                          21
Proportional Symbols
To calculate the radius of your circle (the measurement for your compass)

Step 1 Calculate the Square root      of the number you need to draw a circle for.

Step 2 Choose a scale for the radius based on the numbers you have just calculated.
Step 3 Divide the number you have taken the square root of by the scale you have chosen.
Step 4 Draw circles
                                   Population (millions)                              Divide by chosen
          Location                                              Square Root
                                           2008                                             scale
           World

           Africa

       North America

 Sth and Central America

          Oceania

            Asia

          Europe

        Middle East




                                                                                                         22
23
24
    2.0      Spatial Patterns of Fertility and Mortality
    Geographers have noticed that there have been changes in
     FERTILITY RATES and MORTALITY RATES over time.
    These two rates have experienced change over time on a global
     level because:
           o Increased industrialization, urbanization and general
             wealth of people
           o Better sanitation, health services and education
           o Wars and natural disasters
    2.1                   Spatial Patterns of Fertility
          1. Read pages 243-245 of the text book
          2. Complete questions 4.37 to 4.46 in your work books.
          3. Copy out questions and answer in full sentences
    2.2                   Spatial Patterns of Mortality
          1. Read pages 249 to 251
          2. Complete questions 4.56 ,
                                     4.57,
                                     4.58,
                                     4.59 (a , b, c)
                                     4.60
          3. Copy out questions and answer in full sentences
    2.3           Results of Declining Fertility and Mortality Rates
          1. Read page 254
          2. Summarise the key points of this text.




                                                                       25
  3.0           Types, volumes and directions of population movements

“One of the main characteristics of our globalised world is the movement of goods,
money and people. This is not new in itself, but the speed with which it is
happening and the sheer volumes involved are unprecedented”
Source: UNESCO Sources, January 98, Issue 9 7, page / 2




   Figure 3.1: PUSH     and PULL factors influencing migration


Population movement is often referred to as Migration. Migration from one region
to another has been an important factor in the spread of civilizations, spread and
diffusion of culture, and the spread of knowledge and technology. Population
movement has taken place at different scales from the macro (nation to nation) to
micro (region to region). There have been many reasons why population
movement occurs. They have been classified as PUSH FACTORS (forced) and
PULL FACTORS (voluntary) Figure 3.1 highlights some of the push and pull
factors for migration. What is apparent is that there are two clear categories of
population movement; INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION and RURAL-TO-URBAN
MIGRATION. There are clear patterns in the rate and directions of these types of
movements.

1. International Migration
The volume of international migration has increased according to the Population
Reference Bureau. In 2005, 3 percent of the world’s population were international
migrants. Thus, the number of international migrants worldwide rose from 75
million in 1965 to over 196 million in 2005 showing a significant increase in this
form of Population Movement. There are two types of International Migration;
Refugee Migration and Labour Migration
                                                                                 26
(i) Refugee Migration

                                                                Global Refugee Population 1976-2005
                                             20
                                             19
                                             18
                                             17
                                             16
                                             15
                                             14
                Refugee Numbers (millions)




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A Refugee is any person who is involved in international migration because they have
escaped their place of residence due to an authentic fear of being persecuted because
of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion.
That is, they are pushed out of their country. It is estimated that during the twentieth
century that over 140 million people were unintentional International migrants (or
refugees), who for some reason have been forced to leave their place of birth. Also, it
has been observed that most refugees since the 1950s have originated from developing
countries. Figure3.2 shows that since the mid 1970s, there has been an increase in the
number of global refugees peaking in 1993 with over 18 million refugees (caused by the
Balkan wars and genocide in Rwanda and Somalia). Table 3.1 shows that in 2005
Palestine, Afghanistan and Iraq (middle east countries) produced half of the 12 million
refugees that occurred in that year. Table 3.2 highlights that the middle east experienced
the highest intake of refugees followed by Africa.
The regions taking the greatest number of refugees were Africa and Europe. The
countries producing the highest number of refugees were Palestine and Afghanistan
                                                                                                                                                      Table 3.2. Regional intake of refugees
  Table 3.1.Countries producing the most                                                                                                                          December 2005
   amount of refugees December 2005.                                                                                                                        Region              Total intake
       Country             Total refugees                                                                                                           Africa                  3, 176,100
Former Palestine         2,971,600                                                                                                                  America’s and           475,000
Afghanistan              2,192,100                                                                                                                  Caribbean
Iraq                     888,700                                                                                                                    Europe                  5300,200
Myanmar                  727,100                                                                                                                    Middle East             4,855,400
Sudan                    670,000                                                                                                                    East Asia and The       1,029,400
                                                                                                                                                    Pacific
                                                                                                                                                    South and Central       1,953,600
                                                                                                                                                    Asia


