26 Oct Wendy Arnold differentiation ppt beijing

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26 Oct Wendy Arnold differentiation ppt beijing Powered By Docstoc
					        A pragmatic solution to
     differentiation in the English
          language classroom

For a copy of this presentation please contact:
arnoldworld@gmail.com
                        Presenter
Wendy Arnold

•   MA in Teaching English to Young Learners (TEYL – York)
•   PCEd (HK)
•   Freelance teacher, trainer, writer, researcher
•   IATEFL’s YLT SIG committee
•   Specialist in reading for young learner literacy
•   15 years experience teaching Chinese young learners
•   Trained teachers in Asia, Africa and Europe
               Overview
Part i) Data on the longitudinal study
Part ii) Understanding why the right reading
  level is important
Part iii) Quick assessment to check ‘right’
  reading level
Part iv) Applying reading strategies


                                               3
           Rationale for study
A ‘one-size fits all’ does not appear to meet the
  needs of all the learners in one class. BUT
  what are the ranges of abilities in:
a) One class
b) One yeargroup

What materials could close the gap between a
  coursebook and individual needs?
    Part i) Background to longitudinal
                   study
•   6 years study in Hong Kong
•   Pilot for 9/10 year olds for one year
•   2004 continued study for 9-12 year olds
•   2005 continued study for 8-12 year olds
•   2006 continued for study 7-12 year olds
•   Used published 30 level reading scheme
•   Placement for reading level = 1:1 assessment
    with teacher based on comprehension of text
    and reading aloud
                               Micro level
                    Individual assessment - up close
formative                                                                                           summative
          Primary   Primary   Primary   Primary   Primary   Primary   Primary   Primary   Primary    Primary   Primary
             1         2         2         3         3         4         4         5         5          6         6
          Term 2    Term 1    Term 2    Term 1    Term 2    Term 1    Term 2    Term 1    Term 2     Term 1    Term 2
Jul
2006-
Jul
                                                  1         3         5         10 14 17
2009
P4-6                                              17 24 27 27 29 30
(3 yrs)
Jul
2007-                         1         3         4         6
Jul
2011
P3-6                          23 26 28 30
(4 yrs)

Jul
2007-     1         1         2         6
Jan
2012
P2-6
(5 yrs)
          20 23 24 26
        Macro level - Profile of a Primary 1 class +1 year
          of English language teaching – no reading
              scheme (scheduled to do 5 years)
2008-9 CONTINUAL BENCHMARK (+0 TERMS/0 YEARS PM reading) COHORT
NO. 6




                                                                                                                                                                  total    ave
Jul '08      1   2    3    4    5    6    7    8    9    10   11   12   13   14   15   16   17   18   19   20   21   22   23   24   25   26   27   28   29   30   pupils   level

P1A          2   3    2    3    4    4    2    0    0    0    0    1    0    4    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0       25

P1B          0   4    5    4    5    2    1    0    0    1    1    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    1    0    0    0    0    0    0    0       24

P1C          1   0    1    4    5    2    2    1    1    2    0    2    0    0    0    1    1    0    0    1    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0       24

P1D          3   3    1    4    3    4    3    1    1    0    1    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0       24



total        6   10   9    15   17   12   8    2    2    3    2    3    0    4    0    1    1    0    0    1    0    0    1    0    0    0    0    0    0    0       97



ave levels   6   20   27   60   85   72   48   16   18   30   22   36   0    56   0    16   17   0    0    20   0    0    23   0    0    0    0    0    0    0      572     5.9




                      Average
                      level 5.9
        Macro level - Profile of a Primary 2 class +2 years
         of English language teaching – +1 year reading
               scheme (scheduled to do 4 years)

2007-8 CONTINUAL BENCHMARK (+2 TERMS/1 YEARS PM reading) COHORT NO.
5B


                                                                                                                                                             total
Jul '08      1   2   3    4    5    6     7   8    9   10   11   12   13   14   15   16   17   18   19   20   21   22   23   24   25   26   27   28   29   30pupils        ave level

