Golden banana cultivation Description (Family Musacea), Banana comes from Yogyakarta. The fruit has a distinctive: the former head of the dried stigma remains attached to the fruit. Shape of a round elongated with an average length of about 11.5 cm and weighs about 50 g. Yellowish-white flesh and sweet taste. Skin thin bright yellow fruit. Benefit The fruit is a major product bananas. Bananas are better utilized in a state of raw, or cooked, or processed in certain ways. Bananas can be processed into flour, chips, 'puree', beer (Africa), vinegar, or dehydrated. Banana leaves are used to scrub the floor, as the foundation 'kastrol' place making rice 'liwet', and as the variety of food wrappers. Fibers to make fabric can be obtained from the quasi rod. Vegetative parts and fruits that are not utilized used as animal feed; vegetative parts were specifically utilized if feed and water is difficult to obtain (pseudo stem that contains a lot of water). Banana plants (or leaves and fruit) also plays a role in traditional ceremonies, such as in Indonesia, for the wedding ceremony, when setting up the house, and local religious ceremonies. In the treatment, which is still rolled up banana leaves are used as a medicine chest pains and as a cold poultice for skin swelling or blisters. The water coming out of the base of the stem are used for plugging injected into the urethra to treat syphilis, dysentery, and diarrhea, water is also used to stop hair loss and stimulate hair growth. The liquid that comes out from the roots of anti-fever and has the power restoration. In the form of flour, bananas are used in cases of anemia and fatigue casa in general, and for the lack of nutrition. Immature fruit is part of the diet for those who suffer from coughing up blood (haemoptysis) and diabetes. In the dry state, bananas are antisariawan intestine. Perfectly ripe fruit is sumptuous meal if eaten early in the morning. Flour made from bananas used for indigestion and flatulence accompanied by excess acid. Growing Conditions With rapid growth and constant, which will result in high yields, bananas need a place to grow in tropical climates are warm and moist. However, banana is very interesting that the plant is also exactly ekologiny4 boundary, which in that place average speed of growth can only support only minimal results. Temperature is a major factor for growth. In the main production centers of air temperatures never drop below 15 ° C with a long - long time; optimum temperature for growth is about 27 ° C, and a maximum temperature of 38 ° C. In the highlands of the equatorial region, bananas can not be grown at altitudes above 1600 m asl. The need for irradiation has not been understood properly. Most bananas grow well in the open, but the excess radiation will cause burn-matahati (sunburn). In cloudy weather conditions or light shade, and a long cycle of growth is slightly smaller tandannya. Bananas are very sensitive to strong winds, which will tear up the leaves, causing distortion and can knock down the tree canopy. - It takes a steady supply of water; for optimal growth should be 200-220 mm of rainfall, soil moisture and not less than 60-70% of field capacity, so most of the land requires supplementary irrigation. The best soil for growing bananas in clay and friable, which has good drainage and aeration. High fertility would be very beneficial and organic ingredients. should be 3% or more. Banana plants tolerant to pH 4.5 to 7.5. Raising Guidelines Bananas are generally propagated by seedlings. Seedling leaf sword who favored farmers, because banana trees derived from seedlings so will result in a larger bunches first harvest (parent plant). Tubers or tuber pieces are also used as propagation material. Hump is usually cut in half and soaked in hot water (52 ° C) or in a solution of pesticides to kill nematodes and borers before implantation. Now has developed a tissue culture for rapid multiplication, through the end of the shoot-disease free. This method has been implemented on a commercial scale, but the presence of unwanted mutations cause concern. Planting is generally done at the beginning of the rainy season. Propagation material is usually implanted as deep as 30 cm. Bananas can be a main crop or plant mixing in intercropping systems. Bananas are typically grown as a nurse (nurse drop) for young plants cocoa, coffee, pepper, and so on. It can also be used as a crop between the rubber or oil palm plantation newly built, or planted under coconut trees that have been grown. If grown as the main crop, bananas are usually intercropped with annual crops. Maintenance Weeding is necessary to repeatedly uiang pahon banana trees can shade and suppress weeds. Weeds eradicated by mechanical means (cleared, plowed, - and so on) or by hand: pratumbuh Herbicides are effective, and if the plant has reached a height of 1.5 m or more, you can use the contact herbicide. Bananas require large amounts of nutrients. In the yard the use of manure and compost is recommended, combined with 0.25 kg of urea and potassium nitrate (muriate of potash) every three months for each clump. Irrigation is needed in areas that have a long dry season, but also if rainfall is less than 200-220 mm month. Water can be streamed through the trenches or sprayed; present-drip irrigation (drip irrigation) has been widely accepted. During the round light pruning, the leaves are withered and cut in order to obtain mulch to avoid the source of the infection through leaf diseases. In commercial scale plantations several other measures taken to rnempertahankan high productivity and to ensure good quality fruit for pasatan (export). These measures include dumping puppies, tunggui-stump removal, cutting a banana heart, and reduced fruit bunches. Every 6-12 weeks dibuangi anakannya banana plants, only one plant left behind parent (who was fruitful), a stem tillers (the oldest), and in the case of plant-sirung (ratoons), one plant grandchildren. At low densities, each cluster can contain two trunk mains following 2 anakannya. So, to avoid berjejalnya rod, and to set harvest sequence in each cluster, one child is left on the mother plant every 6-10 months (or more to the area beriklun cool) to produce the next bunch. Only the