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					-Colonies in New York-

          During 1500-1700
Information gathered from…

New York began its existence as New
   Amsterdam. A Dutch colony, settlement
   began in 1624 by the Dutch West India
   Company, which would govern the colony
   until its transition to English rule. Dutch
   claims to the territory were based on the
   1609 explorations of Henry Hudson up the
   river which now bears his name.
History, *cont.*

                   • Though an Englishman, Hudson had sailed
                     for the Dutch East India Company on
                     numerous occasions. In 1664 the English
                     captured the colony from the Dutch, and it
                     became New York, named after the Duke of
                     York in England. From then until the
                     outbreak of the American Revolution, when
                     New York became a state, it was ruled by a
                     series of governors appointed by the king of
            • The original territory occupied by the
              colony of New York extended beyond the
              current boundaries of the state. Stretching as
              far east as Maine and as far south as New
              Jersey, much of its borders were in
              contention among the various states - and
              even the French and English - until after the
              Revolutionary War.
Geography (Continued)

• The two primary settlements were
  the capital at Albany on the upper
  Hudson River and New York City
  on the island of Manhattan.
  Important waterways in the colony
  included the Hudson and Mohawk
  rivers, while the Appalachian
  Mountains run through the center of
  the territory.
• One of the larger colonies in terms
  of land, the colony of New
  Amsterdam began with just 30
  Dutch families. By the mid-1700's,
  nearly 100,000 people called New
  York home. However, most of this
  population was centered into a few
  main cities, including New York and
Considerations, (Continued)

                       • The rest of the state remained largely
                         unsettled by Europeans, though it was home
                         to a number of American Indian tribes.
                         Relations with these tribes were not always
                         friendly as the colony had been home to the
                         Five Nations, a confederacy of tribes that
                         had occupied the region for quite some

• In 1683, New York was officially
  granted representative style of
  government, though this remained
  more theory than practice. However,
  by the mid-1700's New York, and in
  particular the capital of Albany, had
  become hubs in the growing
  independence of the American
Features, (Continued)

                        • In 1754, for example, seven of
                          the 13 colonial assemblies met
                          in Albany to discuss coming
                          together for mutual defense and
                          government, though the
                          proposal was ultimately
Features (Continued)

• The region was also noted for its "frontier"
  aspect, especially in the Mohawk Valley
  region which was the setting for some of
  James Feinmore Cooper's Leatherstocking
  series of novels (including "Last of the

• Manhattan had been bought from the
  Indians and established before the colony as
  a trading outpost. It continued in that vein
  for the rest of New York's colonial history,
  with the city of New York becoming an
  important port in the region.
Significance (Continued)

                       • Because the colony sat between
                         the St. Lawrence seaway and
                         the Atlantic via an overland
                         route and then the Hudson
                         River, it was also an important
                         location for north-south trade
Significance (Continued)

                       • This importance extended to
                         military affairs as well, with
                         many prominent events of the
                         French and Indian War taking
                         place in the colony.
Significance (Continued)

• It was also the site of
  various protests and other
  stirrings of revolt prior to
  the American Revolution.
English Taking Off

                     • In 1664 the English fleet
                       arrived and demanded the
                       surrender of the New
                       Netherlands. Peter Stuyvesant
                       wanted to fight but without the
                       support of the other settlers, he
                       was forced to allow the English
                       to take control of the territory.
English Taking Off (Continued)

• New Amsterdam now became
  New York. Other name
  changes included Albany (Fort
  Orange), Kingston (Wiltwyck)
  and Wilmington (Fort
The Start
            • Although Giovanni da
              Verrazano was probably the
              first European to explore the
              region and Henry Hudson
              certainly visited the area, it was
              with Dutch settlements on
              Manhattan and Long Island
              that the city truly began to
The Start (Continued)

• In 1624 the colony of New
  Netherland was established,
  initially on Governors Island,
  but the town of New
  Amsterdam on the lower tip of
  Manhattan was soon its capital.
The Start (Continued)

• Peter Minuit of the Dutch West
  India Company supposedly bought
  the island from its Native inhabitants
  for 60 Dutch guilders worth of
  merchandise (the sale was completed
  in 1626). Under the Dutch, schools
  were opened and the Dutch
  Reformed Church was established.
  The indigenous population was
  forced out the area of European
  settlement in a series of bloody

           • In 1664 the English, at war with the
             Netherlands (see Dutch Wars),
             seized the colony for the duke of
             York, for whom it was renamed.
             Peter Stuyvesant was replaced by
             Richard Nicolls as governor, and
             New York City became the capital of
             the new British province of New
Captured (Continued)

                       • The Dutch returned to power briefly
                         (1673-74) before the reestablishment
                         of English rule. A liberal charter,
                         which established the Common
                         Council as the main governing body
                         of the city, was granted under
                         Thomas Dongan in 1686 and
                         remained in effect for many years.
Captured (continued)

• English rule was not, however, without
  dissension, and the autocratic rule of British
  governors was one of the causes of an
  insurrection that broke out in 1689 under
  the leadership of Jacob Leisler. The
  insurrection ended in the execution of
  Leisler by his enemies in 1691.

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