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Literary Devices Iambic pentameter is a line of poetry made up of five iambs: an iamb is a metrical foot consisting of one unstressed syllable followed by one stressed syllable; the pentameter line has five metrical feet; Shall I / compare / thee to / a sum/mer’s day? u / u / u / u / u / Shall I com pare thee to a sum mer’s day? Lord Capulet: Juliet’s dad. Loves Juliet and wants to see her marry well, but thinks she is too young to marry yet. Expects obedience. Lady Capulet: Juliet’s mom. Manages the Capulet household. Like most wealthy women at the time, does not actively participate in Juliet’s upbringing, so they have a distant relationship. Juliet: 13 year-old daughter. Has been brought up to be a lady and be obedient to her father’s will. Like most women of the time, Juliet has lived a sheltered life. Tybalt: A hot-tempered cousin who’s always looking for a fight. Nurse: Juliet’s caretaker since birth. She had a daughter, Suzanna, who was Juliet’s age, and served as a wet nurse for Juliet . She is responsible for Juliet’s daily upbringing and becomes her confidante. Peter: The Nurse’s servant. Samson & Gregory: Capulet servants. Lord Montague: Romeo’s father and head of the Montague family. Lady Montague: Romeo’s mother who is worried about Romeo’s depression at the beginning of the play. Romeo: The Montague’s teenaged son. At the beginning of the play, he is sad because Rosaline has rejected him. He vows he will never love again. Benvolio: Romeo’s peaceful and encouraging cousin. Benvolio tries to break up fights and encourages Romeo to play the field to get over his heartbreak. Balthasar & Abraham: Montague servants Church Royalty Friar Laurence: Religious Prince Escalus: Ruler of advisor to Verona. Like Verona. Early in the play, he many monks of the time, establishes the law that Friar Laurence is also a anyone who reignites the feud scientist whose expertise is will be put to death. in herbology. He has Mercutio: Romeo’s best frequently advised Romeo to friend. Mercutio is moody and give up his failed courtship of erratic. Rosaline and serves as Count Paris: A member of Romeo’s confidant. the royal family who is trying Friar John: Another monk to make arrangements with who visits the sick. Lord Capulet to marry Juliet. Genre meant to be performed by actors in front of an audience. Ex: Romeo and Juliet, The Crucible Sub-genre of drama in which events turn out disastrously for the main characters, often in death, caused by fate or a character’s tragic flaw. Ex: Romeo and Juliet A brief opening of a play spoken by the “chorus” that settles the audience and previews the plot. Ex: “Two households, both alike in dignity…” A play on words that sound alike but have different meanings. Ex: Did you hear about the sleeping man who got run over by a car? He was tired and exhausted! Two juxtaposed words that mean opposite things. Ex: sweet sorrow loud silence jumbo shrimp Repetition of similar consonant sounds in the same proximity. Ex: Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers. Ex from R&J: “I’ll look to like if looking liking move” (Juliet Act 1, scene 3) A long, dramatic speech delivered by one character. Ex: Prince Escalus addresses the crowd after the fight. A 14-line lyrical poem written in iambic pentameter and following the rhyme scheme: ABAB CDCD EFEF GG. EXAMPLE: ??? Language that appeals to the five senses of sight, sound, touch, taste, and smell. Ex: The hot pizza burned his mouth but tasted great as it filled his growling stomach. A figure of speech in which an object or idea is given human qualities. Ex:The grass danced in the wind, happy to receive a spring breeze. A figure of speech that compares two things using like or as. Ex:She floated in like a cloud on a breezy day. A figure of speech that directly equates two unlike things. Ex: The book was a passport to adventure. Words spoken that other characters on stage do not supposedly hear. Ex: Juliet speaking about Romeo, but her mother not hearing. A long speech in which a character, usually alone on stage, reveals thoughts and/or feelings. No other characters are meant to overhear a soliloquy. Ex: Romeo talking about how beautiful Juliet is while hiding beneath her balcony. A long, dramatic speech delivered by one character. Ex: Prince Escalus addresses the crowd after the fight. Absurd or humorous misuse of a word, especially by confusion with one of similar sound. Not a pun – often a mistake. EX: When the oven caught on fire, my brother had to use the fire distinguisher to put it out. "He was a man of great statue." Thomas Menino, Boston mayor "Republicans understand the importance of bondage between a mother and child." Dan Quayle, Vice President in the text to Clues suggest what is going to happen later. Ex: ??? Theaudience knows something the characters do not know. Ex: We know the killer is in the closet, but the soon-to-be victim does not. Romeo and Juliet example: ????????? A character that contrasts the personality traits of another character, usually opposites. Ex: ???? when a speaker addresses something Occurs nonhuman. Ex: Juliet talking to her tears. A reference to a person, place, or thing in literature or culture that the writer expects the reader to understand. Ex:She is as mysterious as the Mona Lisa’s smile. Humor in a play to break a serious mood or relieve tension. Ex:The musicians making puns with Peter after Juliet is found dead. Anexaggeration or overstatement used for effect. Ex:My backpack weighs a ton! Thesituation turns out differently than the audience expects. Ex:A wife sells her hair to buy her husband a watch chain, but he has sold his watch to buy combs for her hair. Sayingone thing but meaning another, often sarcastically. Ex:You have a broken leg that really hurts but you say, “I feel like I could run a marathon!” Recurringidea or element (symbol, character, etc.) in a work. Ex:Various bird references appear in To Kill a Mockingbird. Represents something beyond itself, usually abstract or complex. Ex:The American flag symbolizes freedom and democracy to many people. A stated or implied underlying meaning or message of a work. Ex:Dorothy learns that “there’s no place like home” in the Wizard of Oz.
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