"Intercollegiate Athletics: Winning Combination or Losing Effort?"
QNT 561 2009 Policies Laptops Breaks? Food Contacting Me Etiquette Individual/group assignment ROE End of class cleanup Introductions Where do you work? Your degree? Reason for an Masters? Anything else interesting….. Overview Introductions Admin Syllabus Review material Learning teams Next assignment Why managers should know about research? Why managers should know about research? 1.Managers have to understand, describe, analyse, and predict situational factors. 2.They should develop sensitivity to subtle nuances in the situation. 3.They should be able to process information contained in published Journal articles and business periodicals. 4.They should be able to interact effectively with consultants engaged in problem solving endeavours. 5.Since all activities are governed by certain values held by individuals and the organisation, it is important to identify and articulate such values in research. What is Business Research? Business Research Business Research is a management tool that companies use to reduce uncertainty. Managers can use business research in all stages of the decision-making process: to define problems, identify opportunities, and to clarify alternatives. Business Research Business research is an organised, systematic, data-based, critical, objective, scientific inquiry or investigation into a specific problem or issue with the purpose of finding solutions to it or clarifying it. When is Business Research Needed? A manager determines whether business research should be conducted based on (1) time constraints (2) the availability of data (3) the nature of the decision to be made, and (4) the benefits of the research information in relation to its costs. The difference between Good and Bad decisions lies in how mangers go about the decision-making process (or the research process). Research and The manager Managers encounter problems big and small every day, which they have to solve by making the right decisions. In business, research is usually primarily conducted to resolve problematic issue in, or interrelated among, the areas of Accounting, Finance, Management and Marketing. What is Paradigm? A paradigm reflects a basic set of philosophical beliefs about the nature of the world. It provides guidelines and principles concerning the way research is conducted within the paradigm. Philosophical Bases of Business Research There are three schools of thoughts (or Paradigms) • Positivist Research • Interpretivist Research • Critical Research Positivist Research Uses precise, objective measures and is usually associated with quantitative data Researcher remains separate from the subjects and uses deductive reasoning See the example 1.1 in page 9 Interpretivist Research Believes that people experience physical and social reality in different ways Reality is socially constructed Researcher becomes fully involved with individual subjects See the example 1.2 in page 9 Critical Research Empower people to create a better world Uncovering and going beyond surface illusions Uncover myths and hidden meanings See the example 1.3 in page 10 Types of Business Research Applied – done with the intention of applying results to specific problems in the business Basic – to enhance the understanding of problems that commonly occur across a range of organisations What is Applied research? Applied research is designed to solve practical problems of the modern world, rather than to acquire knowledge for knowledge's sake. One might say that the goal of the applied scientist is to improve the human condition . What is Basic Research? Basic ( fundamental or pure ) research is driven by a scientist's curiosity or interest in a scientific question. The main motivation is to expand man's knowledge , not to create or invent something. There is no obvious commercial value to the discoveries that result from basic research. The Manager and the Researcher • How to locate and select a researcher • The manager-researcher relationship • Values INTERNAL RESEARCHERS Advantages Better acceptance from staff Knowledge about organization Would be an integral part of implementation and evolution of the research recommendations. Disadvantages Less fresh ideas Power politics could prevail Possibility not valued as “experts” by staff. 22 EXTERNAL RESEARCHERS Advantages Divergent and convergent thinking Experience from several situations in different type of organizations. Better technical training, usually. Disadvantages Take time to know and understand the organizational system. Rapport and corporation from staff not only easy. Not available for evaluation after implementation cost. 23 Ethics and Business Research Consequentialist vs Deontological view The Consequentialist view focuses on what is good or bad by concentrating on the consequences of the actions. The Deontological view asserts that the end cannot justify the means. This view proposes absolute moral strictures which can never be violated. Ethics and Business Research Professional Accountability: is concerned with upholding the standards of one’s profession. Corporate Accountability: means being accountable to the sponsor or client of the research project. Moral Accountability: focuses on the relationship between the researcher and the subject. Ethical issues Subjects’ cultural, age and other sensitivities eg. Aboriginals, children Participation is voluntary and not induced or coerced Subjects’ identity is protected, or else revealed with written consent Research will not endanger researcher, subjects, or their organizations Methodology used is recognized and acceptable academically Raw data are kept secure Findings are reported in academically acceptable channels Insert fig. 1.1 Ethical Pressures the business researcher face The hallmarks of Good Research 1. Objective observation 2. Precise measurements 3. Statistical analysis 4. Verifiable truths Conclusions It is clear that methodological choices are determined not only by the nature of the topic being investigated and the resources available but also by the particular training and socialization process to which the researcher has been exposed. Begin text material Research Process and Design (Umbach) 30 Research Disciplines Education