BIOLOGY 2150, Section 2A

Summer quarter 2012
Instructor Leslie Kwasnieski

  Metropolitan Community College

TITLE:                                    Microbiology
PREFIX/ SECTION:                          BIOS 2150, Section 2A
CREDIT HOURS:                             6 quarter hours
MEETING TIMES:                            Tuesday and Thursday, 6 pm to 10 pm
CLASS LOCATION:                           EVC 145 and lab as instructed
NO CLASS:                                 Wednesday July 4, 2012
DATE CLASS BEGINS/ENDS:                   June 7, 2012 - August 14, 2012
WITHDRAW BY DATE:                         July 31, 2012


INSTRUCTOR NAME:                          Leslie Kwasnieski
OFFICE LOCATION:                          EVC 143
OFFICE TELEPHONE:                         (402) 289-1385 (please leave a voicemail)
OFFICE HOURS:                             By appointment
EMAIL ADDRESS:                  

     Program Area: Math and Science
     Dean: Brad Morrison, Dean of Math and Science


BIOS 1010 or dean approval, no exceptions. You must notify the instructor if you do not meet the qualifications.

BIOS 2150 is a study of the structure, physiology, ecology and human health implications of microorganisms.
This course includes both lecture and lab components. Should a student's program require a course in human
anatomy and physiology, it is recommended that the A&P course precede this one.

Information will be presented in the form of lectures, lab activities and class discussion, film and other media
may also be presented. Lab is an integral part of class, attendance is mandatory if you plan to pass.

REQUIRED/SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIALS: (available in the MCC bookstore or at
     Text: Microbiology, An Introduction 10 ed., by Tortora.
     Study guide: MicroScope, 6 ed, 2010.

In general, completion of the course aids the student in the following abilities:
  1. To recognize the various microorganisms, and explain their relationships to other organisms.
  2. To explain the physiological processes used by microorganisms and the ways in which these are used to
       meet human needs.
  3. To describe the reproductive processes of microorganisms and explain medical/genetic applications of
      these processes.
  4. To explain both naturally-occurring and artificial methods of protecting the body against disease.
  5. To explain the effects that disease organisms have on the normal anatomy and physiology of the body.

Faculty Website -

Metropolitan Community College uses Microsoft products as part of its standard software and encourages
students to do the same. You may save word-processed documents for file attachments in Microsoft Word .doc
or .docx format. If your software does not allow either of these, then save files in Rich Text Format (.rtf).

Dates for Summer quarter, 2012 can be found at
Academic Calendar can be found at:


Final grades will be based on five written exams, quizzes and homework. The instructor reserves the right to
make changes to assessments as needed and students will be notified in class.
 There will be five written exams worth a total of 500 points, lab questions may be combined with each exam.
    Students can expect to see a variety of questions on each exam, including (but not limited to) multiple
    choice, matching, short answer, and essay.
 Random quizzes may be given at any point, during the beginning, middle or end of class. Occasional
    homework requiring some research will also be assigned. Quizzes and homework will be worth a total of
    approximately 250 points.
 An unknown bacterium will be assigned to each student for identification. During the quarter we will perform
    various tests that will give you clues as to your unknown’s identity. You will be expected to keep a record of
    your results. At the end of the quarter you will write a lab report identifying your bacterium and justifying your
    identification, based on your results. This paper will be worth 50 points.
 You will also turn in a streak plate of your unknown at the end of the quarter; this will be worth 20 points.
    The plate and paper will be graded not only on your ability to identify the unknown, but also on your
    technique and ability to keep your unknown contaminant-free.
 There will be no extra credit given.
 Final grades will be determined on a percentage of possible points using the grading scale below.

