Chapter 14 – Emerging Trends, Technologies, and Applications
Trends in SW and Service Distribution:
Pull Technology – a user states a need before getting information, as when a URL is entered in a Web
browser so that the user can go to a certain Web site.
Push Technology (Webcasting) – a Web server delivers information to users who have signed up for this
service instead of waiting for users to request the information be sent to them.
Application Service Providers (ASPs) – provide access to software or services for a fee. Netflix
Software as a Service (SaaS) – or on-demand software, is a model for ASPs to deliver software to users
for a fee; the software might be for temporary or for long-term use. Steam
Virtual Reality (VR) – uses computer-generated, three-dimensional images to create the illusion of
interaction in a real-world environment.
Egocentric environment – the user is totally immersed in the VR world.
Exocentric environment – the user is given a “window view.” Data is still rendered in 3D, but users can
only view it on screen. They can’t interact with objects, as in an egocentric environment.
Cave Automatic Virtual Environment (CAVE) – is a virtual environment consisting of a cube-shaped room
in which the walls are rear-projection screens. CAVEs are holographic devices that create, capture, and
display images in true 3D form.
Virtual World – is a simulated environment designed for users to interact via avatars.
Avatar – is a 2D or 3D graphical representation of a person in the virtual world, used in chat rooms and
Radio Frequency Identification:
Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) – an RFID tag is a small electronic device consisting of a small
chip and an antenna. This device provides a unique identification for the card or the object carrying
Biometrics: Current and Future Applications:
> ATM, Credit, and debit cards
> Network and computer login security
> Web page security
> Employee time clocks
> Member ID in sport clubs
> Airport security and fast check-in
> Passports and highly secured government ID cards.
> Sporting events
> Cell Phones and smart cards
Wireless Fidelity (Wi-Fi) – is a broadband wireless technology. Information can be transmitted over
short distances – typically 120 feet indoors and 300 feet outdoors – in the form of radio waves.
Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX) – is a broadband wireless technology
based on the IEEE 802.16 standards. It’s designed for wireless metropolitan area networks and
usually has a range of about 30 miles for fixed stations and 3 to 10 miles for mobile stations.
Bluetooth – which can be used to create a personal area network (PAN), is a wireless technology for
transferring data over short distances (usually within 30 feet) for fixed and mobile devices.
Grid Computing – involves combining the processing powers of various computers. With this
configuration, users can make use of other computers’ resources to solve problems involving large—
scale, complex calculations, such as circuit analysis or mechanical design – problems that a single
computer isn’t capable of solving in a timely manner.
Utility (on-demand) computing – is similar to the SaaS model and provides IT services on demand.
Users pay for computing or storage resources on an as-needed basis, similar to paying for utilities.
Cloud Computing – incorporates, under one platform, many recent technologies, including the SaaS
model, Web 2.0, grid computing, and utility computing; hence, a variety of resources can be provided to
users over the Internet. Business applications are accessed via a Web browser, and data is stored on the
providers’ servers. Google Apps
Nanotechnology – incorporates techniques that involve the structure and composition of materials on a
Applications of Nanotechnology:
> Energy – reduction of energy consumption, increase in the efficiency of energy production,
more environmentally friendly energy systems.
> Information and communication – larger and faster storage devices, faster and cheaper
computers, display monitors with low energy consumption.
> Heavy Industry – aerospace, construction, refineries, vehicle manufacturing.