P2A          0   0   1    1    3    3     1   5    1    3    3   1    2    3    0    0    0    0    0    1    0    0    0    0    1    0    0    0    0     0         30


P2B          0   0   1    2    2    1     2   6    2    4    2   2    0    0    1    0    1    1    0    0    1    0    1    1    0    0    0    0    0     0         30


P2C          3   2   1    1    1    2     2   1    1    1    2   1    0    3    0    1    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0     0         23


P2D          0   0   2    1    2    2     3   5    3    2    1   2    1    1    0    0    2    0    0    1    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0     0         28


total        3   2   5    5    8    8     8   17   7   10    8   6    3    7    1    1    3    1    0    2    1    0    1    1    1    0    0    0    0     0    111


ave levels   3   4   15   20   40   48   56 136    63 100   88   72   39   98   15   16   51   18   0    40   21   0    23   24   25   0    0    0    0     0   1015              9.2




                                         Average level
                                              9.2
 Macro level - Profile of a Primary 3 class +3 years
  of English language teaching – +1 year reading
        scheme (scheduled to do 4 years)
2007-8 CONTINUAL BENCHMARK (+2 TERMS/1 YEARS PM reading) COHORT NO. 5A


                                                                                                                                                          total
                                                                                 1   1                                                                    pupil   ave
Jul '08      1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10   11   12    13   14   15    6   7   18   19   20   21   22   23   24   25   26   27   28   29   30   s       level

P3A          0   0   1   1   0   0   1   2   1   0    0    5     0    3     4    1   3   1    3    1    1    0    1    0    0    1    0    1    0    0       31

P3B          0   0   0   1   1   0   2   1   0   4    3    4     0    2     2    1   0   2    1    3    0    1    1    0    2    0    0    0    0    0       31

P3C          0   0   0   0   0   0   1   1   0   3    2    1     0    3     2    2   0   2    1    1    2    0    1    0    0    2    1    1    1    1       28

P3D          0   0   0   4   1   2   2   0   0   1    1    1     1    3     3    1   1   1    0    0    0    0    0    0    1    1    0    0    0    0       24

total        0   0   1   6   2   2   6   4   1   8    6    11    1    11   11    5   4   6    5    5    3    1    3    0    3    4    1    2    1    1      114

                         2   1   1   4   3                 13         15         8   6   10        10                            10
ave levels   0   0   3   4   0   2   2   2   9   80   66    2    13    4   165   0   8    8   95    0   63   22   69   0    75    4   27   56   29   30   1668    14.6




                                                                Average level
                                                                    14.6
 Macro level - Profile of a Primary 4 class +4 years
 of English language teaching – +2 years reading
        scheme (scheduled to do 4 years)

2007-8 CONTINUAL BENCHMARK (+4TERMS/2 YEARS PM reading) COHORT
NO. 4B

                                                                                                                                                           total
                                                                                                                                                           pupi    ave
Jul '08      1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10   11   12   13   14   15   16   17   18   19   20   21   22   23    24   25   26   27   28   29   30   ls      level

P4A          0   1   0   0   1   0   1   1   1   1    0    0    1    1    2    2    3    0    4    1    3    1     0    1    2    0    1    0    1    1      30

4B           0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0    0    1    0    3    0    1    3    0    5    4    3    0     2    0    1    1    1    0    0    1      26

P4C          0   0   0   1   0   0   0   0   0   0    1    3    0    2    1    2    1    0    3    2    2    1     2    1    2    0    2    0    1    1      28

P4D          0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   3   0    0    2    2    0    3    2    4    2    2    1    0    0     2    0    1    1    1    0    0    2      28

total        0   1   0   1   1   0   1   1   4   1    1    6    3    6    6    7    11   2    14   8    8    2     6    2    6    2    5    0    2    5     112

