APAORIGINAL by KyJg7XE

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									                  APA
            American Psychological
                 Association

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            Why use APA?




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            The Purpose of APA.
 Consistent    format for the social sciences.
 Prevents plagiarism.
 Includes summations and direct quotation.
 Allows the inclusion of dates as part of the
  in-text citation for cross-referencing.




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  Dates are imperative in the social
    sciences since contemporary
   research is desired in building
       foundations for theory.



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        Finding Good Sources for
            Research Papers




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            Internet Sources




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       Why should you evaluate internet
                 sources?
 ANYONE      can put ANYTHING on the
  internet
 No Quality Control
 Not kept up-to-date
 Search engines only give recommended
  sites in order of the prominence of
  placement or the frequency of your search
  criteria- NOT order of most reputable or
  useful

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            Sources to be wary of:
 Google
 Wikipedia
 Anything       .org or .com.
        Are they trying to serve a specific
         agenda?
        Are they trying to sell me something?
 Online      encyclopedias (too broad)
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            GALILEO

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            How to get to GALILEO
 Library   Home Page
  http://library.colstate.edu/
 GALILEO or www.galileo.usg.edu
 “Science and Technology” tab
 In dropdown menu:
        Science and Technology, A to Z




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         Once you are in the
  “Science and Technology” section
   #57: Health Source: Nursing / Academic Edition
   #74: MEDLINE (at EBSCOhost)
   See #73 for full index (not just full-text) You will
    have to use the library to find hard copy
    documents
   #5 CINAHL: similar interface to #57, but different
    results
   #19 OVID: good sources, a little more
    cumbersome

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                                Sources
   Peer-Reviewed Journal
     Scholarly in nature

     a journal in which articles have been

      evaluated by an independent expert or
      experts in the field of research before
      acceptance for publication

   Examples
        New England Journal of Medicine
        American Journal of Nursing
        International Nursing Review




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            More Sources
 Books
 Newspaper  articles
 Websites (remember– watch out for
  undocumented, biased information!!)
 Government Documents
 Brochures




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            Contact Information
 Linda Schotz
 Science Librarian
  schotz_linda@colstate.edu
 706.565.3683




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                 APA
            Manuscript Format


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                        APA
 Always    requires a thesis.

 Encourages     headings.

 Requires   that all references be cited both
   in-text and included in a list of references
   page.


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According to Concise Rules of APA
     Style, “where departmental
 requirements differ from APA style,
the departmental requirements take
             precedence.”


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               Citing Correctly
   Find a good resource for citing mechanics.

   The Writing Center or the library has books for
    correct citation.

   http://langlit.colstate.edu/writingcenter/resources
    .htm

   http://www.dianahacker.com/resdoc/

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               Citation Machine
 New       resource for the CSU Writing Center.

 Allows   automatic citation formatting in a
   variety of different styles – including APA.

 Access  will be opened to all CSU
   students, and the rest of the web
   community, during Fall Semester 2006.
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            Avoiding Plagiarism
 You can be charged with plagiarism even if you
  don’t know the rules of APA.
 It is ANY unacknowledged (not cited) use of
  another person’s words or IDEAS.
 Plagiarism can result in a failing grade on an
  assignment or in a class, academic sanctions, or
  expulsion from the University.
 Quotation marks do not make you safe, you
  HAVE to provide source information.

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            Plagiarism, contd.
     No need to document when:
1.    It is your own idea, experience, insight,
      observation, thoughts, conclusions.
2.    You are compiling generally accepted
      facts.
3.    When writing up your own experimental
      results.
4.    You are using “common knowledge.”
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            Common Knowledge
 If the information is undocumented in five
  or more other published sources.
 It is information that the reader of your
  paper already knows.
 The information could be found in general
  reference materials.
 Just because your Professor mandates
  that information be included does NOT
  mean it does not have to be cited.

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                 Typeface
 Always  follow guidelines provided by the
   Professor or Instructor.

 Generally  a 12 point font in a standard
   typeface (Times New Roman or Arial).




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            The Cover Page
 APA    does not provide guidelines for a
   cover page, although many Instructors will
   require that one be included. Always follow
   their guidelines for your cover page.

 Example     of a Cover Page:
   http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource
   /560/01/

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            Page Numbers and Running
                    Headers
 In   the upper right-hand corner of each
   page should be a short version of your
   title, five spaces and the page number.

 ALL    pages should be numbered, even the
   title page if present.



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        Margins and Line Spacing
 Allsides should have a one (1) inch
   margin.

 Align,      not justify, the right margin.

 All       pages should be double-spaced.



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            Long Quotations
A  long quotation is any directly quoted text
  forty (40) words or more.
 “Set off” these quotations by indenting ½
  inch (five spaces) from the left margin.
 This quotation IS double spaced.
 Quotation marks are NOT necessary.




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                  Abstract
 Included  in the paper after the title page IF
   your professor requests this be included.

