Duke Kahanamoku Annotative Bibliography

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					Marcus Ornelles
US History period 2

"Duke Paoa Kahanamoku Olympic Gold Medal Winner." Surfboards: Kahanamoku
Sons Authentic Duke Kahanamoku Surfboards. Web. 19 Apr. 2012.

Born on August 24, 1890, "he was among the last of the old Hawaiians, raised next to
the ocean at Waikiki," wrote Timmons. As the eldest son, Duke was named after his
father. His father was named "Duke" in July 1869, following an official visit to the islands
from the Duke of Edinburgh, when some families named their sons after him. When
Duke gained worldwide recognition for his Olympic swimming gold medals, there were
attempts made to link him to royalty, because of his name. Duke would always humbly
reply, "My father is a policeman." Duke was baptized in the ocean according to ancient
custom. His father and uncle took him out in an outrigger canoe when he was a small
boy and threw him into the surf. "It was swim or else," Duke later recalled. "That's the
way the old Hawaiians did it." Duke and his brothers were encouraged by both parents
and, no doubt, other relatives as well. His brother Sargent remembered, "Mother used
to tell her children, 'Go out as far as you want. Never be afraid in the water.'" Waikiki
Grammar School was located directly across from the beach. After school, the only
logical thing for the kids to do was hit the water. Attending the school along with Duke
were his sister and five brothers; Sam, Dave, Billy, Louis and Sargent. "All we did was
water, water, water," Louis remembered. "My family believes we come from the ocean.
And that's where we're going back."

"Duke Kahanamoku Marker." The Historical Marker Database. Web. 19 Apr. 2012.

Duke Kahanamoku, three time Olympic gold medalist swimmer, public servant,
goodwill ambassador of the State of Hawaii, and considered by many to be the father of
modern surfing. In the early 1920's, the Duke surfed under Huntington's Pier. In his 70's,
he returned to Huntington Beach to help promote the U.S. Surfboard Championships.
For many years the championships were dedicated in honor of Duke's contributions to
the sport of surfing. He will long be remembered for his principles of fair play, good
sportsmanship and his gracious aloha spirit.

"Duke Paoa Kahanamoku (American Athlete)." Encyclopedia Britannica Online.
Encyclopedia Britannica. Web. 19 Apr. 2012.

Kahanamoku set three universally recognized world records in the 100-yard freestyle
between July 5, 1913, and September 5, 1917 (53 seconds; broken by Johnny
Weissmuller in 1922). In the 100-yard freestyle, Kahanamoku was U.S. indoor
champion in 1913 and outdoor titleholder in 1916–17 and 1920. At the Olympic
Games in Stockholm in 1912, he won the 100-metre freestyle event, and he repeated
that triumph at the 1920 Olympics in Antwerp, Belgium, where he also was a member of
the victorious U.S. team in the 800-metre relay race. Kahanamoku also excelled
at surfing, and he became viewed as one of the icons of the sport.

"Swimming | Primary Source Nexus." Primary Source Nexus. Web. 19 Apr. 2012.

This article is evidence od Duke’s swimming record and Olympic experiences in the
mainland. “–August 11–the Library of Congress features swimmer Duke Kahanamoku,
also known as the ”father of international surfing“, who broke the world record in the
100-yard freestyle swim by 4.6 seconds in Honolulu Harbor on this day
in 1911. Kahanamoku went on to win numerous gold and silver medals in several
Olympic Games and helped to repopularize surfing as a sport.”
"Duke Kahanamoku (August 24, 1890-January 22, 1968)." Duke Kahanamoku
Biography and Photos. Web. 19 Apr. 2012. <

It's been said a thousand times in a thousand places, but Duke Kahanamoku is the
father of modern surfing. After centuries as a favored Hawaiian pastime, surfing was
discouraged by European missionaries in 1821 and branded as immoral. The sport of
kings faded into obscurity, even in its homeland, and by the turn of the century, very few
Hawaiians surfed. Born at Haleakala, Duke Paoa Kahanamoku was one of nine children
of a Honolulu policeman. Named for the Duke of Edinburgh, a visitor to Hawaii earlier in
the century, young Duke was a private person who dropped out of McKinley High
School. He earned his living as a beachboy and stevedore at the Honolulu Harbor

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