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									         Leisure’s Anthropology
                     Chapter 5

   Overview of Today’s Session
    Primary lessons to learned
    Reasons for an anthropological perspective of
    Leisure in technological cultures (US & Japan)
    Leisure in developing countries (Vietnam,
     Poland, Costa Rica)
    Quiz question
             Primary Lessons
   Leisure is present in every culture in the
    world. Leisure is so much a part of the
    patterns of life that it can describe how
    cultures are both similar and different.

   Leisure differs according to the development
    of the country.

   Leisure is both a victim and a tool of
Reasons for An Anthropological
    Perspective of Leisure

   Recreative elements from one culture tend
    to be adopted by other cultures; global

   Certain forms of leisure help maintain

   Certain forms of leisure destroy culture.

   Leisure can be fertile ground for cultural
    innovations; new changes in leisure
        Culture Definitions
   Culture:
    A set of standards shared by members
     of a social group which produce
     behavior considered proper and

   Cultural Anthropology:
    Anthropology that focuses on the
     patterns of life of a society.
    Leisure in Technological
   Goodale and Godbey say technology is no
    friend to leisure.
Do you agree with this conclusion? Why or
                 Why not?
    Leisure in Technological
   US, Japan and Germany are all considered
    modern in the sense they are industrially,
    technologically and commercially

What are some cultural characteristics of the
               US? Japan?
    Leisure in Technological
   Modernization: involves implementation of
    recent techniques, methods, or ideas. The
    process is best characterized by:
     Technological development
     Agricultural development
     Industrialization
     Urbanization

   Ethnocentric: belief that one’s own culture
    is superior to all others; becoming modern
    really means “becoming like us.”
           Leisure in
       Developing Cultures
   Privatization: private ownership of
    previously government monitored
   Ecotourism: sensitive to and/or helpful to
    care for natural environment; capitalize
    upon and benefit from the natural beauty
    of their country.

   What it is…
     Preserving the natural environment and giving the
      local residents fair employment.
     The basic objective of ecotourism is to help visitors
      appreciate the natural and cultural uniqueness of a site
      by bringing them closer to it while paying for nature
      conservation and increasing the value of land left
     Empowers and encourages the local population to take
      an active role in environmental programs.
     Interested in making money but only in an
      environmentally friendly manner.
     Proceeds go back into the community in land
      management and conservation.
More important to educate the tourist than it is to
 make money. Hands-on activities, information
 displays, educational seminars offer visitor a better
 understanding of local environment.
Eliminates the “wear and tear” on a site while
 preserving the natural habitats and archeological
Not interested in bringing in throngs of tourists but
 instead offers purposeful travel to natural areas for a
 limited number of tourists.
Since many ecotourism attractions can be located in
 remote and rural areas, planners must minimize harm
 and disruption to ancient cultures and areas while
 maximizing the many benefits.
Consumption of tourism does not exceed the ability
 of the local community.....provides for the freedom,
 education and welfare of the host community. The
 locals should be given the opportunity to act as a
 partner in the development Ecotourism is not only
 about safeguarding the environment but is also
 involved in employing and informing the locals as
 well as educating the tourist.
Who wins? Traveler, local population, tourism
 industry and the environment.
“Sustainable development” is a developing concept.
 Ensures that the of the land.
   From an ecotourist or visitor’s
     “Take only pictures and leave only
     Willing to sacrifice “luxury” for an
       environmentally friendly vacation.
                        Leisure in
                   Developing Countries
               Vietnam
                Leisure is an economic development
                 tool (tourism).
                Leisure has commercial power.
                Development is high.
                Tourist want to see religion, social

                 aspects and scenic beauty.

                Hotels, transportation is growing.
            Leisure in
       Developing Countries
   Poland
    Over 60% of population live in cities
     resulting in many old traditions fading.
    In shifting from communist system to a
     market-oriented system, an essential
     feature is the privatization of public
     enterprises: sport clubs, cinemas,
     recreational establishments.
    Commercialization of recreation
     activities… available only to those who
     are able to pay.
             Leisure in
        Developing Countries
    Costa Rica
     Democratic society surrounded by
      dictator-driven countries.
     Primary industry is its tourism trade.
       – plush forests
       – active volcanoes
       – pristine beaches
       – abundant wildlife
COSTAIn an effort to stymie the ecological
      damage caused by tourism, Costa Rica

      has implemented ecotourism.

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