puppies are healthy and should be left embedded in the. Buffer or straps can provide additional support for plants containing fruit bunches; strut will prevent tanarnan of stem breakage due to objections by the bunches. Heart banana should be discarded after 2 comb last of the bunch came up. At the same time, one or two last comb may need to be removed to increase the length of each of the remaining bananas, and munitions, which may need dikarungi. The sack can be a plastic bag that had been given insecticide, meant to prevent damage by insects, birds, dust, etc., and to raise the temperature of bunches, promote fruit growth, especially for colder climates. Pests and Diseases Or yellow Sigatoka leaf spot is one of the most dangerous diseases. The disease is caused by Mycosphaerella musicola (called Cercospora musae konidiumnya phase) which is endemic to Southeast Asia, and is only found in bananas. This leaf spot causes premature death leaves a large number of banana, causing the fruit bunches shrink with little strokes, and individual bananas are less full. Fusarium wilt or Panama disease is caused, by Fusarium oxysporum f. cubense. The disease is soil fungi that form roots meriyerang banana cultivars are susceptible, and clog the vascular system, so that the plant will wilt. The only way to eradicate is the physical destruction or chemical (herbicide) on the affected plants and its neighbors; land should be cleared and fenced and excluded from planting and irrigation flow. Disease or illness Moko bacterial wilt caused by Pseudomonas solanacearum, and can kill banana trees tersexang only within one-two weeks. These bacteria can be transmitted mechanically, but biovar 1-SFS is a strain that is transmitted by insects, and is considered the most dangerous strain. Eradication include disinfection of all equipment used in a variety of agricultural processing and destruction of affected plants, along with its neighbors. Fumigation and stricken land pengkarantinaan highly recommended. The disease is common, in the western hemisphere; in Southeast Asia only in the Philippines (Mindanao). Viral diseases include diseases buds dangle (Bunchy top), mosaic, and mosaic braktea. Disease buds dangle and mosaic disease is transmitted by aphids [banana aphid, (Pentalonia nigronervosa), causing shoots bananas dangle; corn aphids (Rhopalosiphum maidis), and cotton aphid (Aphis gossypii), all of which are vectors for mosaic disease]. Pernberantasan disease include quarantine measures, regular inspection and destruction of affected plants, the use of propagation material. free virus removal alternative host, and the eradication of the vectors. The most dangerous insect pest is the banana weevil (Cosmopolitis sordidus). These pests come from Southeast Asia, but has spread to all banana growing areas. The most damaging is Iarvanya: larvae were broaching hump and become a pupa in the halls made. Most of the tuber tissue is damaged, the result would reduce the ability to capture water and nutrients, as well as the ability tertancapnya plants. Adult insects lay eggs on the stump tissues or nearby. Eradication measures include enumeration and pseudo stem weevil in order decay faster, trapping and catching insects mature, using propagation material that is not attacked, damaging a refuge and a place to eat adult insects by maintaining the cleanliness of the area around the plant, and the use of insecticides. Two kinds of 'thrips' attack banana plants. 'Thrips' interest, "florum thrips, small size, can enter the developing fruit when brakteanya still there. These insects lay eggs in there and eat the young fruit, causing the fruit skin rough and sometimes become cracked. 'Thrips' red rust (Chaetanaphothrips signipennis) takes place attachment parts bananas on tandannya, causing reddish color. Eradication of pests is done with insecticides or wrapping bunches; assist ant colonies are in the vicinity can also be useful. Nematode-pit (Radopholus similis) is the most damaging types of nematodes. Patches or spots of black spots on the roots indicate that the attack was followed by a fungal infection. Plants attacked only a great form of rooted stem rot, which is easily collapsed if it had been formed bunches of fruit. Eradication measures include disposal of infected plants, Harvest and Post Harvest Harvesting Bananas are harvested while still raw. Estimated maturity level of the elbow-to- elbow on the individual pieces; fruit melintangnya more rounded cross section means more mature. When the weight of the fruit is growing rapidly along with the disappearance of the right-angled in fruit, bananas also become more susceptible to damage during transport, and the fruit does not last long and should be picked early. To harvest the bananas needed two people, the harvesters and the collector. The collection bears the shoulder pads for his fall after the harvesting bunches of banana stem stabbed with a machete, so that the top of the tree and its tandannya duck. Needed a bamboo pole to prop up bunches until it touches the shoulder pads: After bunches of that humble that way, the harvesters cutting bunches up the remaining portion with the handle still in bunches, which is used as a handle. Clusters were then carefully transported to the packing room via cable systems or with carts pulled by tractors. Post harvest bunches have been harvested and then cut to strokes, and traces of flowers on it dibuangi strokes, strokes washed, sorted, and packed dalarn cardboard boxes. In addition, bananas are treated with a fungicide to prevent rotting fruit strokes. Storage of raw banana ranges between 21-30 days at a temperature of 13-15 ° C. Calcium carbide (CaC2) or etefon solution can be used to finalize the old fruit-raw. In the treatment of calcium carbide, bananas are material for 24-36 hours in a closed container, whereas the treatment etefon, immersion for 5 minutes is quite effective. In the operation of large-scale commercial use of ethylene gas. Bananas were treated for 24 hours in a closed room containing ethylene and the temperature is maintained 14-18 ° C. Every 24 hours once opened to ventilate the room until the banana fruits reach consumers favored color.
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