15th-Century-Art-in-Northern-Europe by ajizai

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									15th Century Art in Northern
          Europe
• Bourgeois society, merchant economy,
  and close ties to Italy
• Very meticulous and detailed
• Growing middle class more concerned
  with the here and now on earth instead of
  eternal life/spiritual rewards after death
• Symbolism more important- single burning
  candle=presence of God; dog=loyalty
 Developments in Painting Techniques

• Used to using tempera: a paint made of dry
  colors mixed with a binding material
• Applied to surface prepared with a coat of
  gesso: a mixture of glue and a white pigment
  like plaster, chalk, or white clay
• Change to oil paints: a dry pigment mixed with
  oils, turpentine, and sometimes varnish
• Artists could create either a transparent smooth
  glaze or thick textured surface
• Dried more slowly; allowed artists more time to
  work on a piece
Robert Campin. Merode Altarpiece.
    1425-1428. Oil on wood.
•   Used for private devotions in home
•   Triptych- 3 panels that fold into 1 piece
•   Central panel – Annunciation
•   Right wing – Joseph in his workshop
•   Left wing – two donors kneel by an open door
• Sharp, precise details
           Christian symbols
•3 Lilies – purity of the Virgin #3– Holy Trinity
•Candle – Christ’s Incarnation
•Right panel: mousetraps- trap for the devil; Christ
is the bait
•Joseph – represents the bourgeois
             Jan van Eyck

• Most prominent painter of the early 15th c.
• Combines interest in natural detail and
  tactile sensibility with Christian symbolism
• Mixed pigment with linseed oil; built up
  layers into a rich translucent surface
                   Ghent Altarpiece. 1432.
•   Polyptych – many paneled painting
•   Lower central panel –passage from Book of Revelation
•   Lower side panels – worshipers traveling to the altar site
•   Top center panel – Deesis (God/Christ, Mary, John)
•   Panels on either side – music making angels
•   Outer panels – naked Adam and Eve
The Arnolfini Portrait- 1434.
               • Wedding portrait
                   Symbolism
• Her drapery- references
  to having children
• Wooden statue on chair
  back- represents St
  Margaret, patron of
  women in childbirth
• Single candle burning -
  Christ’s divine presence
  (also marriage candle)
• Mirror with scenes of
  Christ’s Passion
• Reflected in mirror are
  witnesses, one is the
  artist
• Above the mirror he
  wrote, “Jan van Eyck was
  here.”
• No shoes- holy event
  taking place
• The dog - fidelity
• Fruit on the chest and
  windowsill- innocence
   Realism and Emotionalism
• Art developed into a style that combined
  realism of Jan van Eyck with emotionalism
  of late Gothic period
     Rogier Van der Weyden
• Great Netherlandish painter
• Painted every detail with precision, but
  emphasized emotional impact of subject
  matter
   The Descent from the Cross. 1435.
• Figures large & compressed in small space
• Virgin Mary, Mary Magdalene at feet, St.
  John in red
• A series of curves unites the figures
• Christ’s body forms S curve; so does his
  fainting mother
        Hugo van der Goes
• Combined emotionalism of van der
  Weyden with realism of Jan van Eyck
• Altered nature & proportions of
  people/objects to add emotional impact
The Adoration of the Shepherds. 1476.
              Symbolism
• Bouquets= sorrows of Mary
• Shoe= holy ground
• Donkey (too stupid to understand)= people
  who don’t recognize Christ as savior
• Ox= faithful Christians
Art of 16th Century Europe
         Northern Italian Art
• Venetian painters fascinated with color,
  texture, mood
• Shift from Florence and Rome to Venice
• Discovery of flexible resins that made
  painting on canvas possible
             GIORGIONE
• Emotion through light and color
• Changed the bright light of 15th century
  painters to a soft, misty sunlight
• Strong visual unity
THE ADORATON OF THE SHEPHERDS
           1505-10.
 THE ADORATON OF THE SHEPHERDS
• Colors and values are muted for unifying
  effect
• Overcast sky softens the light; no harsh
  contrasts and shadows
• Mary and Joseph blend into the darks of
  the cave
                 TITIAN
• Artistic giant of Venice
• Used strong colors as main device
• Used oil on canvas as the typical medium;
  late in life loosened brushstrokes
• 3 subjects: pagan mythology, portraits of
  important people and rulers, and religious
  subjects
MADONNA WITH THE PESARO FAMILY- 1526
MADONNA WITH THE PESARO FAMILY- 1526
• Drama & power from use of diagonals, angles,
  and triangular arrangements
• The Madonna is off center
• Most figures are in motion
DOGE ANDREA GRITTI- 1546-48.
    DOGE ANDREA GRITTI- 1546-48.
• Ruthless maritime ruler; dominated the shipping
  lanes of the trading world
• A patron of the arts
• Slashing brushstrokes show physical strength of
  subject
• Soft edges show movement
               Mannerism
• A deliberate revolt by artists against the
  goals of the Renaissance
                     Mannerism
• Renaissance – peaceful, calm; Church
  unchallenged seat of authority.
• The Reformation – balance of power in western
  Europe shifted from religious to secular authorities
• Martin Luther and John Calvin
• Emergence of the Protestant Church
• Counter-Reformation – the counterchallenge where
  religious orthodoxy was strictly enforced in the
  Inquisition
• Emphasis placed on God’s role as judge and on the
  penalties of sin instead of possibility of redemption
   Comparing Renaissance to Mannerism
   Renaissance                              Mannerism
1. Balance                               1. Imbalance; odd perspective

