DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)

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					2/9/12-
Ch 12 DNA/RNA vocabulary
1. Nucleotide
2. Chromatin
3. Replication
4. Gene
5. Transcription
6. Codon
7. Translation
8. Anticodon
9. Mutation
Nucleic Acids and
Protein Synthesis
DNA (deoxyribonucleic
acid) is…
    An organic compound
    A type of nucleic acid
    Double stranded
    Made up of subunits called
     NUCLEOTIDES
Nucleotides have 3 parts

  Sugar molecule
   called
   DEOXYRIBOSE
  PHOSPHATE
   GROUP
  NITROGEN
   CONTAINING BASE
THE 4 NITROGEN
CONTAINING BASES IN DNA:

  ADENINE=A
  GUANINE=G
  CYTOSINE=C
  THYMINE=T
PURINES

 ADENINE and
  GUANINE are
  PURINES
   Bases that have 2
    rings of carbon and
    nitrogen atoms
PYRIMADINES

               CYTOSINE &
                THYMINE are
                PYRIMADINES
                 Bases that have 1
                  ring of carbon and
                  nitrogen atoms
WATSON & CRICK
  WATSON & CRICK suggested that DNA
   is made of 2 nucleotide chains that wrap
   around each other to form a spiral shape
   called a double helix.
THE COMPLEMENTARY
BASE PAIRING RULES
 In a double helix, cytosine pairs with
  guanine & adenine pairs with thymine.
   Therefore, A=T & C=G.
REPLICATION
 The copying of DNA is called REPLICATION.
 The 2 nucleotide chains separate by
  unwinding-each chain serving as a template for
  a new nucleotide chain.
 If the original DNA strand sequence is: A-T-T-
  C-C-G, the new nucleotide chain would read:
  T-A-A-G-G-C.
 When replication is finished, 2 new exact
  copies of the original DNA molecule are
  produced & the cell is ready to undergo cell
  division.
DNA Replication
 A change in a nucleotide
  sequence is called a
  MUTATION.
 DNA may be damaged by a
  variety of things, such as
  chemicals and ultraviolet
  (UV) rays from the sun.
Quick Quiz

  What are the three parts of a
   nucleotide?
  What is stated by the
   complimentary base pairing
   rules?
  What is replication?
2/10/12                 Do Now:
1. DNA is made of small subunits called _____.
2. Nucleotides have three parts. They are ___, ___, &
   ___.
3. The sugar found in DNA is ________.
4. According to Chargaff’s Rules (complementary base
   pairing rules), adenine pairs with ____ & _____ pairs
   with guanine.
5. Purines have ___ ring(s) of carbon & nitrogen, while
   pyrimadines have ___ ring(s) of carbon & nitrogen.
6. The copying of DNA is ______.
7. If the original strand of DNA reads ACTGGCTA, the
   new strand will read _______.
8. Any change in DNA is referred to as a _____.
9/13/11-Pick up your book.

 Do-Now:
 Pick up and complete the DNA & Protein
   Synthesis Puzzle.
 Set out your vocab flashcards, DNA color
   sheet, & Scientist Graphic Organizer
   from yesterday.
RNA (ribonucleic acid) is…
  An organic compound
  Type of nucleic acid
  Made up of nucleotides
  Single strand
  THYMINE is rarely part of RNA. URACIL
   (another pyrimadine) replaces thymine in
   RNA. This means that URACIL, not
   thymine, pairs with ADENINE in RNA.
  U=A
Compare RNA to DNA
Types of RNA (all 3 help to
make proteins)
 1.MESSENGER RNA (mRNA)
  is made of a single, uncoiled
  chain. mRNA carries genetic
  info from the DNA in the
  nucleus to the cytosol of a
  eukaryotic cell.
Types of RNA, cont.

 2. TRANSFER RNA (tRNA) is
  a single chain of RNA
  nucleotides folded into a
  hairpin shape that binds to
  specific amino acids.
Types of RNA, cont.

