1. You are going to make a presentation on nanotechnology. These are the headings of the
parts of your presentation. Put them into logical order(A-E) and copy them:
Potential benefits. A.
Current applications. C.
Potential risks. D.
Potential applications. E.
2. Decide which of the following paragraphs come under which heading. In each paragraph
underline the word or phrase which helped you decide. Put the numbers of paragraphs
next to the respective headings above. Note that the number of the paragraphs under
respective headings may differ. Decide about the correct order of the paragraphs under one
1. Functionality can be added to nanomaterials by interfacing them with biological molecules or
structures. The size of nanostructures is similar to that of most biological molecules, therefore
integration of nanomaterials with biology might bring about revolutionary developments in tissue
engineering, which might replace today’s transplants or artificial implants.
2. With nanotechnology, a large set of materials with distinct optical, electrical or magnetic
properties can be produced. For example, nanosized titanium dioxide and zinc oxide are currently
used in some sunscreens, as they absorb and reflect ultraviolet rays and yet are transparent to
3. Societal risks from the use of nanotechnology have also been raised. These include possible
military applications in enhancement implants or surveillance through nano-sensors, or
nanotechnology’s ability to manipulate biomolecules.
4. In medicine, nanotechnology is widely used in diagnostic devices or drug-delivery vehicles, as
well as in biomedical research.
5. Recently developed applications include self-cleaning coatings, engineered to be hydrophobic
and antibacterial, or scratch-resistant hard coatings, or a range of enhanced textiles, such as
waterproof and stainresistant fabrics.
6. Some of the concepts of nanotechnology (without using this name) were mentioned in “There’s
Plenty of Room at the Bottom”, a talk given by Richard Feynman at an American Physical
Society meeting on December 29, 1959. Feynman described a process by which the ability to
manipulate individual atoms and molecules might be developed.
7. Some advanced nanotechnology projects are related to storage and saving energy as well as
enhancement of renewable energy sources. For example, fuel cells powered by hydrogen, which
would be an environmentally friendly energy source, require nanotubes for hydrogen storage, still
8. Nanotechnology and nanoscience got started in the early 1980s with two major developments:
the birth of cluster science and the invention of the scanning tunneling microscope (STM). The
development of carbon nanotubes and semiconductor nanocrystals quickly followed.
9. An important use of nanoparticles and nanotubes is in composites, materials that combine one
or more separate components and which are designed to exhibit the best properties of each
component. Currently, bundles of multiwalled carbon nanotubes are used in polymers to control
or enhance conductivity, with applications such as antistatic packaging.
10. The mere presence of nanomaterials (materials that contain nanoparticles) is not in itself a
threat. It is only certain aspects of nanoparticles that can make them risky, in particular their
mobility and their increased reactivity. Also, nanoparticles show a tendency to aggregate and
such aggregates often behave differently from individual nanoparticles.
11. Carbon nanotubes have become crucial for electronics and computers. Two corporations,
NEC and IBM hold the basic patents on carbon nanotubes, which are to become a major traded
commodity in the future.
3. Find key words or phrases in the paragraphs (not more than two words or phrases in
each). List the key words below in the order they appear in the text. Use the list of the key
words to make a brief presentation of the topic without referring to the text above.