The Period by vxK8P6u7

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									                                             The Period

Use a period when

          ending a complete sentence.

               Brian and Beth were married in 2004.

               Johnson (1998) claimed that he had cured cancer.

          In the case of a citation, the period should be placed

                after the parenthetical in an in-text citation.

                      General Motors will be bankrupt within the year (Wilson, Hooper, & Nil,
                      2008).

                      Christensen and Lopez (2004) noted that “American marketing creates a
                      false sense of entitlement” (p. 36).

                before the parenthetical in a block quote.

                      Vonnegut (1965) believed that

                              All time is all time. It does not change. It does not lend itself to
                              warnings or explanations. It simply is. Take it moment by moment,
                              and you will find that we are all, as I've said before, bugs in amber.
                              (p. 65)

          With the use of parentheses, the period should be placed

                outside the parentheses if only part of a sentence is enclosed:

                      Cub Foods sells twice as many gluten-free products as their competitors
                      (see Table 3).

                before the parentheses if an entire sentence is enclosed:

                      Streisand tickets are known to be expensive. (Tickets start at $100.)

          abbreviating initials of names.

               J. P. Morgan made a lot of money.

          abbreviating United States and using it as an adjective.
             John served in the U.S. Navy

             [Note: When used as a noun, United States should be spelled out: He lived in the
             United States for 5 years.]

         concealing names of study participants.

             G. S. (personal communication, July 6, 2005) claimed that she was scared of
             mice.

         using Latin abbreviations.

             I woke up at 6 a.m.

         using decimal fractions.

             The man weighed 400.45 lbs.

Do not use a period when

         employing an acronym.

             My instructor told me to consult my APA manual.

         abbreviating measurements.

             We landscaped our yard with 15 lbs of rock and gravel.

								
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