              100 - 90 A
               89 - 80 B
               79 - 70 C
               69 - 60 D
              BELOW 60 F

Make-up exams are unfair to the entire class, and will not be considered outside of these guidelines. No early
exams or quizzes will be given under any circumstances. Any student who misses an exam without notifying the
instructor previous to the exam will receive a zero grade with no opportunity for make-up. In the case of a
missed exam, the student must schedule the makeup exam and complete that exam before the graded tests
are returned to the rest of the class, this is by the next class period. Tests not made up before then will result in
a zero. Makeup tests may be essay format. It may be necessary to take the makeup exam at the EVC testing
center, please contact them at (402) 289-1278 and make an appointment at least 24 hours in advance.

There will be no make ups for any missed quizzes nor will late homework assignments be accepted after the
due date given at its assignment.

All exams and quizzes will be made available to the students for review, then returned to the instructor and
retained for one quarter only. You will be responsible for keeping any homework assignments in case of a grade

Metropolitan Community College is committed to continuous improvement of teaching and learning. You may be
asked to help us to accomplish this objective. For example, you may be asked to respond to surveys or
questionnaires. In other cases, tests or assignments you are required to do for this course may be shared with
faculty and used for assessment purposes.


Please arrive at class in a timely manner as latecomers are disruptive to fellow students, as well as the
instructor. Any students conversing during class time will be asked to complete their conversations in the
hallway. No cell phone, text messaging, IPOD or internet use will be tolerated during class time, any
computer use must be for notetaking only. Students not complying with these guidelines will be asked to
leave the classroom and must have permission from the dean to return to class.

It is expected that the student will read the text book and complete the activities presented in the lab book. For
best results in this class, it is advised that notes be taken and reviewed daily. The most efficient method of
learning the material will vary between students; the instructor recommends study groups and has personally
determined that last minute cramming is not an effective study technique.


To receive a passing grade the student is expected be present at ALL classes and in attendance for ALL lab
activities. Attendance will be recorded daily and any student routinely leaving early will be recorded as absent.
Students are expected to be in class when assignments are handed out and explained. A student who fails to
meet class attendance expectations may receive a final grade mark of FX, indicating an absence-related failure,
or a failing (F) grade.

 WX: After the first class meeting and through the Census Date, the instructor will disenroll or WX students who
have never attended. The Census Date is listed under the Important Dates for the course in the official Class
Schedule at
FX: A student who fails to meet class attendance expectations will receive a final grade of FX, indicating an
absence-related failure. A student earning an FX grade prior to the end of the quarter may avoid receiving the
failing grade by withdrawing from the course before the Last Date to Withdraw from Class.


College policies, such as student rights and responsibilities, academic standards, plagiarism, and etc. are
outlined in the College Catalog and Student Handbook. This information can be accessed via the online catalog

When you communicate with others in this course, you must follow the Student Code of Conduct
(, which calls for responsible and cooperative behavior.
Please think critically, ask questions, and challenge ideas, but also show respect for the opinions of others,
respond to them politely, and maintain the confidentiality of thoughts expressed in the class. You may also wish
to review information at

Students may not video or audio record class sessions without the instructor’s knowledge and permission. If recording of
class sessions is authorized as a reasonable accommodation under Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), the instructor
must have the appropriate documentation from College Disability Support Services. Permitted recordings are to be used
only for the individual student’s educational review of the class session and may not be reproduced, posted, sold or
distributed to others. Students who violate this policy are subject to disciplinary procedures as outlined in the Student
Conduct Code.

Students are reminded that materials they use as sources for classwork may be subject to copyright protection.
Additional information about copyright is provided on the library website at or by
your instructor. In response to incidents of student dishonesty (cheating, plagiarism, illegal peer-to-peer file
sharing, etc.), the College imposes specific actions that may include receiving a failing grade on a test, failure in
the course, suspension from the College, or dismissal from the College. Disciplinary procedures are available in
the Advising/Counseling Centers or at

If you cannot participate in and complete this course, you should officially withdraw through WebAdvisor at or by calling Central Registration at 402-457-5231 or 1-800-228-9553. Failure to
officially withdraw will result in either an attendance-related failure (FX) or failing (F) grade. The last date to
withdraw is noted in the CLASS IDENTIFICATION section of this syllabus.


