Docstoc

Towards Knowledge Society for All

Document Sample
Towards Knowledge Society for All Powered By Docstoc
					Prepared for the International Education
              Network Symposium 2009
  ‘What should be the future of learning
                  environments?’ session
                        By Mary Hooker,
               Research Manager, GeSCI
Our Background: GeSCI’s Foundation
                         Developing countries are placing ICT and
         WSIS             Education at the centre of their
                          development strategies.
                         However, developing countries are often
                          less equipped in terms of human
                          capacity and financial resources to
                          successfully and effectively harness the
                          potential of ICT.
                         With this in mind, GeSCI was founded by
        UN ICT            the UN ICT Taskforce in 2003, and began
       TaskForce          operations in 2005 working initially with
                          Namibia, Ghana, India, Bolivia and later
                          Rwanda. GeSCI is now operating also in
       GeSCI as a
                          regional forums and programmes in
   Global Partnership
                          Africa, Asia and Latin America
Context of our work: Knowledge Society

                                 In the globalized world , knowledge is
                                  increasingly the key factor of production
                                  as well as a raw material for economic
                                  development (= poverty eradication).

    “World of Knowledge”
                                 While the transition to knowledge-based
                                  economies and societies is progressing, the
                                  gap between developing countries and
                                  developed or industrialised countries can be
                                  widening due the lower investments in ICT,
                                  education and innovation processes in
                                  developing countries
    “World of Money”

         Source: UNCTAD, 2007
Field of our work: Transitioning Education for a
Knowledge Society
                              It is acknowledged that transitioning
                               successfully to the knowledge society requires
                               investment in education, innovation
                               systems, ICT infrastructure and
                               implementation of those policies that support
                               such a transition.
                              A coherent Knowledge Society policy
                               requires collaboration across the relevant
                               ministries, especially between ministries of
                               education, S&T, industry and finance.
                              Education ministries are in key role in this
                               development. Therefore GeSCI’s mission is to
                               work together with MoEs empowering their
         Source: AKRI Ltd.
                               policy making and strategy capacity.
Field of our work: Transitioning Education for a
Learning Society

                      • Sustainable human development will
                        depend not only on universal access to
                        knowledge but also the participation of
                        all in knowledge societies.
                      • Citizens will need to be prepared in new
                        technology literacy competencies
                        inclusive of higher order thinking and sound
                        reasoning skills - the ability to learn how to
                        learn (i.e. to be a life-long learner), the
                        ability to reflect, to analyse synthesize, to
                        find solutions and to adapt
                                           GeSCI, 2008; UNESCO, 2005, 2008
Our Challenge in Developing Countries

                             • While the importance of education is
                               commonly accepted the developing world
                               faces severe challenges with regard to
                               education
                                 • a lack of universal and inclusive access to
                                   education, and educational resources;
                                 • poor quality of education;
    INCLUSIVE ACCESS?            • acute shortages in the supply of suitably
                 QUALITY ?
                                   qualified and experienced teachers;
  MANAGEMENT ?
                                 • poor management and monitoring of the
             RELEVANCE ?
                                   education system and
                                 • the increasing irrelevance of the current
                                   education system in the knowledge
                                   society.
                                                    Davis, 2000; Yates, 2007; Leach 2008
GeSCI Outreach
2009 - 2011      1. Country programmes involving direct
                    advisory engagement with developing country
                    MoEs to provide high quality strategic advice
                    and support to the countries’ own plans,
                    policies and efforts to deploy and integrate
                    ICTs in education.
                 2. Regional programmes involving knowledge
                    sharing between GeSCI and the partner
                    countries and between the partner countries,
                    at the regional level in Africa, Asia and Latin
                    America.
                 3. Knowledge products and research through
                    the identification of major knowledge gaps or
                    common challenges related to ICTs in
                    education.
                 4. Promoting partnerships and facilitating
                    global policy dialogue with a diverse
                    number of partners, globally, regionally and
                    locally.
The way we work:
                                       MoE’s

Knowledge Sharing
• Peer to peer learning
• Participatory policy
 making




                                                Business
Multi stakeholder            Science   GeSCI
partnerships
Knowledge creation
• Research, planning tools
Critical advocacy
• Promoting knowledge,
innovation, inclusiveness              Donors
and sustainability
The future of learning environments in the developing
world