 3. RIBOSOMAL RNA (rRNA)
  is the most common RNA.
  rRNA is made of RNA
  nucleotides that are in
  globular form. rRNA makes
  up the ribosomes where
  proteins are made.
TRANSCRIPTION

 The process by which genetic info is
  copied from DNA to RNA
 All 3 types of RNA are made in this
  process
 Continues until the TERMINATION
  SIGNAL is reached
 Think of using a variety of colored paper
  in the copy machine…
TRANSCRIPTION
Recall that…

  The making of proteins is called
   PROTEIN SYNTHESIS
  PROTEINS are made of AMINO ACIDS
   that are linked together by PEPTIDE
   BONDS.
  The function of the protein is decided by
   the amino acids that make it up.
GENETIC CODE

 The relationship between a nucleotide
  sequence and an amino acid sequence is
  called the GENETIC CODE.
 It is used to translate mRNA transcripts
  into proteins.
 The genetic info needed for making
  proteins is encoded in a series of 3
  mRNA nucleotides called a CODON.
Genetic Code, cont.
  Each codon codes for a specific amino
   acid.
  Some codons signal for translation of an
   mRNA to start or stop.
     The START CODON (AUG) makes a
      ribosome start translating an mRNA
      molecule.
     STOP CODONS (UAA, UAG, UGA)
      cause the ribosome to stop translating
      the mRNA.
9/14/11-Pick up your book.
Student Summaries for Sat. School?
Do-Now:
1. DNA is made of small subunits called _____.
2. Nucleotides have three parts. They are ___, ___, & ___.
3. The sugar found in DNA is ________.
4. According to Chargaff’s Rules (complementary base pairing
   rules), adenine pairs with ____ & _____ pairs with guanine.
5. Purines have ___ ring(s) of carbon & nitrogen, while
   pyrimadines have ___ ring(s) of carbon & nitrogen.
6. The copying of DNA is ______.
7. If the original strand of DNA reads ACTGGCTA, the new
   strand will read _______ (replication).
8. Any change in DNA is referred to as a _____.
Genetic Code, cont.
TRANSLATION

 The process of assembling polypeptides
  from info encoded in the mRNA
 Begins when mRNA leaves the nucleus
  through pores in the nuclear membrane
 mRNA migrates to a ribosome where
  protein synthesis takes place
Translation, cont.
Translation, cont.
  Amino acids floating in the cytosol are brought
   to the ribosomes by the tRNA molecules
  On the opposite side of the tRNA molecule
   (from where the amino acid is attached), there
   is a loop that has a sequence of 3 nucleotides
   called an ANTICODON.
  The tRNA anticodon is complementary to and
   pairs with its corresponding mRNA codon.
  For example, a tRNA with an anticodon of AAA
   would bind to the mRNA codon sequence of
   UUU.
Translation, cont.
Protein Assembly
 Starts with start codon (AUG)
 As a ribosome moves down an mRNA
  transcript, each mRNA codon is paired with
  its tRNA anticodon.
 This causes an amino acid to attach,
  forming a peptide bond.
 As each amino acid is added to the chain,
  the ribosome moves 3 nucleotides (1
  codon) ahead on the mRNA transcript,
  where the next amino acid will be
  translated.
 It ends with a stop codon.
 Read p. 307-308
 Practice!
1. DNA replication is taking place. The original
   strand is ACTGCATCA. The new strand will
   read _____.
2. Transcription is taking place. Transcribe your
   DNA (answer) from #1 to make mRNA.
3. Translation is taking place. Translate your
   mRNA (answer) from #2 to determine the
   amino acid sequence. Use the genetic code
   from your book or your notebook.
9/15/11-Get your book.
Do-Now:
1. Copying DNA to make new DNA is called ___.
2. Copying DNA to make RNA is called ____.
3. Using the information on mRNA to assemble
   amino acids to make proteins is called ___.
4. The monomers of DNA & RNA are ____.
5. The 3 parts of a nucleotide are __, __, & __.
6. List the 3 types of RNA & what they do.
  More Practice!
1. DNA replication is taking place. The original
   strand is TAGCATGGGCAT. The new strand
   will read _____.
2. Transcription is taking place. Transcribe your
   DNA (answer) from #1 to make mRNA.
3. Translation is taking place. Translate your
   mRNA (answer) from #2 to determine the
   amino acid sequence. Use the genetic code
   from your book or your notebook.
  9/28/10-Pick up your book.
 Do-Now:
  Complete the crossword puzzle on the back of
  your DNA word search. If you turned this into
  me, I have put it on your desk for you.
Quick Quiz

  What are two differences between RNA
   and DNA?
  What is transcription?
  What is translation?
  What is the genetic code used for?

				
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posted:9/17/2012
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