                                             3                                 11   18        26   16   16                   15        13             15    207
ave levels   0   2   0   4   5   0   7   8   6   10   11   72   39   84   90    2    7   36    6    0    8   44   138   48    0   52    5   0    58    0      2      18.5




                                                                                      Average
                                                                                     level 18.5
   Macro level - Profile of a Primary 5 class +5 years
   of English language teaching – +2 years reading
          scheme (scheduled to do 3 years)
2006-7 CONTINUAL BENCHMARK (+4 TERMS/2 YEARS PM reading) COHORT NO. 3


                                                                                                                                                              total   ave
                                                                                                                                                              pupil   leve
Jul '07         1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10   11   12   13   14   15   16   17   18   19   20   21   22    23   24   25   26   27   28   29   30   s       l

P5A             0   0   0   0   0   0   1   0   0   0    1    0    1    0    0    0    1    3    0    5    1     1    0    3    1    4    0    1    4    4       31

P5B             0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0    1    0    0    0    0    1    0    1    0    1    0     4    3    4    1    2    2    5    2    2       30

P5C             0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0    0    1    0    2    1    3    2    1    1    2    1     4    2    0    1    1    1    0    4    4       31

P5D             0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   1    0    0    1    2    0    0    1    1    2    0    3     5    1    1    1    1    3    1    2    5       32

total           0   0   0   0   0   0   1   0   0   1    2    1    2    4    1    4    4    6    3    8    5    14    6    8    4    8    6    7    12   15    124


                                                                                            10        16   10         13   19   10   20   16   19   34   45
ave levels      0   0   0   0   0   0   7   0   0   10   22   12   26   56   15   64   68    8   57    0    5   308    8    2    0    8    2    6    8    0   2812    23.1




                                                                                                                Average level
                                                                                                                    23.1
   Macro level - Profile of a Primary 6 class +6 year
   of English language teaching – +3 years reading
                scheme (end of 3 years)

2006-7 P6 SUMMATIVE BENCHMARK (+6 TERMS/3YEARS PM reading) COHORT NO. 2



                                                                                                                                                              total
                                                                                                                                                              pupil   ave
Jul '07         1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10   11   12   13   14   15   16   17   18   19   20   21   22    23   24   25   26   27   28   29   30   s       level

P6A             0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0    0    0    0    2    0    1    0    1    2    0    2     2    3    3    6    2    0    2    3    4       32

P6B             0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0    0    1    0    0    1    0    2    2    0    0    4     4    3    1    0    1    2    3    0    9       34

P6C             0   1   0   1   0   0   0   0   0   1    1    0    1    0    0    0    0    1    0    2    1     1    0    4    1    2    2    3    2    5       29

P6D             0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0    0    0    0    0    0    2    2    1    1    3    1     1    2    4    2    3    2    0    3    7       34

total           0   1   0   1   0   0   0   0   0   1    1    1    1    2    1    3    4    5    3    5    8     8    8    12   9    8    6    8    8    25    129


                                                                                                      10   16         18   28   22   20   16   22   23   75
ave levels      0   2   0   4   0   0   0   0   0   10   11   12   13   28   15   48   68   90   57    0    8   176    4    8    5    8    2    4    2    0   3075      23.4




                                                                                                           Average level 23.4
      Micro level - Tracking 2003-4 cohort no. 1
       from formative to summative by levels

                                                     COHORT NO. 1 2002-6 progression and year average

            80
                                                                                                                        2005-6
            60
no. of YL




                                                                                                                        2004-5
            40                                                                                                          2003-4
                                                                                                                        2002-3
            20
                                                                                                                        LEVELS
            0
                 1   2   3     4   5   6     7   8   9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
                                                                          levels