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    27
(ii) Labour Migration

Labour migration is another form of International Migration where people move to work
from one country to another. It involves millions of people. Developments and innovation
in the speed, scale and availability of transport has meant that it is now easier for people
to undertake travel and leave their homeland. There are two types of Labour migration;
Migrant Workers and Skilled International Migration

   (a) Migrant workers .
 Migrant labourers perform jobs that are not filled by workers in the host country. They
are often poorly paid and unskilled occupations. Many migrant workers return home after
a work season or a couple of years. They repatriate most of their earnings to their
families in the countries where they were born.
Estimates of migrant workers' remittances have been placed at more than $67 billion
annually, making labour second only to oil in global trade. In Yemen, remittances in the
early 1990s were valued at 150 per cent of the country's total exports. In Pakistan and
Egypt, they were worth 75 per cent. The Philippines alone provides 3.5 million migrant
workers in 120 countries worldwide. Within Europe, Filipino workers are second only in
number to migrant workers from Turkey. In Italy alone, there are 160,000 Filipinos.
While economic globalisation has made labour more mobile, it has also seen the work
available become more temporary. The era of permanent settlement, which
characterised post-war migrations, is now over. Labour markets in many countries now
look for workers - both skilled and unskilled - to occupy specific jobs with a fixed
duration. A trend in the 1990s was the feminisation of labour migration, particularly Asian
labour migration.

   (b) Skilled international migration
As cities like London, New York and Tokyo have strengthened their hold on global
finance and banking, they have become global marketplaces for skilled migrant workers.
London is now a major global focus for accountancy, advertising, management
consultancy, law and other business services. Expatriates generally tend to spend
anything from two to four years in these global cities. Out of the 16 most senior banking
management positions in London, 10 are expatriates, all from Japan. Global cities are
important locations for migrants for three reasons:
 the prevalence and agglomeration of banking
 specialist employment opportunities existing within corporate headquarters
 the high salaries and 'fast-track' careers that can be obtained within transnational
companies.

Highly skilled labour also travels the global village. With Internet access in nearly every
country, the highly educated are increasingly 'on-line' and in touch around the world. In
1998 more than 250 000 African professionals were working in the United States and
Europe. Immigrants with skills in computing technologies are in high demand - in the
European Union alone, 500 000 information technology jobs go unfilled because of
lack of national skills. The United States offers a special visa to professional immigrants
to keep high-tech industries staffed.
Source: Human Development Report, (1999), United Nations Human Development Committee




                                                                                          28
2) Rural-urban migration (country to city movement)

  One of the most common trends in population movements today is the
massive influx of people from rural to urban areas in developing countries. This
is often an internal movement within a country. It was estimated that at the end
of the twentieth century, one-third of all populations of Africa and Asia, and
two-thirds of that of Latin America, were living in cities. United Nations
projections show that 60 per cent of the world's people will live in urban areas by
2025. There is an increasing number of mega-cities with populations over ten
million, especially in developing countries. The bright lights of the city serve as a
powerful magnet (pull factor). In all countries and in all regions, the number of
urban inhabitants continues to grow faster than the capacity of cities to provide
jobs, houses, water, sanitation and other basic services for them. Only 40 per
cent of migrants are lucky enough to find employment in low paying jobs in the
formal sector. Many are forced to enter other kinds of self-employment in the
informal sector, such as street selling, scavenging, begging, crime and
prostitution.
  Even the cheapest public housing is beyond the means of many migrants.
They are often forced to construct their own dwellings with whatever materials
they can get their hands on. These are known as 'shanties or slums' which,
have a lack water supply, sewerage and waste disposal facilities, and are
located away from the affluent city centre.
  Access to clean water is a vital issue for people living in cities. While in
developed nations most of the population has ready access to clean water, this
is not the case in poorer countries of the world. In Asia, 29 per cent of urban
residents have no convenient access to clean water, in Africa 26 per cent and in
Latin America only 12 per cent are lucky enough to have this basic necessity.




