20120828 transcript by 7Q3dg431

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									   BtN: Episode 24 Transcript 28/8/12
On this week's Behind the News

      Driving lessons for kids as young as 12 but will it make our roads safer in the
       future?

      We put forensic science under the microscope and investigate how it's used to
       solve crimes.

      And we get ready for the Paralympics and find there's an interesting history to
       these games.

Hi I'm Nathan Bazley, welcome to Behind the News.

Also on the show today - avoiding `gorilla’ warfare. What happens when the zoo's
dominant male needs to be replaced? Before all that, let's get straight into some of
the big news stories that happened this week. Here's Matt with the Wire.


The Wire
The first man to walk on the moon, Neil Armstrong has died at the age of 82.

He was the commander of Apollo 11 which travelled to the moon back in 1969.

NEIL ARMSTRONG, ASTRONAUT: The important achievement of Apollo was a
demonstration that humanity is not forever chained to this planet and our visions go
rather than that and our opportunities are unlimited.

450-million people around the world watched the moon landing.

“It's one small step for man, one giant leap for man-kind.”


*****
The world's most valuable technology company Apple has won a legal battle against
Samsung. It's been awarded just over a billion dollars in damages after a US jury
found Samsung copied features of Apple's iPhone and iPad.

The two companies have been locked in a few legal battles in several countries this
year.




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*****

And a much loved old painting of Jesus has been given an interesting restoration!

An 81-year old Spanish woman decided to have a go at restoring the 102-year old
painting. Some people reckon it now looks more like a hairy monkey. Church officials
say they'll try to fix the painting but some people see the funny side and thousands
have signed a petition to leave it as it is.




Foreign Embassies
Reporter: Sarah Larsen

INTRO: You probably already know a bit about Julian Assange. He's the boss of
WikiLeaks a website that's revealed some government secrets. He's wanted for a
crime in Sweden although his supporters reckon the charges are really about
punishing him for leaking top-secret US documents. It's a complicated story and it's
taken another twist involving a small South American country and an embassy.
Sarah explains.

SARAH LARSEN, REPORTER: If you felt like someone was chasing you, it'd be nice
to know there was a safe place, where you couldn't get caught.

KID: Safe! I'm safe

KID: I got him.

KID: What's the matter?

KID: I got him

KID: Na, it's barley.

Well, it's a long way from the playground but over in the UK one Australian on the
run seems to have found a safe haven of his own.

ASSANGE: I am here today because I cannot be there with you today.

You might recognise this guy.

Remember we told you about WikiLeaks? The website devoted to telling big secrets?




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ABC NEWSREADER: Massive leak of tens of thousands of classified US military
documents.
REPORTER: This is raw intelligence that WikiLeaks has revealed
US GOVERNMENT SPOKESMAN: There are names there are operations there's
logistics.

A few years ago it leaked some top secret US government files and ever since
WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange has felt like a man on the run.

ASSANGE: I ask president Obama to do right thing, USA must renounce its witch
hunt against WikiLeaks.

Right now he's in the UK, where he's supposed to be under arrest and waiting to be
sent overseas to answer some unrelated charges.

Except he's not. He's standing right there in front of police.

And right now they can't do anything about it because Assange is in a foreign
embassy.

Embassies are buildings where foreign diplomats work. They don't always look that
impressive but they are important.

Embassy workers make sure relationships between countries run smoothly, acting as
a link between their own government and their host country.

Because their work can be sensitive and because overseas laws can be very different
diplomats are protected by some special rules.

KID: Diplomatic immunity.

That means local police aren't supposed to arrest them, search their bags or even
come into the embassy without permission.

Because of those rules, embassies can become a safe haven for people on the run.

REPORTER: It's a big deal. If you take in someone wanted by your host country you
risk seriously damaging your relationship with them.

But it has happened before. If a country thinks someone is being treated unfairly
their embassy might be willing to help.

In London a country called Ecuador has agreed to protect Julian Assange.




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ASSANGE: I thank President Correa for the courage he has shown in considering and
in granting me political asylum.

Ecuador is here in South America and as many have pointed out it's not known for
giving its own people a lot of freedom of speech.

Some think it's not right to help Assange avoid the law in Sweden.

But he also has heaps of supporters.

ASSANGE SUPPORTER: He isn't a terrorist, he hasn't murdered anyone, in fact it is
highly unlikely he's don't anything that would be regarded as a criminal act anywhere
else in the Western World.