 It is a quick, succinct overview of your
   essay in 75 to 100 words.

 It should discuss main ideas, key points,
   and possible applications or implications of
   your research.
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                  Headings
 Encouraged,    but not always necessary.

 One   level of headings is typically sufficient
   for undergraduate papers.

 Major  headings are centered; the first
   word, and all other words in the heading
   except articles, short prepositions, and
   coordinating conjunctions, are capitalized.
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                     Visuals
 Charts,     drawings, photographs, tables,
   figures.

 Should    be as simple as possible, labeled
   (e.g. Table 1, Table 2, etc.), and have a
   title on a separate line, flush left.

A    note under the visual with the source
   information is also required.
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             Visuals, contd.
 For   figures included in the paper, include a
  label and a caption below the figure, flush
  left. These do not have to be on separate
  lines.
 Always be sure to discuss the most
  significant features of each visual in the
  text of your paper, placing the visuals as
  close to the applicable sentences as
  possible.

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            APA List of
            References

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     Organization and Formatting
 Often  helpful to complete the List of
  References first.
 “List of References” should be centered,
  not underlined, at the top of the page.
 The list of references should include all
  works referenced, not just the ones cited
  in-text.
 Organize the list of works alphabetically by
  the author’s last name.

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        Organization and Formatting,
                   contd.
 Use  the title of the work if there is no
  author.
 Always indent the second and subsequent
  lines for each individual reference using
  the toolbar at the top of your document.
 List of references is doubled spaced and
  should be in the same size and type font
  as the paper.

9/17/2012        Columbus State University
 Refer to the Sample
     APA List of
    References.

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            APA In-Text
              Citation

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                 Signal Phrases
 Used  in APA format to introduce borrowed
   material.

 Can       include the author’s last name.

 If the author’s last name is not in the signal
   phrase, it comes at the end of the
   sentence within the parenthesis.
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            Borrowed Language

 Directly borrowed words must be in
   quotation marks.

 Paraphrased  material must be restated in
   your own words.



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     The Author, (date) is always
 included in the in-text citation, and
followed by the (page number). The
  date and the page number are in
 parenthesis and the page number
 comes at the end of the sentence.


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  Alternatively, the author can also
 be included in the parenthetical at
the end of the sentence if not in the
   signal phrase. But never both.



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            In-Text Citation Example
 Rumbaugh (1995) reported that “Kanzi’s
  comprehension of over 600 novel sentences of
  request was very comparable to Alia’s; both
  complied with requests without assistance on
  approximately 70% of the sentences” (p. 722).
 Or It is reported that “Kanzi’s […] (Rumbaugh,
  1995, p. 722).

- dianahacker.com


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 The  date is included in APA in-text citation
   because the social sciences operate on a
   chronological basis of development.

 The       designation for page is “p.”.

 Putting    the author and date in the signal
   phrase or at the end of the sentence is a
   stylistic preference.

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             Multiple Authors
 For   two authors, both last names are
   listed, joined by “and,” if included in the
   signal phrase.

 Ifincluded in the end of sentence citation,
   both last names are included, joined by an
   ampersand (the & symbol).


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            Multiple Authors, contd.
 For  a work with three to five authors, use
  all authors last name’s.
 Separate the names with commas, joining
  the last name with “and” in text, and the
  “&” symbol if in parenthetical.
 In any further citations, use the first last
  name, referring to the rest as “et al.”


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            Multiple Authors, contd.
 Example:
The chimpanzee Nim was raised by
  researchers who trained him in American
  Sign Language by molding and guiding his
  hands (Terrace, Petitto, Sanders, &
  Beaver, 1979, p. 234).
(Terrace et al., 1979, p. 245).


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            Multiple Authors, contd.
 For  a work with six or more authors, use
   only the last name of the first author listed,
   referring to the other authors as “et al.”

 Use   this format in the signal phrase or if
   included in the parenthetical.



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             Unknown Author
 For    works where the author is unknown,
   include the entire title, if it is short, or the
   first two words, if the title is long, in either
   the signal phrase or the parenthetical.




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            Other Common Citations
 Organization as an author: use the full name of
  the organization, the first time and the
  abbreviation in subsequent citations.
 For authors with the same last name, use the
  first initial and the last name, e.g. J. Smith
  (2001).
 For personal communication include (Name,
  personal communication, September 27, 2006).



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Other Common Citations, contd.
 In an indirect citation, include the original
  author’s name in the signal phrase, and in the
  parenthetical and list of references, the format
  should include the indirect source’s author.
 Example: Linguist Noam Chomsky has
  dismissed studies on Kanzi with a flippant
  analogy: “To maintain that Kanzi has language
  ability is like saying that man can fly because he
  can jump in the air” (as cited in Booth, 1990, p.
  A3).
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   Electronic citations often can be
 complicated since frequently there
    is missing information. Always
  consult an APA handbook for the
   citation of electronic resources.
  Again, make sure that electronic
     sources are “good” sources.

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            Questions

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