                                                                                        29
3.0     Types, volumes and directions of population movements

 1. Define the terms that have a box around them in the body of the text above.

         Term                                     Definition




 2. Refer to figure 1
 a) Choose TWO pull factors and explain how they pull people to migrate?
 _________________________________________________________________________
 _________________________________________________________________________
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 _________________________________________________________________________
 _________________________________________________________________________
 _________________________________________________________________________


 b) Choose TWO push factors and explain how they push people to migrate?
 _________________________________________________________________________
 _________________________________________________________________________
 _________________________________________________________________________
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 _________________________________________________________________________
 _________________________________________________________________________



                                                                                  30
3. In the table below identify and define the different type of population movement
   and indicate the volumes and directions of these movement.
     Type of
    Population            Definition             Volume                Directions
                                                (How many?)        (Where from and to?)
    Movement




                                                                                          31
4. What proportion of international migrants are refugees?
_________________________________________________________________________


5. Refer to Table 1 and Table 2
a) List the three regions that took the highest number of refugees in 2005.
1.______________________________________________
2.______________________________________________
3.______________________________________________
b) List the three countries that produced the highest number of refugees in 2005.
1.______________________________________________
2.______________________________________________
3.______________________________________________
6. What types of jobs do migrant labour workers perform?
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________


7. Approximately how much money is remitted by migrant workers each year?
________________________________________________________________________


8. Identify and explain two recent labour migration trends.
a.______________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________


b.______________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________


9. What type of workers do global cities attract?
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________


10. What proportion of Africa and Asia's population are living in cities in the year
   2000?
________________________________________________________________________


                                                                                       32
11. What is a squatter/slum settlement? Explain why you think such settlements
   occur?

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HOMEWORK                             Name __________________________________

Exam style question
 Examine the types, volumes and directions of population movements?


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                                                                           35
         Issues arising from the changing size and distribution of population
 4.0
               including environmental, economic and social impacts

A cancer is an uncontrolled multiplication of cells; the population explosion is an
uncontrolled multiplication of people. Treating only the symptoms of cancer may make the
victim more comfortable at first, but eventually he dies - often horribly. A similar fate awaits
the world with a population explosion if only the symptoms are treated. We must shift our
efforts from treatment of the symptoms to the cutting out of the cancer. The operation will
demand many apparently brutal and heartless decisions. The pain will be intense. But the
disease is so far advanced that only with radical surgery does the patient have a chance of
survival.
Quote by Paul Erlich

There are two predominant opposing theories to the impacts of
population growth:
• One is that world population is growing too fast for the world and its
   resources to cope. (Malthusian world view)
• The other suggests that we will always have the technology and
   innovation to cope with any pressure we as humans place on our
   environment.




                                                                                                   36
    4.1                          Environmental Impacts
     Many environmentalists argue that large populations are not
      necessarily bad for the environment. But it is the rich countries with
      smaller populations that cause the most environmental damage
      because of their consumption lifestyles:
          o The richest 20% consumes 86% of all goods and services
            and produces 53% of all carbon dioxide emissions.
          o The poorest 20% consumes 1.3 per cent of goods and
            services and accounts for 3% of carbon dioxide (C02) output.
          o USA has 5% of the world's population but generates 19 % of
            the world's waste.
     However, population growth does have immediate environmental
      consequences not related to consumption:
          o Two-thirds of the world's population lives within 60 kilometres
            of an ocean, inland sea or freshwater lake: 14 of the world's
            largest mega-cities are coastal. Their impact includes
                increasing amounts of sewerage and other waste,
                the drainage of wetlands
                development of beaches
                destruction of prime fish nurseries.
          o At least 300 million people live in regions that already have
            severe water shortages. By 2025, the number could be three
            billion.
          o The world's forests have shrunk from 11.4 to 7.3 square
            kilometres per 1000 people since 1970. This loss is
            concentrated in developing countries, mostly to meet the
            demands for wood and paper by the industrial world.