MCC's Academic Resource Centers, Math Centers, and Writing Centers offer friendly, supportive learning environments
that can help students achieve educational success. Staff members in these centers provide free drop-in assistance with basic
computing, reading, math, and writing skills. Self-paced, computer-assisted instructional support in reading, vocabulary,
typing, English as a Second Language, and online course orientation is also available.

Detailed information about the Academic Resource, Math, and Writing Centers is in the Student Handbook, College
Catalog, and online at

If you have a disability that may substantially limit your ability to participate in this class, please contact a
Disability Support Services Counselor located in the Student Services Office on each campus. Metropolitan
Community College will provide reasonable accommodations for persons with documented qualifying
disabilities. However, it is the student’s responsibility to request accommodations. For further information, please


For assistance with student email, passwords, and most other MCC technology, contact the Help Desk at 457-
2900 or

By using the information technology systems at MCC (including the computer systems and phones), you
acknowledge and consent to the conditions of use as set forth in the Metropolitan Community College
Procedures Memorandum on Acceptable Use of Information Technology and Resources. It is your responsibility
as a student to be familiar with these procedures. The full text of the Procedures Memorandum may be found at
the following website:


     EXAM 1      Thursday June 21                     Structure and Classification
     EXAM 2      Thursday July 5                      Physiology
     EXAM 3      Thursday July 19                     Replication
     EXAM 4      Thursday August 2                    Defenses against Disease
     EXAM 5      Tuesday August 14                    Disease and Humankind

This syllabus is written as an expectation of class topics, learning activities, and expected learning outcomes.
However, the instructor reserves the right to make changes in this class schedule or structure that may result in
enhanced or more effective learning for students. These modifications will not substantially change the intent or
objectives of this course and will be done within the policies and guidelines of Metropolitan Community College.

NOTICE: This syllabus sets forth a tentative schedule of class topics, learning activities, and expected learning
outcomes. However, the instructor reserves the right to modify this schedule to enhance learning for students.
Any modifications will not substantially change the intent or objectives of this course and will conform to the
policies and guidelines of Metropolitan Community College.

Total attempted points for the quarter will be approximately 800 and your final grade will be a percentage of
points you have earned. A letter grade will be assigned from the grading scale included in this syllabus.

It is your responsibility to track the number of points you have earned on each quiz, homework assignment and
exam in the appropriate space below. Also be sure to record the total possible points as well as any extra credit
points you have earned.

                     Test      Possible        Quiz        Possible     Homework         Possible      Extra
                    points      points        points        points        points          points       credit
 Structure &                     100
 Physiology                       100

Reproduction                      100

   Defense                        100
   Diseases                       100

 Total Points

To compute your grade, add the total number of points earned so far and divide by the total number of possible
points. This is a percentage, compare to the grading scale on page 2 of this syllabus.

                         UNIT 1: STRUCTURE AND CLASSIFICATION
Our lives are shaped in many important but often unseen ways by microorganisms. To avoid or control harmful ones and
take advantage of the beneficial ones, we depend on careful observation and accurate identification. In this section of the
course, we first become acquainted with a variety of microscopic organisms, primarily bacteria.

Objectives – statements of abilities to be achieved by the student – are presented below, along with major text references
appropriate to each topic. This sequence corresponds to the learning activities and laboratory instructions provided in your
study guide, MicroScope.

OVERVIEW…Get acquainted with microbiology and preview major concepts….Chapter 1

BASIC BIOLOGY…General principles for successful study of microorganisms…Ch.3, pp. 55-67

    1.   Distinguish structurally and functionally among single-celled organisms, colonies and multicellular organisms.
         Give examples of each.