While he's in the embassy the UK authorities probably won't arrest him.

But as anyone who's played chasey knows, safe havens don't necessarily last forever.
If you try to leave you can find yourself trapped.

If Assange steps outside to get into a car or a plane he could be arrested.

So for the moment, he's stuck in his safety zone and no one know just how when or
where the stand-off will end.


Driving School
Reporter: Natasha Thiele

INTRO: How would you fancy getting behind the wheel of a car? That's a question
that kids don't get asked very often! But some as young as 12 are being given the
opportunity. It's part of a new driver safety program that's being tested in a school
in South Australia. Tash went to check it out.

ANDREW, INSTRUCTOR: Do you think you're ready to drive?

JAMON, STUDENT: Absolutely.

ANDREW: Terrific!

NATASHA THIELE, REPORTER: Jamon doesn't have a driver's licence. In fact, he's
never driven a car before. But when he does get his licence, the skills he's learning
today could protect him and others on the road.




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These school kids are taking part in a road safety program called Ignition. It teaches
them how to be safe drivers and it means kids will get a go behind the wheel.

SAM REID, INSTRUCTOR: We're certainly not putting them on an open road and
exposing them to a huge amount of risks. It's about creating a period of time where
they can practice these things; start to be aware of their strength and weaknesses
before they're out there on the road.

The training starts in the classroom. They run through things like crash statistics and
how driver behaviour can lead to accidents.

Before getting behind the wheel, the kids need to make sure the car is safe to drive.
Finally it's time to drive. But first on goes the seat belt, mirrors are checked, hands
on the steering wheel and we're away.

JAMON, STUDENT: When I hopped into the car I felt really oh scared and
everything that like I was in control of this car, but no after I took off it was quite fun.

ASHLEIGH, STUDENT: I was so nervous! I didn't want to drive it originally, but
some of my friends talked me into it and yeah actually getting behind the wheel
before we started moving I was pretty nervous, but once we got moving it was easier.

ALICE, STUDENT: My parents thought it was a great idea. They were so relieved
when I brought the note home, that I'd have some knowledge of how to drive.

HAYDEN, STUDENT: If kids can experience before they actually get on the road in a
safe environment I think yeah it's great.


BONNIE, STUDENT: It was kind of easy but sometimes like with the accelerator and
everything, you'd kind of put too much pressure on it.


Even I learned a thing or two which I didn't know before.

SAM: I want you to imagine 60-kays an hour, what distance you would currently sit
behind that vehicle in front at just 60-kays an hour.

REPORTER: Maybe here?

SAM: Let's come for a walk, we'll measure it out. Forty seven and forty eight, so
somewhere about here that's your three second gap.

REPORTER: That's like 10 cars could fit in there!



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SAM: It's a bit gap isn't it, so the reason why we do need to leave this three second
gap is because it actually takes us quite a long time to react.

Organisers hope more schools take up the program, so young people can be educated
about driver safety. And hopefully make our roads a whole lot safer in the future!

Presenter: OK let's make that our poll this week.


Online Poll

The question is:

Would teaching school kids to drive cars make our roads safer in the future?

To vote just head to our website. Last week we asked you if the new asylum seeker
solution is a good idea. 63 per cent of you said yes and 37 per cent of you said no.
Thanks for voting.


Paralympics
Reporter: Nathan Bazley

INTRO: After the excitement of the Olympics a few weeks ago a lot of people started
counting down to the next games in Rio in 2016. But there's more Olympics action
coming up really soon! It's the Paralympics the games for the disabled. Let's take a
look at what it's all about.

NATHAN BAZLEY, REPORTER: Are you thinking now that the Olympics has
finished, you'll have to wait another 4 years to see the same kind of strength, skill and
determination?

Well think again! (CHANNEL 4 LONDON PARALYMPICS AD EXCERPT)

This ad from England and the cheeky billboards that went with it have helped sports
fans realising something. The Paralympics feature just as much courage and just as
much drama, as its big brother, the Olympics. If not more!

And that realisation is putting London on track to be the first ever sold-out
Paralympic games. It's an amazing achievement. But it's a long way from where it all
began.




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World War II was the deadliest conflict in history. 60 million people were killed, but
many more were injured. Amputations were common and soldiers often found
themselves feeling sad and discouraged, whilst trying to recover. So one doctor in
Britain decided to get these soldiers focused on a new challenge - sport.