Evidence makes clear the incapacity of existing
institutional structures to cope with the scale and
urgency of the issues
The thoughtful use of old and particularly new
forms of ICT can be exploited to strengthen and
enhance teaching and learning environments and
improve the quality of education provision in general
Cawthera, 2001; Dhanarajan, 2001; Marker et al., 2002; cited in Leach, 2009; Swarts, 2006; Evoh,
                                                                                            2007
The future of learning environments in the developing
world

      Any intimations towards Illich’s deschooling
   solutions in the form of mass distance learning
      programmes as alternatives for conventional
models are not supported by international opinion;
    schools and teachers remain central to the
         concept of a quality education process.

                                             Yates, 2007
GeSCI approach: A Systemic view to ICT
integration in education
Technical level: Hardware/ software:         Cultureware
    ICT deployment mode should be:
  •   Admin / educative use ?
  •   Resource centre / library model?
                                              Socialware
  •   PC lab model / distributed model?
  •   One2one, mobile, ubiquitous etc?

                                              Warmware


                                              Hardware
                                              Software
                                              Hardware
                                                ICT

                                          Principal, Teacher,
                                          Learners, Parents

                                           School, University
                                                Home
                                                Society &
                                                policies
                                                                Pulkkinen, 2009
Deployment mode should be…
New things…?
Old ways…?
GeSCI approach: A Systemic view to ICT
integration in education
Technical level: Hardware/ software :            Cultureware
    ICT deployment mode should be:
  •   Admin / educative use ?
  •   Resource centre / library model?
                                                  Socialware
  •   PC lab model / distributed model?
  •   One2one, mobile, ubiquitous etc?
Process level: “Warmware”; what are
    educators supposed to do? What                Warmware
    pedagogical processes should be
    developed based on use of ICT?
  •   Learning interaction ( among                Hardware
                                                  Software
      learners)
  •   Teaching interaction ( with learners)       Hardware
  •   Management , monitoring, etc.                 ICT
      processes ?
                                              Principal, Teacher,
                                              Learners, Parents

                                               School, University
                                                    Home
                                                    Society &
                                                    policies
                                                                    Pulkkinen, 2009
Challenge in Education Systems




         Lines…?                 Circles…?
Challenge in Education Systems: Paradigm shift
                        Assumptions about knowledge and
                          learning
                        Single way of knowing
                         Learning is transmission of knowledge
                         Reading and writing principle access route
                         Banking model
                         Linear thinking

                        Plural way of knowing
                         Learning is a reconstruction of knowledge
                         Interactive microworlds as alternative route
                          to knowledge
                         Social constructivist model
                         Systems thinking incorporating feedback
                          and adaptation
GeSCI approach: A Systemic view to ICT
integration in education
Technical level: Hardware/ software : ICT         Cultureware
     deployment mode should be:
   •   Admin / educative use ?
   •   Resource centre / library model?
   •   PC lab model / distributed model?           Socialware
   •   One2one, mobile, ubiquitous etc?
 Process level: “Warmware”; what are
     educators supposed to do? What                Warmware
     pedagogical processes should be
     developed based on use of ICT?
   •   Learning interaction ( among
       learners)                                   Hardware
   •   Teaching interaction ( with learners)       Software
   •   Management , monitoring, etc.               Hardware
       processes ?                                   ICT
Institution level: “Socialware”; what
     operational models should be developed
     based on use of ICT:                      Principal, Teacher,
   •   Classroom / virtual model
   •   Single institution / network model      Learners, Parents
   •   Hybrid models
   •   De-schooling model
                                                School, University
                                                     Home
                                                     Society &
                                                     policies
                                                                     Pulkkinen, 2009
Facilitating Expansive School Transformation
Using ICT in the SADC Region: A Botswana Pilot
Project
                          The activity system
               ICT IMPLEMENTS
               ICT SKILLS
               CHANGE LAB
               CHANGE OF MINDSET
                                         Instruments:
                                          tools and signs
                                                                         ICT INTERGRATION
                                                                         ACROSS THE
                                                                         CURRICILUM
                                                            Object
      TEACHER/
      STUDENT                                                   sense,
                      Subject                                                 Outcome       CITIZENS W ITH
      MANAGEMENT                                                meaning
                                                                                            HIGH LEVELS
                                                                                            OF ICT
                                                                                            LITERACY




