Pax Romana Introduction PAX by ajizai


									The Pax Romana
Ancient Rome Unit

    Causes for Decline of the
    Roman Republic
   After Roman Republic begins policy of
    imperialism, which quickly leads to decline.
    – What is imperialism?
        characterizing the rule or authority of a
         sovereign state over its dependencies.
    – What wars do you believe would have started this?
   After the Punic Wars, the Republic is
    consumed by civil war.
    – Factors are described in the FALLS Mnemonic that
      we just learned.
    – Leads to chaos, corruption, and end of Republic.
Fall related to the new
pressures of new social
and economic conditions.
   Political leaders
    often resorted to
    violence to solve
    problems instead of

A huge migration of
small farmers into cities
= no jobs
Lots of slaves from newly
conquered territories
                            By the fall of the
                             Republic, between 1 &
                             3 million people living
                             in Rome were slaves.
                             (~35% of population!!)
                            Slave rebellions in
                             places like Sicily (led by
                             Spartacus) led to grain
                             shortages and chaos.

Loss of value of Roman
money, inflation
Spark = Death of Julius
Caesar and the fighting over his
heir (44 B.C.)
   Julius Caesar took power as part
    of the First Triumvirate (a group
    of three leaders).
   Caesar wrestled power away from
    the other two leaders and in 49
    B.C. became the dictator of Rome.
   Many Senators, led by Brutus, felt
    he was too powerful and
    conspired to kill him.
   On March 15, 44 B.C. (The “ides”
    of March), Caesar is ambushed
    and killed by members of the

Who is Julius Caesar?
   60 BC First Triumvirate
    (have to remember this
    term!) takes control –
    group of three that rule.
   Julius Caesar is one of the
   After a few years, other
    two die; one dies, one
   Caesar gains control,
    named dictator for life.
   People afraid he would gain
    too much power
   So what do they do?
Death to Caesar

   60 senators plot
    to kill him
   Stabbed to
    death on the
    Ides of March
    in the Senate.
   Does he have a
    clear heir?
Video Clip

   While watching this video, identify the
    following two people.
    – Mark Anthony

    – Octavian Augustus
         The Pax Romana “Roman
         Peace” (27 B.C.-180 A.D.)
            So to review:
               – Caesar dies 44 B.C.
               – Augustus is in Caesar’s will, Marc Anthony is
2nd            – They fight, then cooperate, with Marc Anthony
Triumvirate!     ruling in the East and Augustus in the West.
               – Augustus gains total control in 31 BC after
                 defeating Anthony and Cleopatra– becomes 1st
                 Roman Emperor.
               – 27 B.C. – Augustus begins a series of reforms to
                 usher in the Pax Romana.
The Period known as the
P.A.X. Romana is
remembered for three
Peace for Two Centuries
(27 B.C. – 180 A.D.)
     Why?
        – The Roman Empire was too strong and
          united to be challenged.
        – The Roman military was nearly invincible.
Augustus Caesar
established the Pax Romana
   Often said Emperor
    Augustus, “Found
    Rome a city of brick
    and left it a city of
   Unified and enlarged
    Roman Empire using
    imperial authority and
    strong military.
Xpansion and Solidification
of Roman Empire


   We just defined the characteristics of
    the Pax Romana (PAX). What are
    some things that Augustus probably
    did to create the Pax Romana?

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