                             FORMATIVE                                                              SUMMATIVE
                             End Primary 3               End Primary 4             End Primary 5    End Primary 6
                             Ave level 8.5               Ave level 13.5            Ave level 18.2   Ave level 23.7
   Macro level -tracking yearbands
               Ave     Ave        Ave        Ave     Ave      Ave
         no.   level + level +2   level +4   level   level +6 level
cohort   pupil 0 term term        term       +5 term term     total +
2002-3                            18.2               23.7     15.2 (6
(1)        140      8.5 13.5 (+5) (+4.7)             (+5.5 )  terms)
2003-4                  12.3      18.1       21      23.4     16.2 (6
(2)        140      7.2 (+5.1)    (+5.8)     (+2.9) (+5.3)    terms)
2004-5                  17.4      23.1               27       15.4 (6
(3)        121     11.6 (+5.8)    (+5.3)             (+6.7 )  terms)
2005-6                  17.1      20.4       22               14.7 (5
(4A)       121      8.2 (+8.9)    (+4.2)     (+1.6) swine flu terms)

Key:
cohorts 1-4A = started aged 9/10 years
You can track, compare and predict
• Individual child’s progress (can indicate
  learning problem)
• Class progress (sometimes indicates problem
  with teaching style)
• Yeargroup progress
• Compare yeargroup to yeargroup
• Predict summative levels based on previous
  performance
• Build results back into teaching and learning
        Assessment procedure for reading
                     level
    Formative assessment age 7-8 years = 1 year/170 hours of ELT



                       Answering
Silent reading                                    Reading text
                       questions                                   Starting
of testing text                                   out loud
                       accompanying                                level
                       text




   if questions cannot be             if text cannot be
   answered, lower level              read, lower level
   texts are tried                    texts are tried
  Procedure for classroom management of
   the reading scheme used in Hong Kong
ALL GROUPS (2 teachers are timetabled at the same time)

Plenary           YL
  with        selecting                         Buddy
                                Silent
Specific       correct                          Reading
                               Reading
input on       level of
reading          text
strategy



                          1:1 Teacher         Comprehension
                          Conferencing         Task (optional
                              And             not every lesson)
                           Facilitating
        Part ii) What is reading?
‘Reading is much more than the decoding of black
  marks upon a page; it is a quest for meaning and
  one which requires the reader to be an active
  participant’ (Cox 1991)
The reader needs to:
1) Crack the code or decipher the print (decode)
2) Reading is about making sense which ‘powers
   young children’s learning’ (understand meaning)
3) Reading brings together text to be decoded and
   understood and a reader has to engage actively
   with both these processes (Kelly 2008)
                                                 18
             Reading strategies
Three cue systems (Kelly 2008)
1) Semantic (语义学) = reader draws on meaning
   from the text itself but also from their own
   background knowledge and from other texts
2) Syntactic (句法) = readers draws upon what they
   know of language and grammar (spoken and written)
   in order to PREDICT what is coming next eg. A child
   who comes across ‘ice creams melt in the sun’ is not
   likely to say ‘ice creams meet in the sun’
3) Graphophonic (字形与字音) = readers use what
   they know about the sound-symbol correspondences,
   visual knowledge of letter combinations and sight
   vocabulary e.g. m - e – l – t
                                                      19
  Part iii) Quick assessment to find
           right reading level
1. You need about 95-100 words of text which
   you think is at a suitable level for your
   learner
2. The learner reads the text and looks at the
   pictures which accompany it
3. This text is level 5 (level 1 = easiest, level 30 =
   most difficult)
YOU HAVE A GO!
Mouse said,
‘Little Teddy!
Little Teddy!
Where are
you going?’
                 21
‘I am going to the
shops,’ said Little
Teddy.
‘Can I come too?’
said Mouse.
‘Can I come to the
shops?’
                  22
‘Mouse! Mouse!’
shouted Little
Teddy.
‘Look down!
Look at the big
puddle!’
              23
Mouse went
into the
puddle.
‘Oh! Oh!’ he
said.
               24
‘Where am I?’
said Mouse.
‘Where am I?
‘You are in a big
puddle’ said Little
Teddy.