Sociology Psychology Policy History Biography Management Practice based Pedagogy Linguistics etc Classifying research Types exploratory, descriptive, explanatory, predictive Use pure, applied, evaluative, action/practitioner Classifying primary vs. secondary theoretical vs. empirical quantitative vs. qualitative (vs. mixed methods) inductive vs. deduction Types of research exploratory generate new ideas, concepts, or hypotheses little or no prior knowledge looks for clues or basic facts, settings, and concerns creates a general picture of conditions formulate and focus questions for future research Types of research descriptive provides a detailed, highly accurate picture create a set of categories or classify types report on the background or context of a situation little attempt to explain the results Types of research explanatory explains why something happens look for casual relationships between concepts elaborate and enrich a theory’s explanation or extend a theory to new issues or topics support or refute an explanation or prediction determine which of several explanations is best predictive forecasts future phenomena, based on findings suggested by explanatory research Use of research pure, basic, or academic research adds to the body of knowledge contributes to theory focus on issues of importance to researchers applied research focus on issues of importance to society helps to understand the nature and sources of human problems used to make practical decisions Classifying research theoretical generation of new ideas through analysing existing theory and explanations. empirical generation of new ideas through the collection and analysis of data Deductive theory hypothesis test hypothesis accept/reject theory Inductive theory generalisations identify patterns observations The Research Process Review Identify Identify the concepts topic literature & theory Draw Clarify conclusion research problem Analyse Collection Research data of design data Research Process Select a Conduct general literature problem review State conclusion/ generalization Exhaustive Preliminary about problem review search, later expanded Select specific problem, Collect Analyze and Interpret research question, or data present data findings hypothesis Statistical Integrative Decide design and tables diagrams methodology 41 The Research Process Identify topic background to the problem’s context why is your problem important who will benefit? who will use your conclusions policy/ practice/ research (also why they will use it) The Research Process Identify topic dyslexia and memory Eleni Sakellariou (PhD Candidate) background dyslexia appears to be linked to various aspects of memory importance understanding how memory interacts with dyslexia will assist teachers in helping students The Research Process Review the literature general definitions general discussion of your issue and related topics specific research that is related to your topic existing work on your topic who, why, where, when, findings, shortcomings general conclusions about work done to date The Research Process Review the literature for each article/study examine: the central purpose of their study state information about the sample and subjects review key results that relate to your study how is this article of relevance to your study how does this study inform your methods The Research Process Identify concepts & theory identify the concepts you are actually studying what theoretical background do they come from? methods of data collection validity of research instruments sampling issues The Research Process Research Question or Research Problem or (null) Hypothesis Clarify research dyslexia and memory problem Is there a pattern in cognitive profile which influences the writing performance of the dyslexic children? The Research Process Review Identify Identify the concepts topic literature & theory Draw Clarify conclusion research problem Analyse Collection Research data of design data The Research Process research philosophy / approach inductive/deductive/positivism/interpretism? research purpose exploratory/descriptive/explanatory/predictive research strategy experiment/survey/case study/grounded theory/ ethnography dictates: why you do things how you do things Research design The Research Process data collection what is your data what is your sample what is your sampling method what is your collection method what is your collection instrument timeline? Collection of data do they need to be The Research Process representative surveys, interviews, observation data collection what is your data self, questionnaire what is your sample interview what is your sampling method schedule/guide, what is your collection method checklist what is your collection instrument timeline? pilot ethics? test privacy? Collection is it of is it valid data reliable The Research Process two stages preparing the data transcribing interviews entering surveys into computer programs analysis summary of responses similarities differences Analyse relationships data what do The Research Process record interview you do with then transcribe missing two stages data preparing the data transcribing collected information entering surveys into tables content analysis analysis open/axial coding summary of responses pattern coding thematic coding means/s.d. similarities differences chi2, t-tests Analyse relationships ANOVA, correlation data The Research Process Conclusions must stem from your data Draw conclusion Links to other peoples research Limitations with findings Applications of findings The Research Process—Seven Phases (hypothetico-deductive method) 1. Select a general problem 2. Review the literature on the problem 3. Decide the specific research problem, question, or hypothesis 4. Determine the design and methodology 5. Collect data 6. Analyze data and present the results 7. Interpret the findings and state conclusions or summary regarding the problem 55 The Research Process—Seven Phases 1. Select a general problem 2. Review the literature on the problem 3. Decide the specific research problem, question, or hypothesis 4. Determine the design and methodology 5. Collect data 6. Analyze data and present the results 7. Interpret the findings and state conclusions or summary