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									Intellectual
Assessment
Intelligence
• What is it?
  – Poll of laypeople and psychologists:
    - practical problem-solving skills
    - verbal skills
    - and social competence
Defining Intelligence

Groth & Marnat (1997): Definitions of
intelligence all include the following five areas:
1.   Abstract thinking
2.   Learning from experience
3.   Solving problems through insight
4.   Adjusting to new situations
5.   Focusing and sustaining one’s abilities to
     achieve a desired goal
 Defining Intelligence
Theories of intelligence
What do we measure when we measure
intelligence?

 •   Spearman’s “g”
 •   Gardner’s “multiple intelligences”
Defining Intelligence
• Charles Spearman
  – Different intellectual tests correlate
    highly

  – Hypothesized one general intelligence
    (‘G’) factor that underlies all mental
    abilities
 Multiple Intelligences
                 Are there multiple intelligences?
                 1.   Verbal
                 2.   Logical-mathematical
                 3.   Bodily-Kinesthetic
Howard Gardner   4.   Visual-spatial
                 5.   Musical
                 6.   Social
                 7.   Personal
Multiple Intelligences
• Evidence for multiple intelligences
  – Neurological data
       • Eg, Brain damaged patients
  – Savants
       • People with serious mental
         handicaps who have
         certain spectacular abilities



*Autism and Rain Man clips
Defining Intelligence

Structure of Intelligence
• Fluid Intelligence
  •Culture-free mental skills  capacity to
   adapt to new situations
• Crystallized Intelligence
  •Specific to one culture  achievements of
   intellectual activity acquired through
   repeated exposure.
History of Intelligence Testing
• Craniometry and intelligence (1800’s)
  -- Rationale: bigger
  heads = bigger brains,
  bigger brains = smarter
  people
  -- Modern studies do not
  support these ideas
History of Intelligence Testing
• Alfred Binet
  – created first intelligence
    test (1905)
  – Commissioned by French
    govt to develop techniques
    for identifying special ed
    kids


                                 Alfred Binet (1857-1911)
History of Intelligence Testing

Binet-Simon Tests (1905, 1908, 1911)
    • Items of increasing difficulty
    • Age graded
    • IQ = Mental Age - Chronological Age
History of Intelligence Testing
• Lewis Terman
 – Stanford University prof based intelligence
   test on Binet’s work for use with Americans
 – Called revised test the Stanford-Binet
 – Formula for computing IQ (intelligence
   quotient)

            Mental age
                             X 100 = IQ
         Chronological age
Definition of IQ

                MA: 2 ; CA: 3
   Binet-Simon             Stanford-Binet
   IQ = 2 - 3 = -1       IQ = (2/3)*100 = 67

               MA: 13; CA: 14
    Binet-Simon            Stanford-Binet
   IQ = 13 - 14 = -1    IQ = (13/14)*100 = 93
Examples of items on Stanford-Binet Test
Age   Sample test item

2     Here are some pegs of different sizes and shapes.
      See whether you can put each one into the correct hole

4     Why do people live in houses?

6     Here are some candies. Can you count how many there are?

10    Why should people be quiet in the library?

12    What does “regret” mean?

14    What is the similarity between high and low?
History of Intelligence Testing
• Intelligence testing,
  eugenics, and
  immigration
  – Immigrants at NY’s Elllis
    Island tested
  – 40% fell into newly formed
    ‘moron’ class
History of Intelligence Testing
• WWI and testing of
  army recruits
  – Over a million people
    tested
  – Did a great deal to enhance
    status of psychology
History of Intelligence Testing

Stanford-Binet Revisions
•   1937, 1960.
•   1973:
•   Standardized using a more representative
    population
•   1986:
•   15 Subtests instead of age level.
     • Verbal reasoning, abstract/visual
       reasoning, quantitative reasoning, short-
       term memory
History of Intelligence Testing

Wechsler-Bellevue
•   1939. Tasks were adopted from Stanford-
    Binet, but aimed at adults 17+
•   Point scale instead of relationship mental
    age-chronological age
•   Also subtests: 6 verbal and 5 performance
•   Standardization sample: 1700 Caucasian
    New Yorkers aged 7 to 70
History of Intelligence Testing

Wechsler: WAIS
•   1955. WAIS- standardization on more
    ethnically diverse and representative
    sample (age 16-74 years old).
•   1981. WAIS-R- standardized according to
    1970 census data
•   1997. WAIS-III-additional subtests: 7 verbal
    and 7 performance. Standardized according
    to 1995 census data (age 16-89)
     WAIS-III

