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Leisure’s Anthropology Chapter 5 Overview of Today’s Session Introduction Primary lessons to learned Reasons for an anthropological perspective of leisure Leisure in technological cultures (US & Japan) Leisure in developing countries (Vietnam, Poland, Costa Rica) Quiz question Primary Lessons Leisure is present in every culture in the world. Leisure is so much a part of the patterns of life that it can describe how cultures are both similar and different. Leisure differs according to the development of the country. Leisure is both a victim and a tool of modernization. Reasons for An Anthropological Perspective of Leisure Recreative elements from one culture tend to be adopted by other cultures; global community. Certain forms of leisure help maintain culture. Certain forms of leisure destroy culture. Leisure can be fertile ground for cultural innovations; new changes in leisure Culture Definitions Culture: A set of standards shared by members of a social group which produce behavior considered proper and acceptable. Cultural Anthropology: Anthropology that focuses on the patterns of life of a society. Leisure in Technological Cultures Goodale and Godbey say technology is no friend to leisure. Do you agree with this conclusion? Why or Why not? Leisure in Technological Cultures US, Japan and Germany are all considered modern in the sense they are industrially, technologically and commercially advanced. What are some cultural characteristics of the US? Japan? Leisure in Technological Cultures Modernization: involves implementation of recent techniques, methods, or ideas. The process is best characterized by: Technological development Agricultural development Industrialization Urbanization Ethnocentric: belief that one’s own culture is superior to all others; becoming modern really means “becoming like us.” Leisure in Developing Cultures Privatization: private ownership of previously government monitored services. Ecotourism Ecotourism: sensitive to and/or helpful to care for natural environment; capitalize upon and benefit from the natural beauty of their country. Ecotourism What it is… Preserving the natural environment and giving the local residents fair employment. The basic objective of ecotourism is to help visitors appreciate the natural and cultural uniqueness of a site by bringing them closer to it while paying for nature conservation and increasing the value of land left natural. Empowers and encourages the local population to take an active role in environmental programs. Interested in making money but only in an environmentally friendly manner. Proceeds go back into the community in land management and conservation. Ecotourism More important to educate the tourist than it is to make money. Hands-on activities, information displays, educational seminars offer visitor a better understanding of local environment. Eliminates the “wear and tear” on a site while preserving the natural habitats and archeological areas. Not interested in bringing in throngs of tourists but instead offers purposeful travel to natural areas for a limited number of tourists. Since many ecotourism attractions can be located in remote and rural areas, planners must minimize harm and disruption to ancient cultures and areas while maximizing the many benefits. Ecotourism Consumption of tourism does not exceed the ability of the local community.....provides for the freedom, education and welfare of the host community. The locals should be given the opportunity to act as a partner in the development Ecotourism is not only about safeguarding the environment but is also involved in employing and informing the locals as well as educating the tourist. Who wins? Traveler, local population, tourism industry and the environment. “Sustainable development” is a developing concept. Ensures that the of the land. Ecotourism From an ecotourist or visitor’s standpoint.... “Take only pictures and leave only footprints” Willing to sacrifice “luxury” for an environmentally friendly vacation. Leisure in Developing Countries Vietnam Leisure is an economic development tool (tourism). Leisure has commercial power. Development is high. Tourist want to see religion, social V I E T aspects and scenic beauty. N A M Hotels, transportation is growing. Leisure in Developing Countries Poland Over 60% of population live in cities resulting in many old traditions fading. In shifting from communist system to a market-oriented system, an essential feature is the privatization of public enterprises: sport clubs, cinemas, recreational establishments. Commercialization of recreation activities… available only to those who are able to pay. Leisure in Developing Countries Costa Rica Democratic society surrounded by dictator-driven countries. Primary industry is its tourism trade. – plush forests – active volcanoes – pristine beaches – abundant wildlife COSTAIn an effort to stymie the ecological damage caused by tourism, Costa Rica RICA has implemented ecotourism.
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