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									Mathematics Pre-May Seminar

        7 February 2011
Michelangelo’s
   Tomb in
  Firenze’s
 Basilica of
 Santa Croce
Galileo’s Tomb, Santa Croce
 Michelangelo’s
    Giudizio
   Universale
(Last Judgment),
Cappella Sistina,
    Vatican
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  Giudizio
Universale in
the Cappella
   Sistina
Another
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 from
Giudizio
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  from
Giudizio
       Four Copernican Heresies
•   Heliocentrism
•   Heliostatism
•   Geokineticism
•   Nongeocentrism
•   The doctrine that the sun is motionless
    and at the center of the universe, and
    the earth moves around it is both false
    and contrary to scripture.
   Accusations of Galileo (Finocchiaro, page 8)
• Holding truth of earth’s motion
• Corresponding about this doctrine with German
  mathematicians
• Publishing Sunspot Letters that explained truth
  of the doctrine
• Answering scriptural objections against the
  doctrine with personal interpretations of
  Scripture
• Writing a letter to a disciple with propositions
  against the correct meaning of Scripture
Books banned by the Index, 1616
• Copernicus: De revolutionibus orbium
  coelestium (On the Revolutions of the
  Heavenly Spheres)
• Diego de Zuñiga: Commentary on Job
• Paolo A. Foscarini: Letter on the
  Pythagorean Option
               Historical Timeline
• 1517 Martin Luther announces his 95 Theses
• 1543 Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres: Copernicus
• 1545-1563 Council of Trent
• 1564 Michelangelo dies, Galileo Galilei is born
• 1600 Giordano Bruno burned at the stake
• 1616 Index bans Copernican books
• 12 April 1633: G denies receiving special injunction
• 30 April 1633: G admits receiving warning (plea deal?)
• 1633 G guilty of “vehement suspicion of heresy” by
  Roman Inquisition
• 1634 Sister Maria Celeste dies
• 1642 Galileo dies
• 1664 Descartes’ works placed on the Index
           Historical Timeline Continued
• 1737 Galileo reburied in Santa Croce, Firenze
• 1792 Girolamo Tiraboschi lectures that Galileo was too
  aggressive, zealous, rash
• 1810 Napoleon transfers the Vatican archives to France
• 1814 Vatican archives returned to Rome, but not Galileo’s
  trial proceedings
• 1822 Inquisition rules Catholics can accept earth’s motion
  as a fact after Settele affair at La Sapienza University
• 1835 Galileo and Copernicus removed from Index
• 1867-1878 Trial proceedings gradually published
• 1893 Pope Leo XIII’s encyclical Providentissimus Deus
           Historical Timeline Continued
•   1937-1939, 1945-1947, etc: Bertold Brecht’s Galileo
•   1959 Arthur Koestler publishes The Sleepwalkers
•   1992 Vatican “settles” Galileo affair
•   1999 Dava Sobel’s Galileo’s Daughter published,
    becomes international best seller
•   2004 William R. Shea and Mariano Artigas publish
    Galileo in Rome: Rise & Fall of a Troublesome Genius
•   2005 Maurice A. Finocchiaro’s Retrying Galileo, 1633-
    1992 published
•   2008 Richard J. Blackwell publishes Behind the Scenes
    at Galileo’s Trial
•   2008 Pope Benedict XVI cancels at La Sapienza Univ.
     Key Issues in the Galileo Affair
• Scientific question of the reality of the earth’s motion
• Theological question of Scripture’s authority in natural
  philosophy
• Methodological question of the earth’s motion
• Historical question of whether Copernicanism was
  declared heretical or just contrary to Scripture
• Question of whether Simplicio in the Dialogo was a
  mockery of Pope Urban VIII
• Did Galileo receive the special injunction, or just
  Bellarmine’s warning?
• What was the actual “rigorous examination” of Galileo?
     Quote, French Jesuit Honore Fabri, 1661

It has been more than once asked of your leaders whether
they had a demonstration for asserting the motion of the
earth. They have never affirmed they had. Therefore,
nothing hinders that the Church may understand those
Scriptural passages that speak of this matter in a literal
sense, and declare that they should be so understood as long
as the contrary is not evinced by any demonstration; if
perhaps it should be found out by you (which I hardly
believe it will), in this case the Church will not at all scruple
to declare that those passages are to be understood in a
figurative and improper sense, according to that of the
poet’s “the land and the cities slip backward.”
Quote, Adrien Auzout in response to Fabri,
        1665 (Finocchiaro, p 95)
It does not appear at all that God has wanted to
teach us anything in particular about nature; on the
contrary, almost all who have wanted to find the
principles of their philosophy in Scripture have
fallen into untenable errors; in it we should only
look for the maxims of religion and morality, and
not for the principles of physics or astronomy,
which are as useless for the other life as they are
useful for this one.
 Quote, Maurice A. Finocchiaro
           (2005)
A related compromise was the suggestion
that either Galileo’s biblical critics should
be prevented from using scriptural passages
against his physical theories, or he should
be allowed to answer them; but that it was
quite improper to allow them free rein while
silencing him and his supporters. (page 312)
Galileo, quoting Cardinal Cesare
            Baronio

“The Bible shows the way to go
   to heaven, not the way the
          heavens go”
        Galileo Bibliography
• Maurice A. Finocchiaro, Retrying Galileo,
  1633-1992 (2005)
• Dava Sobel, Galileo’s Daughter: A
  Historical Memoir of Science, Faith, and
  Love (2000)
• Peter Machamer, editor, The Cambridge
  Companion to Galileo (1998)
• Galileo Affair, Wikipedia
  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Galileo_affair

								
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