                      25
Mouse said,
‘Look at me!’
‘Come on,
Mouse,’ said
Little Teddy.
‘Up you come.’
                 26
Little Teddy
and Mouse
went home.



               27
‘Thank you,
Little Teddy,;
said Mouse.


                 28
    Making meaning – semantics
           (语义学)
THINK-PAIR
Read these questions and tell your partner the
   answers

1. Where was Little Teddy going?
2. Who fell in the puddle?
3. Why do you think Mouse went home with
   Little Teddy?
           THINK-PAIR-SHARE
What kind of questions are these?

Which is the easiest to answer?
Why?
Which is the most difficult?
Why?
Which makes you think?
Why?
            Making meaning
1. Listen to the questions and the answers
2. Focus on the meaning, has this learner
   understood the text?
       THINK-PAIR-SHARE



What do you think about the use
 of Chinese?
Remember this is about
 understanding meaning!
   Decoding or reading out loud =
  graphophonics (字形与字音)
4. Listen carefully and on a piece of paper tick 
  all the correct words you hear and put a circle
  around the incorrect ones (you could write the
  word and circle the part that is incorrect)
       
Eg. I am going to the shops.
5. Count up the number of errors
Count the number of errors and divide by the number
 of words. This gives you a ratio which is used for %
                       accuracy.



                                          We think that
                                          between 92-94%
                                          accuracy leads
                                          to learning.




                                                      34
           THINK-PAIR-SHARE


What do you think reading out loud tells the
   teacher?
Is this
READING?
SPEAKING?
SOMETHING ELSE?
                    THINK

What age group do you think would enjoy this
  text?
Finding text which is low reading ability but high
  interest is a challenge!
We want learners to be able to understand text
  but this means it has to be at the ‘right’
  reading level for them, as well as interesting!
Part iv) Applying reading strategies
THINK
Read the text silently.
Do you understand what it is about?

THINK-PAIR
Can you explain it to a partner?
                  Part A)
Although some glial cells have voltage-gated
  ion channels in their membranes, glial cells
  generally do not produce action potentials
  and their role in the nervous system has
  long been a puzzle. One suggestion has
  been that glial cells help to regulate the
  concentration of K+ and the pH in the
  extracellular fluid of the nervous system.
                                            38
                   Part B)
Glial cell membranes are highly permeable to
  K+ and adjacent glial cells are often
  electrically coupled by junctions that allow
  K+ to flow between them. This flux permits
  glial cells to take up and redistribute
  extracellular K+, which otherwise could build
  up to high concentrations in narrow
  extracellular spaces following activity in
  neurons.

                                              39
     THINK

What language
 skills are you
     using?
                  40
                       PAIR
Work with a partner.

Take it in turns.

Read the text out to each other.
    Reading out loud - SHARE

What does the text mean?
How does it feel to read?
Can you understand what you
 are reading?
What are you missing?
                               42
     THINK

What language
 skills are you
     using?
                  43
   Now read this text to yourself
Glial cells are found in the brain.
There are five types of glial cells.
They are not nerve cells.
Neurons transmit nerve messages.
Glial cells are in direct contact with
neurons and often surround them.



                                         44
              Look at the picture




Glial cells




                                    45
Aiding comprehensible input
THINK-PAIR-SHARE
Now what can you explain about
glial cells?
Where can you find them?
What do glial cells do?
What helped you understand
  better?
                                 46
   THINK-SHARE

What language
 skills are you
     using?
                  47
The purpose of reading is
  to make sense.
If you can’t do this, then
  you are not reading the
  right level!
                         48
                REFLECT
What have you learnt today?
What can you do to make sure that your
 learners individual needs are being met?
What can you do to make the coursebook more
 meaningful to your learners?
ANYTHING ELSE?
MANY THANKS

				
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