Philosophers

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					Philosophers
Cesare Bonesana Beccaria
       • Laws exist to preserve
         social order, not to avenge
         crimes.
       • Governments should seek
         the greatest good for the
         greatest number of people.
       • A person accused of a
         crime should receive a
         speedy trial, and that
         torture should never be
         used.
Thomas Hobbes
     • Social Contract-
       People give up their
       rights to a strong
       ruler.
     • Government must
       have absolute power,
       (leviathan)
     • One that could
       impose order and
       demand obedience.
John Locke
  • People can govern
    themselves.
  • Governments role is to
    protect natural rights, if
    the government fails to
    do so, citizens have the
    right to overthrow it.
  • Influenced the struggles
    for liberty in Europe and
    the Americas.
Charles-Louis Montesquieu
        • Separation of Powers
          would keep any individual
          or group from gaining
          total control of the
          government.
        • Each branch would have
          a check on the other two.
        • The Basis of the US
          Constitution.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
           • Direct Democracy- a
             government freely formed
             by the people and guided
             by the “general will” of
             society.
           • Legitimate government
             comes from the consent
             of the governed.
           • All people were equal
             and titles of nobility
             should be abolished.
           • Inspired many of the
             leaders of the French
             Revolution.
Voltaire
 • Fought for tolerance,
   reason, freedom of
   religious belief, and
   freedom of speech.
 • Influenced the US Bill of
   Rights and French
   Declaration of the
   Rights of Man and
   Citizens.
Mary Wollstonecraft
      • Women need education
        to become virtuous and
        useful.
      • Women should have the
        right to participate in
        politics.
      • Influenced women’s
        rights groups in Europe
        and North America.
Thomas Jefferson
      • Free Speech, religious
        freedom, and other civil
        liberties.
      • “Governments are
        instituted among Men,
        deriving their just Powers
        from the Consent of the
        Governed.”
      • Author of the Declaration
        of Independence.
James Madison
  • Three Branches of
    Government.
  • Federal System- Power is
    divided between federal
    and state governments.
  • Father of the US
    Constitution.
Simon Bolivar
     • Inspired by
       Enlightenment thinkers
       to rebel against Spain.
     • Followed the British and
       American systems of
       government in creating
       the Republic of
       Venezuela.

				
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posted:9/17/2012
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