    2.   Compare, with advantages and disadvantages, sexual and asexual reproduction.

    3.   Demonstrate effective use of the microscope. (Prior experience presumed.)

    4.   Estimate with reasonable accuracy the dimensions of organisms under the microscope.

    5.   Differentiate the light microscope and electron microscope in their functions and images.

BIOLOGICAL ORGANIZATION… The classification of …...Ch. 1, pp. 1-6
                             life’s great diversity        Ch. 10, pp. 273 – 282
                                                         Ch. 12 (skim for reference, as assigned.)

    6.   Explain why the traditional two-kingdom classification system is inadequate for microbes.

    7.   Distinguish groups of microorganisms by size, structure, specialization, feeding, reproduction and movement.
         Identify these groups by the appropriate name and provide examples of organisms in these groups.

    8.   Given a set or organisms, devise a key for their identification.

    9.   Given an unknown organism, use a key to identify it.

BACTERIA….They’re tiny and they’re everywhere!........Ch. 3, pp. 68-72.
                                                             Ch. 4, Ch. 11 (skim for reference, as assigned)
   10. Recognize bacterial shapes and groupings.

    11. Identify bacterial cell structures and their functions.

    12. Explain the various means for classifying bacteria.

    13. Distinguish the staining methods and explain what is accomplished by each.

    14. Design and complete an investigation of bacterial distribution.

    (Tortora 10th ed.)

                                         UNIT 2: PHYSIOLOGY
  Visual examination of bacteria is rarely adequate for identification. We also depend extensively on such
physiological characteristics as food needs and environmental preferences to distinguish one species from
another. It is in understanding bacterial physiology that we make best use of them, are most successful in
controlling them and can best understand some of the environmental problems facing us today.

 Objectives and text references are provided here. MicroScope provides additional instructions for
accomplishing these objectives.

POPULATIONS …… Huge crowds gather quickly! …………………. Ch. 6, pp 171-179

    1. Compare and demonstrate the use of the techniques used to measure microbial growth and population

    2. Sketch and explain the features of the “bell-shaped” curve that represents population growth over time.

ECOLOGICAL RELATIONSHIPS.....Big environmental influences……..Ch. 6, pp. 157-167
                                                                         Ch. 27, pp. 767 - 788
  3. Compare environmental factors influencing growth of bacteria and fungi.

    4. Differentiate symbiotic relationships and provide examples of organisms using each: parasitism,
       mututalism, and communalism.

    5. Explain the natural cycles and the roles of microorganisms in them.

    6. Describe the effects of pollutants on aquatic ecosystems and the roles of microorganisms in these

    7. Explain how microbes are used in the treatment of wastewater.

METABOLIC PROCESSES….. These tiny cells are amazing! … Ch. 2 (reference as needed)
                                                       Ch. 5 (reference, as assigned)
  8. Explain how enzymes influence chemical reactions.

    9. Compare the digestion of food molecules by identifying the end products of each.

    10. Compare photosynthesis to respiration by identifying reactants, products, and energy involvement.

    11. Differentiate the energy-production methods by identifying molecules and energy output involvement.

FOOD PRODUCTS…..Microbes in your diet (good ones, of course)……… Ch. 28
                                                                            Ch. 1, p. 3
  12. Explain common commercial uses of microbes, identifying types of organisms used and their metabolic end

Tortora 10th Ed.

                                         Unit 3: REPRODUCTION

          Of the breakthroughs of modern biology, few can match the importance of our understanding of the controls center
of the cell – DNA molecule. With this knowledge, we have launched the new field of biotechnology, the management of
organisms and their reproduction on a cellular level. The organisms we “tinkered with” originally were bacteria and viruses;
now the scope of investigation is almost unlimited.
          Separating this topic from the larger theme of microbial physiology allows us to focus on the many contemporary
findings and issues related to the field. In addition, we will now expand the scope of our study of microbes to include
          Objectives and text references are provided here. MicroScope provides additional instructions for accomplishing
these objectives.

