Transformation is defined as the transfer of genetic information

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Las ciencias y su Enseñanza en el
        Nivel Elemental
           EDUC. 5115

        Juan A. Negrón Berríos, Ph.D.
   Inter American University of Puerto Rico
            Barranquitas Campus
              JA Negrón, Ph.D.
   Unidad IV Componentes de los
    Organismos Vivos
       Introducción a bio-moléculas
       La célula
            Estructura y función
            Tipos de células
       Órganos y sistemas de órganos en los
            Tejidos
            Organos
            Sistemas
            Integración

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   Overview of Bio-molecules
Bio-molecule        Repeating Main Functions                               Examples
Carbohydrates       Mono-          Immediate source of energy                Glucose
(sugars)            sacharides     Structure and function in cell            Starch
                                  wall                                        Cellulose
                                   Cell recognition

Proteins            Amino            Biological catalysts                    Enzymes
                    Acids            Defense                                 Antibodies
                                     Transport                            
Nucleic             Nucleotides      Genetic material                        DNA
Acids                                                                         RNA

Lipids (oils        Glycerol,        Long term store of energy              Acyl-
and fats)           Fatty Acids                                            glycerides
                                                                            Phospho-
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    Main Carbohydrates
   Monosaccharides                       H
       Pentoses                               C O
            Ribose, deoxyribose         H C OH
       Hexoses
                                        HO C H
            Glucose, galactose,
             fructose                    H C OH
   Disaccharides                        H C OH
       Maltose
            Glu-Glu                           CH 2OH
       Lactose
            Glu-Gal                         D-Glucose
       Cellubiose
            Glu-Glu                    CH2OH                         CH2OH
   Polysaccharides                            o                           o    OH
       Starch                          OH                            OH
       Glycogen                   OH               OH        OH
       Cellulose                              OH                          OH

                                   -D-Glucose                 -D-Glucose
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    Starch and Glycogen
 Both are storage polysaccarides in animals
  and plants. Polymers of glucose. Reserve
 Starch (amylose) isomer of cellulose, -
  glycosidic bond. Plant cells.
 Glycogen (animal cells) similar structure,
  more branched. Degraded from ends -
  branches allow rapid degradation.

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   Cellulose -- plant cell walls, load
    bearing. 50% of carbon in biosphere
       Up to 15,000 glucose residues
       Abundant in cell wall
       Potential biofuel

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Primarily, their are three types of Proteins:
   Fibrous Proteins
       These fiber like proteins are used for structural purposes in
        organisms. Example collagen

   Globular Proteins - The polypeptide chains (protein chains)
    in globular proteins are folded together into a knot like
       Enzymes - Biological catalysts, enzymes are responsible
        speeding up reactions in an organism
       Hormones - Hormones are chemical messengers responsible for
        initializing a response in organisms. Some hormones have a
        regulatory effect, explained in later chapters in the tutorial
       Antibodies - Antibodies are used to defend the body against
        foreign agents e.g. bacteria, fungi and viruses. The next page
        investigates these.
       Structural Proteins - Globular proteins form part of the cell
        membrane, which has a structural role as well as a role in
        transporting ions in and out the cell.

   Conjugated Proteins - Conjugated proteins are essentially
    globular proteins that possess non-living substances, such as
    the haem found in haemoglobin, which possesses iron (a
    non-living substance)
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Amino Acids


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            Nucleic Acids

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     Flow of genetic information

DNA                    RNA   Proteins                    Phenotype

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Genetic material




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DNA is the genetic material


                         Cell nucleus

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                     Human Karyotype

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DNA Structure

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Genetic Code

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Life Begins With Cells

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Eukaryotes: Yeast

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                Animal Cell Model

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                     Plant Cell Model

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All cells include the following parts:
Cell (plasma) Membrane - forms the outer boundary of the cell and
allows only certain materials to move into or out of the cell
•Cytoplasm - a gel-like material inside the cell; it contains water and
nutrients for the cell
•Nucleus - directs the activity of a cell; it contains chromosomes with the
•Nuclear Membrane - separates the nucleus from the cytoplasm
•Endoplasmic Reticulum - moves materials around in the cell
•Ribosomes - make protein for the cell
•Golgi Bodies - are used for packaging and secreting of energy
•Mitochondria - break down food and release energy to the cell
•Lysosomes - are chemicals used to digest waste
•Vacuoles - are storage areas for the cell
Some organelles are found only in Plant cells. These organelles are:
•Cell Wall - provides structure to the plant cell
•Chloroplasts - contain chlorophyll that is make food for the plant cell

