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					Ms. Roebuck 2011-2012


                                            Biology End of Course Study Guide

                                                  40% (24-26 questions)

SC.912.L.14.6 Explain the significance of genetic factors, environmental factors, and pathogenic agents to health
from the perspectives of both individual and public health.
        Explain how the environment, genetic disorders (such as sickle cell), and/or pathogens (bacterial, viral, or
         parasitic infections) can affect your health and the health of a community.
SC.912.L.14.7 Relate the structure of each of the major plant organs and tissues to physiological processes.
        Identify and describe the functions of the following plant structures - roots, stems, leaves, flowers, fruits, cones,
         cambium, guard cells, phloem, seeds, stomata, xylem
        Describe the function of the following plant tissues - meristematic, ground, dermal, and vascular
        Explain the functional role of the following processes in plants - transpiration, photosynthesis, cell respiration,
         and reproduction
SC.912.L.14.26 Identify the major parts of the brain on diagrams or models.
        Identify the following structures on a diagram: Cerebrum, Cerebellum, Pons, Medulla oblongata, Brain stem,
         Frontal lobe, Parietal lobe, Occipital lobe, and Temporal lobe.
SC.912.L.14.36 Describe the factors affecting blood flow through the cardiovascular system.
        Identify the following factors that affect blood flow: Blood pressure, Blood volume, Resistance, Disease, Exercise
        Describe how these factors affect blood flow through the cardiovascular system.
SC.912.L.14.4 Compare and contrast structure and function of various types of microscopes
        Identify the following parts of a microscope - eye piece, arm, objectives, revolving nose piece, stage, stage clips,
         stage opening, diaphragm, light, and the base
        Differentiate between the functions of the following microscopes - light, electron, scanning electron, and
         tunneling electron microscope

SC.912.L.14.52 Explain the basic functions of the human immune system, including specific and nonspecific
immune response, vaccines, and antibiotics.
         Define the following terms – Pathogen, Inflammatory Response, Antigen, Antibody, Immunity, Vaccine,
          Vaccination, Antibiotics, AIDS, HIV, and Allergy.
         Explain how our bodies react to a pathogen; include the 1 st and 2nd lines of Nonspecific Defense and Specific
          Defense.
         Describe how the human immune system responds to vaccines and antibiotics.
SC.912.L.16.10 Evaluate the impact of biotechnology on the individual, society and the environment, including
medical and ethical issues.
         Define genetic engineering and explain the costs and benefits of using genetic engineering.
         Be able to evaluate examples and explain the possible impact of biotechnology on the individual, society, and the
          environment.
SC.912.L.16.13 Describe the basic anatomy and physiology of the human reproductive system. Describe the
process of human development from fertilization to birth and major changes that occur in each trimester of
pregnancy.
         Describe and identify the following male reproductive structures – Seminal vesicle, Prostate gland, Vas deferens,
          Urethra, Epididymis, Scrotum, Penis, and Testes.
         Describe and identify the following female reproductive structures – Ovaries, Oviduct (fallopian tube), Uterus,
          Cervix, and Vagina
         Explain how do the following structures relate to the development of the fetus – Placenta, Umbilical cord,
          Amniotic Sac, and Amniotic Fluid
         Describe the process of human development from the zygotic stage, first trimester, second trimester, third
          trimester and birth.
         Explain the role of the following hormones in the reproductive system – Progesterone, Estrogen, and
          Progesterone.
SC.912.L.17.2 Explain the general distribution of life in aquatic systems as a function of chemistry, geography,
light, depth, salinity, and temperature.
         Explain that different types of organisms exist within aquatic systems due to chemistry, geography, light, depth,
          latitude, proximity to land, underwater topography, salinity, and/or temperature.
         Understand the various chemistry factors in aquatic systems which include pH, O2, CO2, nitrogen, & phosphorus.
SC.912.L.17.4 Describe changes in ecosystems resulting from seasonal variations, climate change, and succession.
         Describe the potential changes to an ecosystem resulting from seasonal variations, climate changes, and/or
          succession.
Ms. Roebuck 2011-2012