VIRUSES ….. Not cells, but more than mere molecules …………………….…..Ch. 13

    1.       Distinguish viruses from cells.

    2.       Describe the structure and components of viruses.

    3.       Explain various bases for classification of viruses.

    4.       Describe the replication cycle of a virus, comparing lytic and temperate forms.

    5.       Distinguish a virus from a prion.

THE GENETIC CODE ….. Translating genes into traits ………. Ch. 8, pp 210 – 233

    6.       Explain how the structure of the DNA molecule determines its information-carrying ability.

    7.       Explain how DNA replicates itself and why this process is essential to reproduction.

    8.       Explain the process of protein synthesis.

    9.       Explain how mutations occur, and their effect on the DNA molecule.

BIOTECHNOLOGY ….. Moving genes around ………………Ch. 8, pp. 233 – 240
                                                        Ch. 9 (reference, as assigned)

    10.      Differentiate conjugation, transduction, and transformation as means of recombination of genetic material.

    11.      Describe methods of manipulation of microbial genes.

    12.      Evaluate potential benefits and problems involved with the manipulation of DNA in microbes.

(Tortora 10th ed.)

                            Unit 4: DEFENSES AGAINST DISEASE
         Only relatively recently in the history of biology and medicine has a cause-and-effect relationship between
microbes and disease been established. Today we are still trying to better understand this relationship, particularly in the
context of our body’s defense system. Fortunately, the body’s own defenses are supplemented by a great array of
antimicrobial agents and biotechnology.
         Objectives and text references are provided her. MicroScope provides additional instructions for accomplishing
these objectives.

CONCEPTS OF DISEASE … How do we know what we know today? …. Ch. 1, pp. 7 – 16

    1.   Explain, with examples, how scientific problem-solving brought about our modern understanding of microbes.

    2.   Identify major contributions to our modern understanding of disease and its control.

CONTROL OF MICROBES …We can’t eliminate them, but we should try.
                       Ch. 7.
                      Ch. 20 pp. 554 – 558, pp. 573 – 576
                      (Actions of specific dugs not necessary.)

    3.   Explain the effects that microbial control methods and agents have on cells.

    4.   Explain the phenomenon of drug resistance in microbial populations.

THE BODY’S DEFENSES … Fortunately, we are not ill too often. …..Ch. 16, 17, 18, and
                                        Ch. 19, pp. 536 – 548 (reference, as assigned)

    5.   Explain defenses of the body against foreign invasion, and why they are effective.

    6.   Explain the body’s responses to entry of foreign material, and why they are effective.

    7.   Compare they way in which immunity is acquired, and provide examples of each.

    8.   Explain the causes and effects of immune disorders.

    9.   Explain new methods of augmenting the body’s defenses.

    Totorta 10th ed.

                                               Unit 5: DISEASES
          Despite their many helpful and commercially-valuable attributes, microbes can be deadly, of course. In dealing
with specific disease conditions, the term "microbe" will be used in its broadest sense, including not only bacteria and
viruses, but also fungi, worms, and protozoans.
          Objectives and text references are provided here. MicroScope provides additional instructions for accomplishing
these objectives.

PRINCIPLES OF DISEASE... Knowing how the enemy works. .............               Ch. 14
                                                                                  Ch. 15

    1.   Compare the various means of disease transmission and provide examples of each.

    2.   Distinguish pathogenic and opportunistic organisms.

    3.   Distinguish primary and secondary infections.

    4.   Distinguish exotoxins from endotoxins.

    5.   Explain how disruption of "normal flora" can lead to disease states.

    6.   Provide examples of these general concepts of disease:

                 Some organisms may be harmless under certain conditions and harmful under other conditions.
                 Some organisms remain in the body following the initial disease state, showing up later as another disease
                 Many diseases involve interactions of the life cycles and life processes of parasite, reservoir, vector, and

DISEASE STATES Diseases will be considered according to the body system affected. It will be important that the
student know basic normal anatomy and physiology in order to understand the effects of the disease.