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Eukaryotic Cells vs. Prokaryotic Cells
   Eukaryotic cells have a true nucleus, bound by a double
   Eukaryotic DNA is linear; prokaryotic DNA is circular (it has
    no ends).
   Eukaryotic DNA is complexed with proteins called
    "histones," and is organized into chromosomes; prokaryotic
    DNA is "naked," meaning that it has no histones associated
    with it.
   Both cell types have many, many ribosomes, but the
    ribosomes of the eukaryotic cells are larger and more
    complex than those of the prokaryotic cell.
   The cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells is filled with a large,
    complex collection of organelles, many of them enclosed in
    their own membranes; the prokaryotic cell contains no
    membrane-bound organelles which are independent of the
    plasma membrane.
   Cell reproduction
       Binary fission-Prokaryotic cell
       Mitosis and meiosis-Eukaryotic cell
       Mitotic spindle
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Monera (includes Eubacteria and
   Individuals are single-celled, may or may not
    move, have a cell wall, have no chloroplasts or
    other organelles, and have no nucleus.
   Monera are usually very tiny, although one type,
    namely the blue-green bacteria, look like algae.
   They are filamentous and quite long, green, but
    have no visible structure inside the cells. No
    visible feeding mechanism.
   They absorb nutrients through the cell wall or
    produce their own by photosynthesis.

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   Protists are single-celled and usually move by cilia,
    flagella, or by amoeboid mechanisms.
   There is usually no cell wall, although some forms
    may have a cell wall.
   T hey have organelles including a nucleus and may
    have chloroplasts, so some will be green and others
    won't be.
   They are small, although many are big enough to be
    recognized in a dissecting microscope or even with a
    magnifying glass.
   Nutrients are acquired by photosynthesis, ingestion of
    other organisms, or both.

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 Fungi are multicellular,with a cell wall,
  organelles including a nucleus, but no
 They have no mechanisms for locomotion.
  Fungi range in size from microscopic to
  very large ( such as mushrooms).
 Nutrients are acquired by absorption. For
  the most part, fungi acquire nutrients
  from decaying material.

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 Plants are multicellular and most don't
  move, although gametes of some plants
  move using cilia or flagella.
 Organelles including nucleus, chloroplasts
  are present, and cell walls are present.
  Nutrients are acquired by photosynthesis
  (they all require sunlight).

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 Animals are multicellular, and move with
  the aid of cilia, flagella, or muscular
  organs based on contractile proteins.
 They have organelles including a nucleus,
  but no chloroplasts or cell walls. Animals
  acquire nutrients by ingestion.

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   Viruses depend on the host cells that they infect to
    reproduce. When found outside of host cells, viruses exist
    as a protein coat or capsid, sometimes enclosed within a
    membrane. The capsid encloses either DNA or RNA which
    codes for the virus elements. While in this form outside the
    cell, the virus is metabollically inert; examples of such
    forms are pictured below.

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Virus infecting a cell

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   For a virus (arrow) to spread, it must attach to a cell
   (arrowhead) and release its DNA or RNA, which is then
   manufactured inside the cell.

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Herpes Virus Infections

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  Cold sores, which are typical of oral herpes infection,
  are seen clustered on the rim of the lip.
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Match the following descriptions of cells (1-10) with:

        A. Eukaryotic cells only
        B. Prokaryotic cells only
        C. Both
1. Contain both RNA and DNA
2. Contain organelles
3. Are generally the smaller of the two categories of
4. Are highly regulated
5. Are considered "primitive" cells
6. Majority of DNA contained within a membrane
   within the cell
7. Contain mitochondria
8. Formed by the merging of other cells
9. Contain photosynthetic forms
10.Flagella composed of several filaments
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   Panno, Joseph. 2005. The Cell: Evolution of the First
    Organism. Netlibray UIPR Barranquitas.



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              Cells →Tissues

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Epithelial Tissue

 Epithelial tissues are widespread throughout the body. They form
 the covering of all body surfaces, line body cavities and hollow
 organs, and are the major tissue in glands. They perform a variety
 of functions that include protection, secretion, absorption,
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  Epithelial Tissue Cells

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Connective Tissue

   Connective tissues bind structures together, form a
   framework and support for organs and the body as a
   whole, store fat, transport substances, protect against
   disease, and help repair tissue damage.

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Muscle Tissue

Muscle tissue is composed of cells that have the special ability
to shorten or contract in order to produce movement of the body
parts. Muscle tissue can be categorized into skeletal muscle tissue,
smooth muscle tissue, and cardiac muscle tissue.

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  Nerve Tissue

Nervous tissue is found in the brain, spinal cord, and nerves. It is
responsible for coordinating and controlling many body activities. It
stimulates muscle contraction, creates an awareness of the
environment, and plays a major role in emotions, memory, and
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Organs are made of the four basic tissues

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The eleven main human ORGAN SYSTEMS
 Digestive
 Reproductive
 Respiratory
 Nervous
 Cardiovascular
 Muscular
 Lymphatic & immune
 Skeletal
 Excretory
 Integumentary
 Endocrine
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Digestive System

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Respiratory System

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   E-mail:

   Segundo Exam Parcial 27 de noviembre

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