The theory worked wonders, and it wasn't long before the official Paralympics was
born. Australia is sending 304 athletes to the Paralympics this time around; our
largest team ever!

Four years ago in Beijing, we came 5th on medal tally with some spectacular
performances. This time around, we have some talented athletes looking to do even
better. Let's meet a couple of them.

KELLY: After losing my leg, I had to give up netball, so I took up running to get back
into normal life, and I've just stuck to it. It's just a part of my life now, it's what I do.

DYLAN: Jannik and I are pretty similar; we focus on our abilities, not our disability.
Wheelchair or not, we just enjoy life.

MATTHEW: The reason why I swim is I enjoy what I'm doing, the people that I get to
spend time with, and the feeling I get in the water.

KELLY: My goal is to get my personal best and if that means coming home with two
gold medals; that would be amazing.

DYLAN: To be 17 and win a gold medal was the best I've ever felt, and I want that
feeling again.

DYLAN: We're the number one team in the world right now, and the challenge is to
stay there. We used to hunt down the top teams, now they're the ones hunting us.

KELLY: I can't even describe what it's like being part of the Australian team. It's a
once in a lifetime opportunity, but I want to compete for Australia for as long as I
can.

For these and many other Aussie athletes, everything they have been working for will
come down to that one moment, one shot, one stretch in London.

And they're hoping all of us will be tuning in to cheer them on.

Presenter: And you can see all the action on the ABC over the next couple of weeks.
OK, let's have a Paralympic quiz.




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Quiz 1

The question is:

Which Paralympic sport is also called murderball?

Wheelchair basketball

Wheelchair rugby

Football

Answer: Wheelchair rugby

And I've been invited to try playing murder ball If I make it back in one piece we'll
bring you the story next week. Speaking of murder, sort of:


Forensic Science
Reporter: Nathan Bazley

INTRO: Most nights on the news, there are stories about crimes. You're probably
familiar with what a crime scene looks like there's often police tape blocking off
areas and people in funny suits checking for forensics. So how is forensic science
used to solve crimes? Let's investigate.

NATHAN BAZLEY, REPORTER: When criminals strike, you can bet the boys and
girls in blue will soon be there on the case. They'll start interviewing witnesses,
taking photos and combing the area for evidence.

But often, it's the evidence you can't see that can make all the difference. And that's
where these guys come in. They might not be the ones chasing down the crims, but
forensic scientists catch them in their own way.

Wait, the BtN forensic crime unit is being called out! These are snaps of the crime
scene. As you can see, there is a hammer lying on the ground, a broken window and a
piece of paper nearby. The poor victim has already gone back to the forensic lab for
tests. So what happened here? Okay, the first step is to take a look at that hammer.

FORENSIC EXAMINER: We've got an indication there is possibly blood on here, so
then using our test strips, we would do a presumptive test to check for blood. We
would rub the test pad on the suspected stain, and we'd be looking for a colour


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change. We add the water onto our test pad, and if we have blood it'll turn a nice
bright green like this within five seconds.

Okay so we have blood on the hammer! But what else might be on there?

FORENSIC EXAMINER: So we just swab the handle here quite vigorously. You want
to try to get as much of the cells that have transferred onto there as possible. And
that would be taken off and removed and sent off for DNA extraction and hopefully if
there is evidence there, we'll find a trace of the profile.

Okay so while we're waiting for those tests to come back, maybe we should check out
that piece of paper that was lying around the crime scene.

FORENSIC EXAMINER: Okay so what we would do, is we would come along with
our special fingerprint magnetic powder with a nice little brush and what we can do,
if we brush over this surface, you can see now that we're starting to get a print. So
we've got not just fingers coming out, but we've also got a nice palm print as well.

Ah hah! So now we know there is blood on the hammer, we've got DNA off the
handle and a fingerprint off the paper. Let's check in with how the autopsy is going.

PATHOLOGIST: We have a body, we have a look at it to see if there is any injury,
we're always very suspicious in case someone might have been quietly murdered, but
it very rarely happens! I always had fun pulling things apart but I could never put
them back together again, so I think pathology was my career, not neurosurgery!

Okay, we'll call those results inconclusive! It turns out we don't need them though,
because we have our verdict!

The DNA, blood and prints all belong to the same person - Mr Anatomical Model!

