Research Variables, validity, and Reliability by IEtTF70j

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									Research Variables, validity,
      and Reliability

        Presented by Alin
Out line
   4.1 Introduction
   4.2 Hypotheses
   4.3 Variable Types
    •   4.3.1 Independent and Dependent Variables
    •   4.3.2 Moderator Variables
    •   4.3.3 Intervening Variables
    •   4.3.4 Control Variables
   4.4 Operationalization
   4.5 Measuring Variables: Scales of Measurement
4.1 Introduction
   Research Question :
     What is the effect of form-focused
    instruction on the acquisition of English
    relative clauses by French- and Japanese-
    speaking learners of English ?

4.2 Hypotheses
   Definition :
    Hypotheses : the type of prediction found in many
                                           There about
     experimental studies; it is a statement is no what
     we expect to happen in a study. relationship between
                                           items under
                         Research Hypotheses


                               Null Hypotheses
      Non-directional /
      Two-way hypothesis


                      The French-speaking group will
                      perform better on a posttest than
      Research hypothesis                   Null hypothesis
                        the Japanese-speaking group
“There will be a difference between   “There will be no difference between
      the performance of the                 the performance of the
     French-speaking group                  French-speaking group
   and the Japanese-speaking              and the Japanese-speaking
        group on a posttest                    group on a posttest
4.3.1Variable Types
   Independent variables
    • It is the one that we believe may “cause” the
   Dependent variable
    • It is the one we measure to see the effects the
      independent variables has on it.
   We want to effects of different
    types of instruction on a group of foreign language
   Table 4.1
    Research Question           Independent Variable          Dependent Variable
  Does length of residence               Length of residence Measure of success in
 affect identification of word-final                                   identifying word-final
consonants ?                                                           consonants

                                                                       Higher grade
4.3.2Moderator Variables
   Definition : They are characteristics of
    individuals or of treatment variables that
    may result in an interaction between an
    independent variable and other variables.
   They may not be main focus of the study,
    but may modify the relationship between the
    independent variables and the dependent
4.3.3 Intervening Variables
   Definition :
    • 1.Similar to moderator variables.
    • 2.exclude in the original research (whatever
    • is not controlled and may complicate the
        interpretation of the result.
4.3.4 Control Variables
   Researchers need to identify the possible
    factors and control for them in some way.

                  native language
                    background            Control
 variable                                Variables
4.4 Operationalization
   Definition : It is difficult to measure variables
    directly, so researchers provide working
    definitions of variables.
4.5 Measuring Variables:
Scales of Measurement
   1. Nominal
      used for attributes or categories. No indication or order or
      magnitude of differences.
    2. Ordinal
     Ordering is implied, but no implication of an equal distance
      between each rank order.
   3.Interval.
     Represent the order of a variable’s values. (the number of
      correct answers, years of residence, age)

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