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									IV. The Domain Eukarya
D. Plants:
4. Non-tracheophytes
5. Tracheophytes
   b. Groups
           i. Lycopodiophytes




 http://mediatheek.thinkquest.nl/~ll125/en/life-3.htm   http://universe-review.ca/R10-23-plants.htm
IV. The Domain Eukarya
D. Plants:
4. “Non-tracheophytes”
5. Tracheophytes
   b. Groups
           i. Lycopodiophytes
           ii. Monilophytes
IV. The Domain Eukarya
D. Plants:
4. “Non-tracheophytes”
5. Tracheophytes
   b. Groups
           i. Lycopodiophytes
           ii. Monilophytes
            - Characteristics:

           Vascular (tracheophytes) with true leaves (euphyllophytes)
           Most release spores to the environment from sporangia
           Have swimming sperm
           Do NOT have seeds (distinguishing them from the other major clade within the
           euphyllophytes, the spermatophytes)
IV. The Domain Eukarya
D. Plants:
4. “Non-tracheophytes”
                                Polypodiales
5. Tracheophytes
   b. Groups
           i. Lycopodiophytes
           ii. Monilophytes     Cyatheales
            - Diversity


                                 Salvinales



                                Osmundales

                                Equisitales



                                 Psilotales


                                Ophioglossales
IV. The Domain Eukarya          These primitive groups lack true roots. Ophioglossum,
D. Plants:                      “Adder’s tongue”, is very reduced, producing one 2-part
4. “Non-tracheophytes”          leaf (frond) a year; one part bears spores and the other
5. Tracheophytes                doesn’t.
   b. Groups
           i. Lycopodiophytes
           ii. Monilophytes     Psilotum – a whisk fern – is even more reduced; lacking
              - Diversity       leaves. The sporangia are borne on short stalks from
                                the stem




                                         Psilotales


                                        Ophioglossales
IV. The Domain Eukarya
D. Plants:
4. “Non-tracheophytes”
5. Tracheophytes
   b. Groups
           i. Lycopodiophytes      Dimorphic fronds;
           ii. Monilophytes        photosynthetic or spore
             - Diversity           bearing, like this
                                   Cinnamon fern.

                                Osmundales



                                      “Horsetails” are an ancient
                                      group, with fossil
                                      representatives growing 30 ft
                                      tall. They have reduced leaves
                                      and may have whorled
                                      branches. Spores born in a
                     Equisitales      strobilus.
IV. The Domain Eukarya
D. Plants:
4. “Non-tracheophytes”
                                  Polypodiales
5. Tracheophytes
   b. Groups
           i. Lycopodiophytes
           ii. Monilophytes        Cyatheales
             - Diversity


                                    Salvinales




   The Salvinales are unusual, having adapted to an aquatic lifestyle. These are
   the “water ferns”. They are also unusual in have two types of spores.
IV. The Domain Eukarya
D. Plants:
4. “Non-tracheophytes”
                                  Polypodiales
5. Tracheophytes
   b. Groups
           i. Lycopodiophytes
           ii. Monilophytes        Cyatheales
             - Diversity


                                    Salvinales




   The Cyatheales include the tree ferns – an ancient group considered to be
   ‘living fossils’. The group also includes some forms that have stems (rhizomes)
   that grow along the ground, rather than vertically.
IV. The Domain Eukarya
D. Plants:
4. “Non-tracheophytes”
                                                Polypodiales
5. Tracheophytes
   b. Groups
           i. Lycopodiophytes
           ii. Monilophytes                      Cyatheales
           - Diversity


                                                  Salvinales


    The Polypodiales is the largest group of Monilophytes, with 1200 of the 1500
    monilophyte species. They are the most advanced group, evolving 100 mya




                         Photos from: http://biology.byu.edu/Faculty/laj39/bio430/Polypodiaceae_files/
IV. The Domain Eukarya
D. Plants:
4. “Non-tracheophytes”
5. Tracheophytes
   b. Groups                    http://www.uic.edu/classes/bio
           i. Lycopodiophytes   s/bios100/summer2003/fernlife
                                cycle.htm
           ii. Monilophytes
            - Diversity
            - Life Cycle




                                             http://www.science-art.com/image/?id=3553&search=1&pagename=fern_life_cycle
5. Tracheophytes
   b. Groups
           i. Lycopodiophytes
           ii. Monilophytes
            - Evolutionary History
              Evolve during the Devonian




                                           http://universe-review.ca/R10-23-plants.htm
5. Tracheophytes
   b. Groups
           i. Lycopodiophytes
           ii. Monilophytes
            - Radiate and Diversify during the Carboniferous, with Lycopodiophytes




                                      http://www.wemyss.ukfossils.co.uk/Wemyss-Fossils-Geology/geology-guide.htm
5. Tracheophytes
   b. Groups
           i. Lycopodiophytes
           ii. Monilophytes     Sequestration of cellulose (carbon in
                                sediments caused CO2 concentration to drop;
                                oxygen rose as photosynthesis > respiration




