Personality by R8VDq9

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									            Personality

            Psychology 1001




9/17/2012
              introduction
 Up to this point we have talked about
  similarities
 Personality deals with individuality
 Where does it come from?
 Lots of ideas
 Lots of ways to study differences




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            Freud’s Psychoanalysis
 Big influence in earlier years
 Not as big today
 MD
 Lotsa people were sick, but he could no
  diagnose them with traditional methods
 Studied hypnosis
 Developed free association


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            Free Association
 Supposedly, it leads to the unconscious
 Stuff we aren’t aware of
 Memories
 Thoughts
 Desires
 Some things are temporarily in some sort
  of preconscious areas
 Also from dreams, slips of the tongue etc

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 Personality development according
              so Siggy

 Our personality arises from struggles
  between pleasures and restrictions
 Satisfaction without punishment
 There are three subsystems that make
  sure that we accomplish this


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               The three systems
    Id
        Unconscious nasty psychic energy
        Operates on the pleasure principle
    Ego
        Gratify id in a reasonable way
        Reality principle
    Superego
        Our conscience
        Sort of the arch enemy of the id
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             Development
 According to Freud we go through a series
  of psychosexual stages where the id
  focuses on different erogenous zones, this
  forms our personality
 Oral stage, first 18 months
 Anal stage, 18 months – 3 years
 Phallic stage 3-6 years


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                Icky stuff
 During the phallic stage we go though the
  Oedipus complex
 Resolved through identification
 Girls have penis envy…..
 Latency until puberty
 Genital stage Is mature sexuality
 We fixate on stages with unresolved
  conflicts
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            Defense mechanisms
 We use these to get though daily life
 Repression
 Regression
 Reaction formation
 Projection
 Rationalization
 Displacement
 All are unconscious

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            Freud was whacked
 There were dissenters
 Erikson
 Jung
 Get at unconscious with the Rorschach
  test or the TAT
 These tests are about as reliable as the
  farmer’s almanac…

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  So, what do modern psychologists
   think of this crap, err, this theory
 Dreams?
 Repression
 Unconscious
 Early development vs. life long change?
 Biggest problem is that it is all post hoc
 No prediction
 NOT A SCIENTIFIC THEORY

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                     Trait perspective
    Maybe, instead of
     worrying about the
     unconscious, we
     could worry about the
     conscious?
    Could try classifying
     people
           Doesn’t work all that
            well
    Describing?
           Eysenck’s ideas
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               The Big 5
 Emotional stability
 Extroversion
 Openness
 Agreeableness
 Conscientiousness
 There may be more, but you get the idea
 Assessed with questionnaires

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            Personality inventories
    MMPI
    Empirically driven
    Make predictions
    Objective vs. projective tests
    You can catch a cheater
    Are people consistent?
    Situation important too
    Epstein (1983)
    Overall style vs. given behaviour

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                 Humanistic approach
    Sort of holistic
    Mazlow
    Self-actualization
           Fulfilling our potential
    Mazlow studied the
     successful
           Self-accepting
           Courage to be
            different

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                      Carl Rogers
    Hi views were pretty
     similar
    “People are generally
     good”
    Need to be in a
     growth promoting
     environment
           Genuineness
           Acceptance
           empathy

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                    Humanism
 Unconditional positive regard
 Self concept, positive or negative, is
  valued
 How do you measure this stuff?
        Questionnaires?
        Interviews?

    Self-esteem has been looked at quite a bit

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              Self-esteem
 Feelings of self worth
 Higher self esteem, better day to day life
 Happier
 Less drug use
 Sleep better
 Less of those, more likely to be depressed
 Maybe goes in the other direction?

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                     Esteem
    Not only in one direction
    Make someone feel lousy, they are more likely
     to act like a jerk
    Minorities don’t have lower self esteem
    Most people have pretty high self esteem
    Self serving bias
    Not that surprising, but don’t push it to the
     delusional
    Pretty Western-centric
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            Humanism is another ism
 Very influential ideas
 Self esteem, self worth a big ides,
  important in education
 But….
 Vague
 Self actualization = self indulgence?
 People probably are NOT basically good


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       Social Cognitive Perspective
    Importance of
                                            Overt
     the effect of                         Behaviour
     external events
     on our behaviour
    Reciprocal
     determinism
    Locus of control
     is another big     Personal Factors               Environment
     issue

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            Social cognition
 Learned helplessness is the ultimate in
  external LOC
 Past behaviour predicts future behaviour
 Biggest criticism is that traits are ignored




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              conclusions
 People are consistent
 Can be measured
 Freud was nuts
 Situation plays a role too




9/17/2012

								
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