SC.912.L.17.5 Analyze how population size is determined by births, deaths, immigration, emigration, and limiting
factors (biotic and abiotic) that determine carrying capacity.
         Define the following terms (immigration, emigration, biotic, abiotic, limiting factors, and carrying capacity.
         Interpret data sets and graphs analyzing changes in a population size.
SC.912.L.17.8 Recognize the consequences of the losses of biodiversity due to catastrophic events, climate
changes, human activity, and the introduction of invasive, non-native species.
         Identify positive and/or negative consequences that result from a reduction in biodiversity.
         Why is biodiversity important and how can it be affected?
SC.912.L.17.9 Use a food web to identify and distinguish producers, consumers, and decomposers. Explain the
pathway of energy transfer through trophic levels and the reduction of available energy at successive trophic
levels.
         Identify the components of the water cycle and the nitrogen cycle.
         Define the following terms - producer, consumer (primary, secondary, and tertiary), decomposer, trophic levels,
          food web, food chain, and energy pyramid
SC.912.L.17.11 Evaluate the costs and benefits of renewable and nonrenewable resources, such as water, energy,
fossil fuels, wildlife, and forests.
         Define renewable and nonrenewable resources.
         Explain the costs and benefits of using renewable and nonrenewable resources.
         Explain how humans have impacted environment from the use of renewable and nonrenewable resources.
SC.912.L.17.13 Discuss the need for adequate monitoring of environmental parameters when making policy
decisions.
         Identify ways in which scientific claims are evaluated through critical and logical thinking.
         Why is it important to monitor the environment and how do we make environmental decisions?
SC.912.L.17.20 Predict the impact of individuals on environmental systems and examine how human lifestyles
affect sustainability.
         Understand how human actions affect environmental systems and/or sustainability.
         Explain how environmental conditions can affect human health.

                                                   35% (21-23 questions)

SC.912.L.14.1 Describe the scientific theory of cells (cell theory) and relate the history of its discovery to the
process of science.
        Describe and explain the three parts of the cell theory.
        Understand that continuous and new scientific information influences the development of theories
        Differentiate between a theory and a law.
        Describe how theories are developed.
        Understand that a scientific theory represents the most powerful explanation scientists have to offer and can be
         changed when new evidence suggests otherwise.
SC.912.L.14.2 Relate structure to function for the components of plant and animal cells. Explain the role of cell
membranes as a highly selective barrier (passive and active transport).
        Indentify and describe the functions of the following structures found in a eukaryotic cell (cell wall, cell/plasma
         membrane, cytoplasm, nucleus, nuclear envelope, nucleolus, chromatin, ribosomes, endoplasmic reticulum,
         microtubules, microfilaments, vacuoles, mitochondria, Golgi apparatus, chloroplasts, lysosomes, cilia, and
         flagella)
        Describe the following terms (diffusion, osmosis, passive transport, active transport, ATP, endocytosis, &
         exocytosis).
        Explain how a cell membrane regulates what enters and exits the cell
        Explain what will happen when a cell is placed in a hypotonic, isotonic, and hypertonic solution.
SC.912.L.14.3 Compare and contrast the general structures of plant and animal cells. Compare and contrast the
general structures of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
        Indentify and describe the functions of the following structures found in a prokaryotic cell - cell wall,
         cell/plasma membrane, cytoplasm, plasmid, ribosomes, and flagella
        Identify and describe functions of the 3 structures that are only found in plant cells - cell wall, chloroplasts, and
         central vacuole
        Compare the similarities and differences in plant and animals cells
        Compare the similarities and differences in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells
        Make sure you can identify all structures on a diagram of a bacterium, animal, and plant cell and be prepare to
         explain the function of each structure.
Ms. Roebuck 2011-2012