     WAIS-III: Verbal Subtests
1.    Information: What’s the capital of France?
2.    Comprehension: What should you do if you find a wallet on
      the street?
3.    Arithmetic: If you have 4 apples and you eat 3, how many are
      left?
4.    Similarities: How are a dog and a cat alike?
5.    Vocabulary: Define chair, asylum, etc.
6.    Digit Span: Repeat number sequences in forward and reverse
      order
7.    Letter-Number Sequencing: Repeat list of letters and
      numbers in order.
 WAIS-III

WAIS-III: Performance Subtests
1.   Picture Arrangement: arrange the pictures so they tell a
     story
2.   Digit Symbol: Copy designs associated with different
     numbers
3.   Block Design: Arrange blocks to match a picture
4.   Matrix Reasoning: Determine what goes next in a pattern
5.   Symbol Search: Determine if the target symbols match any
     of the symbols in the search group.
6.   Picture completion: Determine what is missing from a
     picture
7.   Object Assembly: put a puzzle together
WAIS-III
Digit-Symbol
 Coding
WAIS-III
Symbol Search
Other Tests of Intelligence

 • “Adaptive” Tests
   • Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC)
 • Ability Tests
   • SAT,GRE, LSAT, GMAT
   • Wide Range Achievement Test 3 (WRAT)
   • Benton Visual Retention Test (BVRT)
 • Non-Verbal Tests (Appropriate when
  there may be factors that interfere with
  verbal performance)
   •   Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-R
   •   Porteus Maze Test
   •   Leiter International Performance Scale
   •   Raven’s Progressive Matrices
Purpose of IQ Testing

 Past
 • Binet

   • Detection of mental deficiencies in children

 • Terman
   • Differentiation between gifted, retarded and
     learning disabled
Purpose of IQ Testing
 Current
 • Diagnosis:
   • Cognitive functioning
   • Brain damage
 • Prognosis:
   • Ability/potential
   • Academic achievement
 • Outcome assessment:
   • Educational program
   • Neurosurgery
Controversies
• Lewis Terman
 –   Controversial legacy
 –   Beliefs in eugenics
 –   Study of gifted children
 –   Initiated widespread IQ testing
Heredity and Intelligence
•   Same person tested twice .87
•   Identical twins reared together .86
•   Identical twins reared apart .76
•   Fraternal twins reared together .55
•   Biological siblings reared together .47 (studies show that
    reared apart about .24)
•   Parents and children living together .40
•   Parents and children living apart .31
•   Adopted children living together 0
•   Unrelated people living apart 0

    Ridley, 1999
Heredity and Intelligence
                 0.35
 Child-parent
correlation in   0.30
verbal ability
       scores    0.25
                                             Children and their
                 0.20                        birth parents

                 0.15                        Adopted children
                                             and their birth
                 0.10                        parents

                 0.05                        Adopted children
                                             and their adoptive
                                             parents
                 0.00
                        3 years   16 years
Group Differences

• Gender
  – Males = Females
• Occupation:
  – Professional and technical > manager, clerical, sales >
    skilled workers > unskilled workers
• Education:
  – College grad > some college > high school> elementary
    school > minimal formal education
• Ethnicity:
  – European-Americans > African-Americans
Heredity and Intelligence
• Evidence in favor of ‘nurture’
  – The Flynn effect
  – Effects of infant malnutrition
  – Schooling effects
Claude Steele (Stanford University)
“Stereotype threat”: fear of doing something that
would inadvertently confirm that stereotype.
Experiments:
      Black & white subjects take difficult test

      Condition A             Condition B
      Told nothing            Told no race differences


     Blacks do relatively    Gap is smaller between
     poorly                  Blacks & Whites
Controversies

European-Americans >African-
  Americans

• IQ differences reduced when holding SES
  constant (Loehlin, 1989)
• This suggests that the difference may be due
  more to SES than ethnicity.
Controversies

High Correlation between IQ &
  Education
• Cannot tell which affects which.
• High IQ may be the result of more education
  and not vice versa
• Correlation between IQ and occupation may
  be explained for by the correlation between
  IQ and education.
Intelligence
• Other intelligence facts
  – ‘Mozart effect’ has been rejected by most intelligence
    researchers
  – Brain size is positively correlated with IQ (after
    controlling for body size)
  – Effects of nutrition are unclear (strong evidence of IQ
    enhancing nutrients has not been found)
  – Standardized tests do not sample all forms of
    intelligence (eg, creativity, practical sense, social
    sensitivity)
  – Information processing speed correlates with IQ, but
    no easy interpretation of these findings

								
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