                                    http://forum.nationstates.net/viewtopic.php?f=20&t=34345&start=50
5. Tracheophytes
   b. Groups
           i. Lycopodiophytes
           ii. Monilophytes
                    The unification of Pangaea during the Permian dried the climate




                                        http://www.texas-geology.com/Texas%20Post%20Triassic%20Dinosaurs.html
5. Tracheophytes
   b. Groups                    Giving an edge to organisms that had
           i. Lycopodiophytes   finally cut ties with aquatic habitats: the
           ii. Monilophytes     gymnosperms and reptiles
           iii. Gymnosperms




                                http://www.search4dinosaurs.com/carr_Permian_riverside.html
5. Tracheophytes
   b. Groups
           i. Lycopodiophytes
           ii. Monilophytes
           iii. Gymnosperms
                 - characteristics


     Seeds: seeds evolved in ancestral progymnosperms and “seed ferns”.
     Dispersal phase of life cycle is bigger and fortified with nutrients, increasing
     the probability of survival of the diploid embryo.

                                                                     Seed coat – original sporophyte ovule
                                                                     Endosperm – haploid gametophyte
                                                                     Embryo – new sporophyte generation




 http://botit.botany.wisc.edu/courses/botany_130/Diversity/plants/
 Vascular_Plants/Coniferophyta/images/
5. Tracheophytes
   b. Groups
           i. Lycopodiophytes
           ii. Monilophytes
           iii. Gymnosperms
                 - characteristics

    Pollen: the male gametophyte carries
    sperm to the egg; no more swimming
    sperm and need for surface water! (in
    most gymnosperms)




                                                         http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/faculty/webb/bot2
                                                         01/conifers/conifer_lecture.htm




 http://www.flickr.com/photos/chrisashurst/4630312934/
5. Tracheophytes                                                                      Common Conifers:
   b. Groups                    Conifers*                                             Pines  Spruce
           i. Lycopodiophytes                                                         Fir    Hemlock
           ii. Monilophytes
                                                                                      Cedars Cypress
           iii. Gymnosperms
            - Diversity                                                               Yew    Larch
                                                                                      Redwood
                                                               http://sorokaapbio1011.blogspot.com/




                                Gnetales


                                                                               http://dbpedia.neofonie.de/browse/rdf-
                                                                               type:Plant/rdf-type:Gnetophytes/


                          Ginkgo




                         Cycads
                                                                                  http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/seedplant
                                                                                  s/ginkgoales/ginkgo.html

                                   http://www.moplants.com/blog/?p=1077
5. Tracheophytes
   b. Groups
           i. Lycopodiophytes
           ii. Monilophytes
           iii. Gymnosperms
            - Diversity            Cycads




           Still have flagellated sperm
           Fern-like, leathery leaves;
           Usually unbranched trunk
           Pollen produced in cones
           Ovules on specialized leaves or in
           cones
           SEEDS
5. Tracheophytes
   b. Groups
           i. Lycopodiophytes
           ii. Monilophytes
           iii. Gymnosperms
            - Diversity                Ginkgo
                          A ‘living fossil’ – single species of
                          a once diverse group. Native to
                          China. Flagellated sperm, pollen
                          in cones, ovules in fruit-like
                          structures.
5. Tracheophytes
   b. Groups
           i. Lycopodiophytes
           ii. Monilophytes
           iii. Gymnosperms
            - Diversity           Gnetales
                      A rare group with only three
                      families and ~60 species; sister
                      group to the conifers. Sperm do
                      not have flagella; they are           Gnetum sp.
                      transferred through the grown of
                      a pollen tube from the pollen to
                      the ovule, as in conifers.
                                                     Welwitschia mirabilis
         Ephedra – “mormon tea”
5. Tracheophytes
   b. Groups                                                Pines
           i. Lycopodiophytes                               Yews
           ii. Monilophytes                                 Spruce
           iii. Gymnosperms                                 Fir
            - Diversity               Conifers              Redwoods
                          The dominant group of             Sequoia
                          gymnosperms today, with about     Cypress
                          600 of the 900 gymnosperm         Hemlock
                          species. Both pollen and ovules   Cedar
                          borne in cones. Representatives   Juniper
                          include the largest and longest   Larch
                          lived plants on earth.
5. Tracheophytes
   b. Groups
           i. Lycopodiophytes
           ii. Monilophytes
           iii. Gymnosperms
                 - Life cycle




 http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/fa
 culty/webb/bot201/conifers/Micr
 oGameto240Lab.jpg
                                                                 Still dominate in harsh, dry, or cold
                                                                 environments




http://longleafs.info/pages/ecosystem.html




 http://www.ontariossunsetcountry.ca/category.cfm/code/300/tbi   http://friendsoftheinyo.org/cms/index.php?option=com
 d/1                                                             _content&view=category&layout=blog&id=11&Itemid=
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