SC.912.L.16.3 Describe the basic process of DNA replication and how it relates to the transmission and
conservation of the genetic information.
         Describe the structure of a DNA molecule – Nucleotides (Sugar, Phosphate, Nitrogen Base)
         Explain the process of DNA replication using the following terms – DNA Helicase, DNA Polymerase, and
          Hydrogen Bonds.
         Explain the base pair rule (Adenine to Thymine & Guanine to Cytosine)
         Explain the importance DNA replication and how it relates to the transmission and conservation of the genetic
          information.
SC.912.L.16.4 Explain how mutations in the DNA sequence may or may not result in phenotypic change. Explain
how mutations in gametes may result in phenotypic changes in offspring.
         Define Mutation and explain how it is the driving force for evolution.
         Describe gene and chromosomal mutations in the DNA sequence
         Explain why some mutations cause a change in phenotypes while other mutations do not.
         Explain how a mutation in a gamete (sperm or egg) can affect the phenotypes of an offspring.
SC.912.L.16.5 Explain the basic processes of transcription and translation, and how they result in the expression
of genes.
         Explain the process for Transcription – DNA to RNA.
         Explain the process of Translation – RNA to proteins.
         How does Transcription and Translation result in gene expression
SC.912.L.16.8 Explain the relationship between mutation, cell cycle, and uncontrolled cell growth potentially
resulting in cancer.
         Define mutation and explain how it can lead to the unrestricted growth of cells.
         Explain how cancer (the uncontrolled growth of cells) may result from mutations that affect the proteins that
          regulate the cell cycle.
SC.912.L.16.9 Explain how and why the genetic code is universal and is common to almost all organisms.
         Explain how similarities in the genetic codes of organisms are due to common ancestry and the process of
          inheritance.
SC.912.L.16.14 Describe the cell cycle, including the process of mitosis. Explain the role of mitosis in the
formation of new cells and its importance in maintaining chromosome number during asexual reproduction.
         Describe the steps of the cell cycle and what major events happen during each stage.
         Describe the steps during mitosis and what occurs at each stage. (PMAT)
         Explain what might happen to the cell if the chromosome numbers were incorrect.
         Explain how mitosis forms new cells and its role in maintaining chromosome number during asexual
          reproduction.
         Explain how cancer (uncontrolled cell growth) may result from mutations that affect the proteins that regulate
          the cell cycle.
SC.912.L.16.16 Describe the process of meiosis, including independent assortment and crossing over. Explain
how reduction division results
in the formation of haploid gametes or spores.
         Describe the eight stages of meiosis.
         Define Independent Assortment and Crossing Over and explain the purpose for both and when they occur
          during meiosis.
         Define genetic variation, haploid, and diploid, and explain how meiosis results in the formation of haploid
          gametes or spores.
SC.912.L.16.17 Compare and contrast mitosis and meiosis and relate to the processes of sexual and asexual
reproduction and their consequences for genetic variation.
         Describe the role of mitosis in asexual reproduction, and/or the role of meiosis in sexual reproduction, including
          how these processes may contribute to or limit genetic variation.
SC.912.L.18.1 Describe the basic molecular structures and primary functions of the four major categories of
biological macromolecules.
         Identify that the four major biological macromolecules are proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids.
         Describe the functions, structure, and monomers of each of the 4 organic molecules.
SC.912.L.18.7 Identify the reactants, products, and basic functions of photosynthesis.
         Define the terms reactants and products and be able to identify them in a chemical reaction.
         Describe the basic processes and functions of photosynthesis
         Identify the products and reactants of photosynthesis and explain the following equation:
               o Sunlight + 6CO2 + 6H2O  C6H12O6 + 6O2
Ms. Roebuck 2011-2012


SC.912.L.18.8 Identify the reactants, products, and basic functions of aerobic and anaerobic cellular respiration.
         Describe the basic processes and functions of photosynthesis
         Identify the products and reactants of cellular respiration and explain the following equation:
              o C6H12O6 + 6O2  6CO2 + 6H2O + Energy
SC.912.L.18.9 Explain the interrelated nature of photosynthesis and cellular respiration.
         Explain how the products of photosynthesis are used as reactants for cellular respiration and vice versa.
         Explain how photosynthesis stores energy and cellular respiration releases the energy.
          And YES plants do cellular respiration!!!!!
SC.912.L.18.10 Connect the role of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to energy transfers within a cell.
         Identify an ATP molecule
         Explain how ATP stores, transfers, and releases energy in all cells
SC.912.L.18.11 Explain the role of enzymes as catalysts that lower the activation energy of biochemical reactions.
Identify factors, such as pH and temperature, and their effect on enzyme activity.
         Define the following terms – Enzyme, catalyst, and activation energy.
         Explain how pH, enzyme concentration, and temperature can effect the properties and functions of an enzyme.
         Analyze a graph demonstrating the activation energy and effects enzymes have on chemical reactions.
SC.912.L.18.12 Discuss the special properties of water that contribute to Earth’s suitability as an environment for
life: cohesive behavior, ability to moderate temperature, expansion upon freezing, and versatility as a solvent.
         Define the following terms – pH, hydrogen bonding, polarity, cohesion, and adhesion.
         Explain the following properties of water - hydrogen bonding, polarity, cohesion, ability to moderate
          temperature, expansion upon freezing, and versatility as a solvent.
         Explain how the properties of water are essential to life on earth.