    7.   For each disease considered in the study guide, identify:
              the causative organism (the genus name is usually sufficient
              the mode of transmission of the organism, if any
              the effect of that organism’s life processes on the normal anatomy and physiology of the host, i.e. how it
                  disrupts the cells, tissues, or organs in which it resides.
                                                Skin and eyes…………………………..Ch. 21
                                                Nervous……..………………………… Ch. 22
                                                Circulatory/Lymphatic…………………Ch. 23
                                                Respiratory……………………………..Ch. 24
                                                Digestive………………………………..Ch. 25
                                                Urogenital/Reproductive………………..Ch. 26
             (Tortora, 10th ed.)

Bio 2150 Unknown Microorganism Identification Sheet
Unknown number ________________
Test performed                 Date    Result         Conclusion
Cell shape

Gram Stain

Capsule – Negative Stain

Appearance on Nutrient
Appearance in
Growth on Gelatin

Growth on Fat

Growth on Starch Agar

Catalase Reaction

Growth in Phenol Red
Lactose Broth
Growth in Phenol Red
Dextrose Broth
Sensitivity to Antimicrobial
Growth on Mannitol Salt
Growth on Blood Agar

Growth on EMB Agar

Litmus Milk

Endospore stain

Safe Laboratory Work Habits

For your safety and that of the other students working with you, be aware that using equipment and
chemicals in the laboratory involves a degree of risk. This risk is minimal if you are conscious of safe
practices and follow them.
These are the general policies that apply to all students in all laboratories.
1. No smoking, eating, or drinking in laboratories or classrooms. This is a safety issue, as there is a
great risk of contamination of food and beverages by microbes or chemicals in the laboratory.
2. The classroom will not routinely be locked or supervised while the class is in the laboratory. Take
anything of value with you to the laboratory.
3. Upon entering the laboratory, place personal items (books, purses, jackets, etc.) on side counters if
available or in designated storage areas below your work space. Do not place them on the work surface
as they will eventually become wet, stained, or contaminated. Normally you should need only your
laboratory instructions with you. Anything else will crowd your work area and be an inconvenience.
Items placed on the floor must be out of the traffic path.
4. Work may be done in the laboratory only under the supervision of an instructor or lab assistant.
Normally this means that it can be done only during regularly-scheduled hours or by special
arrangement. “Make-up” labs are not only difficult to arrange, but also lose much of the value of
working with other students in a problem-solving setting.
5. Before operating equipment or beginning any procedure, be confident that you know what to do and
how to do it. Ask, don’t risk.
6. Lab coats are available for your use if desired.
7. Safety glasses and gloves are provided for use by students in the laboratory, and are to be worn as
directed by the instructor.
8. Know the location and use of safety equipment in the room.
9. Special precautions must be taken near open flame and when using equipment with moving parts.
Long hair must be tied back and tucked under the collar of the lab coat. Sleeves or cuffs that might
dangle into flame or be caught in equipment must be buttoned or rolled up.
10. Should an accident happen, report it. Any injury or broken glassware or equipment needs
immediate attention.
11. Leave your work area clean, dry and sanitized when you are finished.

Special precautions for microbiology: Safety precautions must become habitual for your safety.
Although our handling of known human pathogens will be minimal, all organisms are to be handled as
if they are pathogens. You will be handling not merely hundreds or thousands, but surely billions of
microorganisms during a single laboratory session. The possibility for infection of yourself and others
is real.
12. Disinfect your work surface before and after any laboratory procedure involving organisms.

13. Keep fingers and other non-sterile objects out of your mouth and away from your face.
14. No gum-chewing.
15. If you touch infectious material, wash your hands thoroughly.
16. Take care to avoid spilling cultures. If infectious material contacts the table top, the floor, or your
clothing, notify the instructor at once.
17. Wash your hands before leaving the laboratory at any time.

I have read the laboratory safety policies pertaining to this course. I understand their importance to my
safety and that of others, and I agree to abide by them.

Name: _______________________________________                  Date: _______________
Course: BlOS 2150 Microbiology Section 2A


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