regarding the problem 56 How to Write a Literature Review Research Process and Design (Umbach) 57 How To Write A Literature Review • Definition of a Literature Review • A literature review surveys scholarly articles, books and other sources (e.g. dissertations, conference proceedings) relevant to a particular issue, area of research, or theory. provides a short description and critical evaluation of work critical to the topic. offers an overview of significant literature published on a topic. (Lyons, 2005) Literature Reviews are Conducted For Various Reasons: 1. For a review paper 2. For the introduction (and discussion) of a research paper, masters thesis or dissertation 3. To embark on a new area of research 4. For a research proposal (Burge, 2005) Conducting a literature review will help you: • Determine if proposed research is actually needed. Even if similar research published, researchers might suggest a need for similar studies or replication. • Narrow down a problem. It can be overwhelming getting into the literature of a field of study. A literature review can help you understand where you need to focus your efforts. • Generate hypotheses or questions for further studies. (Mauch & Birch, 2003) Conducting a literature review will give you: • Background knowledge of the field of inquiry Facts Eminent scholars Parameters of the field The most important ideas, theories, questions and hypotheses. • Knowledge of the methodologies common to the field and a feeling for their usefulness and appropriateness in various settings. (Mauch & Birch, 2003) Outline of Review Process • Formulate a problem - which topic or field is being examined and what are its component issues? • Search the literature for materials relevant to the subject being explored. searching the literature involves reading and refining your problem • Evaluate the data - determine which literature makes a significant contribution to the understanding of the topic • Analyze and interpret - discuss the findings and conclusions of pertinent literature • Format and create bibliography (Lyons, 2005) Tips on Formulating a Problem Select a topic you are interested in You want to be fascinated throughout the process and less likely to lose motivation. Choose a topic with a feasible focus. Keep the focus clear and defined and it will be easier to complete than something huge Get Help - get it early and often. Solicit opinions before you begin, review drafts once start them You may want to start out with a general idea, review the literature of that area, and then refine your problem based on what you have found. (Green, Johnson, & Adams, 2006) The “Literature” in the Review • The literature included can be any format appropriate to your topic. • Don’t restrict yourself to journal articles. Look in books – you’ll need to know and cite the work of major contributors to the field. A lot of this in books, especially annual reviews Important Information can be found in reports, conference proceedings, and other non-journal sources. Search government websites and associations related to your topic. • Look at library subject guides in your area to find the key databases additional resources Literature Search Perform a preliminary search of the literature. Search lit to see what other work in the area of interest has already been published. − Gives a preview of the number of articles available on the topic. − If your topic is already written about, select a slightly different topic or modify the focus of the objective. Recent journal issues in areas central to the topic may provide leads to content that should be in the review. − Consult Web of Science’s Journal Citation Index for an idea of the most important journals in the field Develop a list of subject headings that relate to themes of interest Literature Search Search across multiple databases and information resources. − It’s not adequate to use only one search engine as your one and only resource Read the literature throughout the search process. − What you read will guide your subsequent searches and refine your topic. Your search should help refine the topic and objective of the overview being written. Think ahead The more one learns about a subject, the more questions come to mind. Keep a list of questions and hypotheses that come to your mind or that are mentioned in what you read. These questions will help guide you when you are constructing your review The questions will also guide you in discussing the implications of your own findings and the additional research directions your work supports or suggests. (Mauch & Birch, 2003) Save your references • Keep a record of the literature you collect • Record where and when you retrieved the information • Use a citation manager program like RefWorks or EndNote • Better to record too many references than have to return a few weeks or months hence and spend hours trying to relocate documents Data Evaluation: Selecting literature Read widely When you read for your literature review, you are actually doing two things at the same time: 1. Trying to define your research problem: finding a gap, asking a question, continuing previous research, counter-claiming 2. Trying to read every source relevant to your research problem • It is usually impossible to do the latter − you will need to identify the most relevant and significant works and focus on them. (Asian Institute of Technology) Data Evaluation: Selecting Literature As you define your problem you will more easily be able to decide what to read and what to ignore. Before you define your problem, hundreds of sources will seem relevant. However, you cannot define your problem until you read around your research area. This seems a vicious circle, but what should happen is that as you read you define your problem, and as you define your problem you will more easily be able to decide what to read and what to ignore. (Asian Institute of Technology) How To Read the Material • Reading for the big picture Read the easier works first Skim the document and identify major concepts After you have a broad understanding of the 10 to 15 papers, you can start to see patterns: − Groups of scientists argue or disagree with other groups. For example, Some researchers think x causes y, others that x is