                                                                            37
   The global emission of carbon dioxide (CO2) has quadrupled since
    1950.





                                                                   38
4.2                              Economic Impacts
     Natural resources become scarcer as they are being consumed
      by an ever-growing number of people. When resources are in
      shorter supply but demand for them is high, this forces their
      prices up. This has the economic effect of favouring the rich who
      can afford them to the detriment of the poor.
     The quality of life for individuals falls as living conditions become
      congested. With a more congested population, there is more of a
      risk of the spread of disease. There is also deterioration in health
      conditions due to polluted skies and water supplies in both
      developed and developing countries.
     Rural populations suffer from 'brain drain' as those with skills
      migrate to urban centres in search of employment.
     Increased populations can have a significant impact on the
      economy of a country. Essential services and welfare systems
      are pushed to the limit. There is an increased need for the
      provision of services for the poor.
     The increasing size of the dependent population, especially those
      over 65 years of age who have longer life expectancies, puts
      economic strain on those who are working.




                                                                              39
    4.3                             Social Impacts
     As resource scarcity and economic inequality increase, social,
      ethnic and political tensions increase, along with migration and
      immigration as responses.
     As shortages of essential resources such as farmland, water,
      forests and fisheries worsen; conflict between countries and
      between locals over these resources increases.
     With increased populations, it is predicted that there will be
      increased social stresses and crime. Recent studies have shown
      that population tends to have an effect on the mental health of a
      nation. Instances of antisocial behaviour, mental illness, and even
      homicidal and suicidal tendencies, increase with population
      density.
     Another social impact of increased populations is the pressure on
      governments to attempt to control population size. This has many
      impacts and creates a social and moral dilemma for those involved
      in decisions related to family planning.




                                                                            40
Answer the following questions in your workbooks
1. Why is the population debate such a controversial issue?
2. Outline the two opposing theories to population growth.
3. Construct a mind-map in your notebook that summarises the alarming
   environmental, economic and social impacts of global population pressure.
4. Refer to the cartoon below. Which opinion/s do you agree with most? Justify your
   choice by supporting it with other information you have learnt so far.




5. Exam style question
  Discuss the issues arising from the changing size and distribution of population
               including environmental, economic and social impacts




                                                                                      41
Population Geography Revision Test

    1. What was the estimated world’s population in 2008?

    2. Name the top three most populated countries.

    3. Define the terms
       a. Birth Rate.

       b. Death Rate.

       c. Rate of Natural Increase.

    4. What was the birth and death rates like for much of the world’s history
       before the 20th century?

    5. With reference to birth and death rates, why did the world’s population
       begin to grow during the 20th century?

    6. Where did most of the population growth occur in the world during the 20th
       century?

    7. What was the population of the world at the beginning of the 20th century?

    8. What was the world’s population leaving the 20th century?

    9. Why are Doubling Times a good indicator of the rate of population
       change?

    10. How does an analysis of the age sex structure of a population show the
        possible rate of change in a population?

    11. What regions are experiencing a decline in population rates? Why?

    12. What does the term Total Fertility Rate (TFR) mean and why is it preferred
        over Birth rates as a measure?

    13. What regions of the world have a high TFR?

    14. What does the term Infant Mortality Rate mean?

    15. What is the term used to describe the movement of people?

    16. What are the two broad factors for population movements?

    17. What type of migration is it when people move from one country to
       another?

    18. What is refugee migration?

    19. Where does most refugee migration occur?


                                                                                 42
20. How many refugees were there world wide in 2005?

21. What is labour migration?

22. What are the TWO types of labour migration?

23. Define the term rural-to-urban migration.

24. What regions of the world experience rural-to-urban migration the most?
    Why?

25. What have been some of the impacts of rural-to-urban migration
    particularly in developing countries?

26. Identify and describe TWO environmental issues related to population
    growth?

27. Identify and describe TWO economic issues related to population growth?

28. Identify and describe TWO social issues related to population growth?




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