So our forensic science team has deduced that our victim must have been doing some
home renovation, when he slipped, threw the hammer in the air, landed on the paper
and the hammer hit him on the way back down again.

Great work from our crack forensic science unit here at BtN!

Presenter: OK, let's have a quiz about that.


Quiz 2

The question is:


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What's another name for an autopsy?

Coronary

Pathology

Post-mortem

Answer: Post-mortem

Post-mortem literally means after death. It's when a pathologist examines a body to
determine how someone died. OK, enough of the grizzly stuff. Let's catch up with the
sports headlines now. Here's Tash with the Score.


The Score
Cycling legend Lance Armstrong is set to lose his seven Tour de France titles. He was
accused of cheating by taking performance-enhancing drugs throughout his career.
Lance says he's innocent but has decided not to fight the charges anymore.

*****
And she might only be 15 but Lydia Ko has become the youngest champion in the
history of the LPGA tour. The amateur New Zealand golfer fired a 5-under-par 67 to
win the Canadian Women's Open by three strokes.

The prize money was about 290-thousand dollars but because Lydia is still an
amateur she's not allowed it. The money instead went to the person who finished
second.



Gorilla Love
Reporter: Sarah Larsen

INTRO: Most of us like going to zoos for the chance to see amazing animals from all
over the world. But zoos also have a big role in conservation and many have
breeding programs to try to make sure threatened species are here for years to
come. Taronga zoo has a breeding program for gorillas but managing gorilla
relationships is more complicated than you might think. Here's Sarah.

SARAH LARSEN, REPORTER: In this enclosure only one silverback gets to be boss.




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And right now that's Kibabu.

He's 35 years old, has three wives and has fathered more than a dozen young gorillas.

Some of the young boys might try to boss him around but they don't get very far.

This is how gorillas live in the wild. A silverback male is the leader of the troop made
up of females and his offspring. He makes all the decisions, leading the others to food
and keeping them safe.

And here at Taronga Zoo it's no different.

LOUISE GROSSFELDT, Primate Unit Supervisor: We're very fortunate that our
gorilla group is really a reflection of a wild gorilla group so you've got silverback
leading a harem which is made up of a number of unrelated gorilla females with a
number of offspring so we're very fortunate to have that here.

Except at 35, Kibabu's getting a bit too old to be boss. It's nearly time for him to
retire and that means these ladies need a new male in their lives.

So Taronga staff turned to the internet.

OK, it wasn't quite as romantic as that. But it was important to get the right gorilla.
They needed a male from a different family to maintain something called genetic
diversity.

ERNA WALRAVEN, Taronga Zoo Senior Curator: Zoos throughout the world work
together to keep helping healthy populations of gorillas in zoos that could potentially
be released back to the wild. So it's important that every animal contributes a certain
amount of genetic material a certain amount of offspring, not too many.

The zoo used special software to search for a silverback that would look after
Kibabu's family and eventually they chose 11 year old Kibali from France.

LOUISE GROSSFELDT: We were looking for a male that was able to live in a social
group. He'd seen offspring being born and raised. He'd seen his father lead a very
successful family unit and probably was a bonus that he pretty easy on the gorilla eye
too. He ticked all the boxes.

Kibali arrived in Sydney earlier this year but he hasn't taken over the troop just yet.
For now, he's working his charms on just one of the ladies.

They're getting along so well, the zoo has started pregnancy tests.




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ZOO VET: It's still looking negative today.

KEEPER: Ah OK

KEEPER: we have to wait another month.

ZOO VET: better luck next time

Oh well, no babies yet. But zoo keepers say there's plenty of time for that and they're
confident their new boy will be a great dad.

ERNA WALRAVEN: We do so far, we think he's going to be a great leader; he really
has the qualities of a good silverback.

And what about old Kibabu? Well, he doesn't know that his replacement is just on
the other side of this wall but the zoo says it'll make his retirement as easy as
possible.

LOUISE GROSSFELDT: That's still something we're working on. We need to
consider we're very much an institution that supports welfare in an individual level
so we really want to make sure we consider Kibabu through this entire process.

Kibabu's leaving some big footprints to fill, but when his days as head gorilla
eventually come to an end there'll be someone else waiting to look after this amazing
family.


Closer
That's it for the show. You can jump onto our website if you want to get more info on
any of the stories. You can send us your comments and don't forget to vote in this
week's poll. I'll see you next time.




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