2. Proportioned bodies                   2. Unreal proportions; elongated;
                                            grotesque

3. Muscular large bodies; solid, round   3. Slender; elegant; graceful
   bodies

4. Naturalistic                          4. Supernatural

5. Order                                 5. Confusion

6. Calmness                              6. Exaggeration; dramatic
                                            gestures
            Parmigianino
• Influenced by Raphael
• Distortion
Madonna with the Long Neck- 1535
     Madonna with the Long Neck- 1535
• Odd space- everyone jammed together in front
• Odd proportions- figures are short from the waist up
  and long from waist down
• The Madonna has elongated neck
• Man in the distance-Old Testament figure; link
  between pagan antiquity and Christian era
• His size is illogical
               El Greco
• Domenikos Theotokopoulos was Greek
  and worked in Spain
• In tune with the mystical fervor and
  religious zeal that predominated in
  Catholic Spain
Resurrection of Christ-
1596-1600
Resurrection of Christ

     • Christian mysticism- Christ rises
       in light against a dark
       background, halo forming a
       diamond shape
     • Unstable poses
     • 3-dimensional space decreased
Art of Northern Europe
        Matthias Grünewald
• German
• Influenced by Italian Renaissance
• Preferred dreams & visions of Gothic art
The Small Crucifixion- 1511-20.
       The Small Crucifixion- 1511-20.
• Describes Christ’s agony & death
• Body is pale yellow, like a corpse
• Ragged cloth, savage marks of wounds,
  fingers twisted
The Small Crucifixion- 1511-20.
           Albrecht Dürer
• German
• Turned away from Gothic art & embraced
  perspective/proportions of Renaissance
Knight, Death, and the Devil- 1513
      Knight, Death, and the Devil- 1513
• Engraving of Christian soldier riding along
  road of faith to heavenly Jerusalem
• Dog = loyalty
• Horseman = death
• Devil behind, hoping knight will lose
  courage
         Hieronymus Bosch
• Flemish painter
• Mirrored ideas that evil in the world had
  reached new heights
• Only a matter of time before God would
  punish them all
Garden of Delights- 1505-10
        Garden of Delights- 1505-10
• Triptych
• Creation of Eve- left panel; God presents
  to Adam a perfect but sly Eve
• Center panel- the downfall; hundreds of
  naked people frolic. No salvation for such
  a world
• Hell- right panel
        Garden of Delights- 1505-10

• Creation of Eve
         Garden of Delights- 1505-10

• Hell
            Peter Bruegel
• Flemish artist, influenced by Bosch
The Parable of the Blind- 1568
    The Parable of the Blind- 1568
• Parable- a story that contains a symbolic
  message
• 5 blind beggars walk in a line; the leader has
  fallen into a ditch
• “And if the blind lead the blind, both shall fall into
  a ditch”

								
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