                                                25% (15-17 Questions)

SC.912.L.15.1 Explain how the scientific theory of evolution is supported by the fossil record, comparative
anatomy, comparative embryology, biogeography, molecular biology, and observed evolutionary change.
        What is the theory of evolution? Why is it not a law?
        Understand that a theory is a scientific explanation of a natural phenomenon. A theory is well supported by
         various types of evidence, multiple tests from various hypotheses and is generally accepted as true. However,
         new evidence can falsify and change a theory.
        Recognize that theories do not become laws, nor do laws become theories; theories are well-supported
         explanations and laws are well-supported descriptions.
        Explain the types of evidence that supports evolution and how the evidence supports the theory of evolution.
         Evidence includes (fossil record, comparative anatomy, comparative embryology, biogeography, molecular
         biology, and observed evolutionary change)
SC.912.L.15.4 Describe how and why organisms are hierarchically classified and based on evolutionary
relationships.
        Describe how and why scientists classify organisms based on evolutionary relationships.
        Accurately explain phylogeny and evolutionary relationships and be able to use a cladogram.
SC.912.L.15.5 Explain the reasons for changes in how organisms are classified.
        New evidence being discovered and the development of new technology gives scientists more accurate means
         for classifying organisms
SC.912.L.15.6 Discuss distinguishing characteristics of the domains and kingdoms of living organisms.
        Know the major characteristics of the Domains Eukarya, Archaea, and Bacteria
        Know the major defining characteristics of the 4 kingdoms - Protista, Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia
SC.912.L.15.8 Describe the scientific explanations of the origin of life on Earth.
        Explain the theories on how scientists believe life began on earth.
        Identify the situations and conditions contributing to the origin of life on earth.
SC.912.L.15.10 Identify basic trends in hominid evolution from early ancestors six million years ago to modern
humans, including brain size, jaw size, language, and manufacture of tools.
        Identify examples of and basic trends in hominid evolution from early ancestors to modern humans.
SC.912.L.15.13 Describe the conditions required for natural selection, including: overproduction of offspring,
inherited variation, and the struggle to survive, which result in differential reproductive success.
        Describe how overproduction of offspring is a condition for natural selection.
        Describe how genetic variation is a condition for natural selection.
        Describe how the struggle to survive is a condition for natural selection.
        Describe how these conditions can result in increased reproductive success or the lack of reproductive success.
        Describe Darwin’s theory of natural selection. Gives examples that support the theory.
Ms. Roebuck 2011-2012


SC.912.L.15.14 Discuss mechanisms of evolutionary change other than natural selection such as genetic drift and
gene flow.
        Describe genetic drift and explain how it can cause a substantial change in allele frequencies in a small
         population.
        Describe gene flow and explain how it changes the number of alleles in a population due to migration.
        Describe the relationship between nonrandom mating and evolutionary change.
SC.912.L.15.15 Describe how mutation and genetic recombination
increase genetic variation.
        In the context of evolution, explain how mutation can increase genetic variation.
        In the context of evolution, explain how genetic recombination increases genetic variation.
        Describe how meiosis contributes to genetic variation.
SC.912.L.16.1 Use Mendel’s laws of segregation and independent assortment to analyze patterns of inheritance.
        Define and use Mendel’s Laws of Segregation and Independent Assortment to analyze patterns of inheritance.
        Items referring to general dominant and recessive traits may address but will not assess the P and F1
         generations.
SC.912.L.16.2 Discuss observed inheritance patterns caused by various modes of inheritance, including
dominant, recessive, codominant, sex-linked, polygenic, and multiple alleles.
        Define the following terms - dominant, recessive, codominant, sex-linked, polygenic, and multiple alleles.
        Use a pedigree and a Punnett Square to identify patterns of inheritance.

				
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