Lemuel Boulware is named VP for Public and Community Relations at General Electric by 4dpmLz

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									                            CCBC Labor Studies Program
                            LBST 135—Labor History II
                               1947-1980 Timeline

1947—beginning of labor’s decline in the US?
    As % of working-class
    In real wages
    In benefits
    In political influence
         o S—seduction
         o D—dispersal
         o S--suppression.
    “middle-class” status
     Importance of
                      1) New technology
                                  a. containerization
                                  b. cold type
                                  c. diesel trains
                                  d. robotics
                                  e. computerization
                      2) Off shoring
                      3) Mergers
                      4) Shift to a service economy
                      5) The multiple-income family

January, 1947—a Republic majority of the US House and Senate take office, following the
upsets in the 1946 elections
March, 1947—Ronald Reagan nominated (by Gene Kelly) as president of the Screen Actors
Guild—Reagan would serve as President until 1952, and then return from 1959-1960
HUAC holds hearing in Hollywood on “Communist infiltration” of the movie industry
June 23, 1947—over the veto of President Harry Truman, the Taft-Hartley Act passes, to
drastically alter the National Labor Relations Act
November 24, 1947—ten Hollywood figures are cited for “contempt of Congress” for refusing to
answer questions at a HUAC hearing. They are later jailed and become known as “The
Hollywood Ten.”
November 25, 1947—movie producers issue “The Waldorf Statement,” (named for the hotel in
New York City where they met) refusing to employ any “hostile witness” at the HUAC hearings,
establishing the Hollywood blacklist
        The American Catholic Trade Union, founded in 1937, advocates “running the reds out”
of the union movement
        Lemuel Boulware is named VP for Public and Community Relations at General Electric,
and devises “Boulwarism” and also hires Ronald Reagan to read “inter-company news”
1948—Henry Wallace’s campaign for President splits the CIO

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        Eleven unions are subsequently expelled (or resign) from the CIO for “communist
domination”
        Operation Dixie is established to organize southern workers
1949—Treaty of Detroit
        First HUAC hearings into “communism in the labor movement”
1950-1953---Korean “police action”
1950—UMW strike
        Eiji Toyoda visits Ford’s River Rouge plant and creates “lean manufacturing”
1952—George Meany becomes president of AFL (succeeding William Green) after serving as
Secretary-Treasurer since 1939
         Walter Reuther becomes president of CIO (succeeding Philip Murray)
        “Nine millionaires and one plumber” –Martin Durkin—are the Eisenhower cabinet
        Big steel strike
1953—ILA suspended from AFL, which creates a rival union, the International Brotherhood of
Longshoremen-AFL
1954—Salt of the Earth, a movie about striking miners, with the miners as stars, is released
       On The Waterfront, a movie about corrupt longshorman union local, is released
1955—AFL absorbs CIO, with Meany as president and Reuther as VP
       17 states have passed open shop, or “right-to-work” laws using 14(b)
1956—Ethical Practices Committee established by AFL Executive Board in January
1957--Select Committee on Labor and Management Practices was established by the U.S. Senate
to conduct investigations of labor racketeering
        HUAC hearings in Baltimore about “Communist infiltration” at Bethlehem Steel’s
Sparrows Point plant
       First VW “Bug” imported into the US
       Toyota Motor Sales, USA, established
1958---Jimmy Hoffa (1913-1975?) elected International Presidents of the Teamsters Union—
Hoffa started a steward at Krogers warehouse in Detroit in 1932, and became International
President from Teamsters before starting his federal prison term in 1964-1971,
        Sen. Barry Goldwater declares at a Republican Party fundraiser that "Walter Reuther and
the UAW-CIO are a more dangerous menace than . . . anything Soviet Russia might do to
America."
        Open shop defeated in Ohio and John Bricker defeated
1959—Landrum-Griffin Act
        National strike of 116 days in steel ended when President Eisenhower orders workers
back
        120,499 Volkswagen “beetles” sold in the US, the first significant sign of imports
1960—JFK elected
        Invasion of Viet Nam
1961—Ray Kroc buys a chain of drive-ins from the McDonald Brothers, implementing
“Fordism” into the restaurant industry
1962-- Passage of Executive Order 10988, providing limited collective bargaining for federal
workers
        July 2, 1962—Sam Walton opens the first Wal-Mart store in Rogers, AR


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1963—Textile Workers begin an organizing campaign at J.P. Stevens, which ends in 1980 with a
contract after an extensive “corporate campaign.” Campaign involved Crystal Lee Sutton, later
moviefied as Norma Rae
1964—Civil Rights Act, including Title VII passed by US Congress
        Teamsters bring almost all over-the-road drivers into a Master Freight Agreement
1966—United Farm Workers Organizing Committee founded in Delano, CA
1967—The Philadelphia Plan to integrate buildings trades unions implemented
1968—UAW, Teamsters create Alliance for Labor Action (ALA)
        DRUM/ELRUM organizations in Detroit
        Memphis sanitation workers strike
        The first Nucor steel plant opens in Darlington, SC with new technology and a non-union
work force
March, 1970—nationwide “illegal” strike by Postal Workers
1971—OSHA law passed
1972—4,000 workers strike Farah Manufacturing in El Paso, TX
1973—Brookside Mine strike, featured in Harlan County, USA
1973—USWA Experimental Negotiating Agreement (ENA) signed
1974—USWA Consent decree to resolves complaints of race discrimination in steel mills
1976—Textile Workers start “corporate campaign” against J.P. Stevens to support the campaign
that began in 1963
1980—Ronald Reagan elected—first, and only, former international union president elected
President of US
        ACTWU signs national agreement with J.P. Stevens, after 17 year campaign

Revised 5/09




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