only a moderating variable (Carroll, 2006) Narrow your focus Start from new material to old, general to specific starting with general topic will provide leads to specific areas of interest and help develop understanding for the interrelationships of research Note quality of journal, output of author As you read and become more informed on the topic, you will probably need to go back and do more focused searches Think, analyze, and weed out Arrange to spend some review time with an experienced researcher in the field of study to get feedback and to talk through any problems encountered (Mauch & Birch, 1993) Read the Material Closer Step 1: read the abstract Decide whether to read the article in detail Step 2: read introduction It explains why the study is important It provides review and evaluation of relevant literature Step 3: read Method with a close, critical eye Focus on participants, measures, procedures Step 4: Evaluate results Do the conclusions seem logical Can you detect any bias on the part of the researcher? Step 5: Take discussion with a grain of salt Edges are smoothed out Pay attention to limitations (Carroll, 2006) Analyze the Literature Take notes as you read through each paper that will be included in the review In the notes include: purpose of study reviewed synopsis of content research design or methods used in study brief review of findings Once notes complete organize common themes together. Some people do this in a word document, others use index cards so they can shuffle them. Some people construct a table of info to make it easier to organize their thoughts. As you organize your review, integrate findings elicited from note taking or table making process. (Green, Johnson, & Adams, 2006) Questions To Consider In Your Review •What do we already know in the immediate area concerned? •What are the characteristics of the key concepts or the main factors or variables? •What are the relationships between these key concepts, factors or variables? •What are the existing theories? •Where are the inconsistencies or other shortcomings in our knowledge and understanding? •What views need to be (further) tested? •What evidence is lacking, inconclusive, contradictory or too limited? •Why study (further) the research problem? •What contribution can the present study be expected to make? •What research designs or methods seem unsatisfactory? (Asian Institute of Technology) Construct the Literature Review • In the introduction, explain why the topic is important and give the reader an idea of where you are going in your paper. • Group research studies and other types of literature according to common denominators. If you’ve taken notes before, the common themes are more easily identifiable. Some factors used to organize reviews are: − Conclusions of authors − Specific purpose − Objective − Chronology (this method will give the worst impression, use only if it really makes sense to your topic!) (University of Wisconsin, 2006) Construct The Literature Review •Summarize individual studies or articles Use as much or as little detail as each merits according to its comparative importance in the literature Space (length) denotes significance. Don’t need to provide a lot of detail about the procedures used in other studies. Most literature reviews only describe the main findings, relevant methodological issues, and/or major conclusions of other research. • Discuss major areas of agreement or disagreement • Tie the study into the current body of lit, make logical interpretations from the lit reviewed. If there is no discussion of the relevance of the overview to other work in the field, or if there is no interpretation of the literature, it may signal the author has not thoroughly investigated the topic. (University of Wisconsin, 2006) Organization of the Review Introduction to the lit review Content - what is covered Structure - how it is organized Boundaries - what is outside of its scope Body of the Lit Review SECTION 1 SECTION 2 ADDITIONAL SECTIONS The most important topic or a key concept The next most important Follow the same pattern discussed and evaluated topic or a key concept summarized and related to your research discussed and evaluated project summarized and related to your research project Conclusion From each of the section summaries, highlight the most relevant points relate these back to the need for research reiterate what these mean for the research design (Golden-Biddle & Locke, 1997) An Effective Literature Review • Places each work in the context of its contribution to the understanding of the subject under review • Describes the relationship of each work to the others under consideration • Identifies new ways to interpret, and shed light on any gaps in, previous research • Resolves conflicts amongst seemingly contradictory previous studies • Identifies areas of prior scholarship to prevent duplication of effort • Points the way forward for further research • Places one's original work (in the case of theses or dissertations) in the context of existing literature (Lyons, 2005) Be accurate and thorough • Your review acts as a guide of your topic for others. • Take care to make your review: Accurate: e.g., Citations correct, findings attributed to authors correct. − Make sure someone can track down the article and that you have provided a reliable representation Complete: i.e., include all important papers (not every paper written on the topic). Research Tips Use the A-Z guide to find key databases and other resources related to your topic Consult with a librarian for resource recommendations and how to use them. Talk to experienced researchers in the field, they can recommend resources and identify key works and authors Look at reviews in completed dissertations and reports from your program to get an idea of the format and requirements When collecting references, use a citation management tool like RefWorks or EndNote Citation Management Tools Managing the references you find and use in your review will take a significant amount of work Using a citation management tool like RefWorks or EndNote will save you much time and effort Organize and store references Make in-text citations based on required style (ex. APA) Create a list of references based on required style