                  Rules                  Community             Division of labor
 A.    TIME TABLING (COMPUTER                                                     MINISTRIAL AND
       LABS)                       PROVIDERS OUTSIDE THE SCHOOL                   SCHOOL LEVEL
 B. TEACHING LOADS                 PTA                                            COORDINATION
                                                                                  (CDNE, DEPT SEC,
 C. OTHER COMPUTER                 POLICY MAKERS                                  SMT).
     REGULATIONS
                                   MOE DEPARTMENTS e.g. TT&D AND
 D. POLICIES                       DNFE

                                                                                                    Nleya, 2009
GeSCI approach: A Systemic view to ICT
integration in education
Technical level: Hardware/ software : ICT         Cultureware
     deployment mode should be:
   •   Admin / educative use ?
   •   Resource centre / library model?
   •   PC lab model / distributed model?
   •   One2one, mobile, ubiquitous etc?            Socialware
 Process level: “Warmware”; what are
     educators supposed to do? What
     pedagogical processes should be               Warmware
     developed based on use of ICT?
   •   Learning interaction ( among
       learners)
   •   Teaching interaction ( with learners)
   •   Management , monitoring, etc.               Hardware
                                                   Software
       processes ?
Institution level: “Socialware”; what
                                                   Hardware
     operational models should be developed          ICT
     based on use of ICT:
   •   Classroom / virtual model
   •   Single institution / network model
   •   Hybrid models                           Principal, Teacher,
   •   De-schooling model                      Learners, Parents
Society / policy level: “Cultureware”
    Relevance of the education system (and      School, University
    ICT) for development of the society
  •   Reproduction / Innovation                      Home
  •   Production economy / Knowledge
      economy?                                       Society &
                                                     policies
                                                                     Pulkkinen, 2009
Traditional educational practices no longer
provide prospective teachers with all the
necessary skills for teaching students to
survive economically in today’s workplace.
                                   UNESCO (2008: 1)
         Towards Expansive Professional Learning
Two dimensions for Expansive Professional Transformation
                                                  Institutions and schools in collaboration
                                               with the community (local, national, regional)
                                                         ICT a core technology

                                                                      ‘Transformation’
                         ‘Transition’                                 ‘Knowledge creation’
                         ‘Knowledge deepening’                        Teachers are themselves master learners and
                         Teacher professional development focus       knowledge producers who are constantly engaged in
                         on the use of ICT to guide students          educational experimentation and innovation to
                         through complex problems and manage          produce new knowledge about learning and teaching
                         dynamic learning environment                 practice                                               Experimentation in
                 Given                                       3        4                                                      context


            Programmes                                        1       2                                                      with varying
                         ‘Traditional’                                ‘Transmission’                                         solutions
                         ‘Technology add-on’                          ‘Technology literacy’
                         Teacher training focus the use of ICT as     Teacher training focus on the development of digital
                         an add-on to the traditional curricula and   literacy and the use of ICT for professional
                         standardized test systems                    improvement


                                                    ICT a complementary technology
                                                           Institutions and schools
                                                 as relatively isolated from the community


The trajectory for individual and collective technology enhanced expansive professional learning

                                                          Adapted: Engestrom, 2003; Kennedy, 2005; UNESCO, 2008
Towards System-wide Development
The central issue of educational change is the
 tension between technicalizing (improve
 teaching) and not technicalizing (improve
 learning), and here the teacher occupies the
 fulcrum position.
                                          Papert (1993: 55)
A system defends itself against recognizing the
  depth of its problems and the need for
  fundamental change.
                                          Papert (1993: 205)
       System Solutions
      ‘Symptomatic Solution’
          Technicalizing
         Improve teaching



Hierarchical teacher-centric culture



      ‘Fundamental Solution’
        Not technicalizing
         Improve learning


                                       Adapted: Senge, 2006
What sorts of new practices, institutional
arrangements and human interactions can
be developed to best support learning when
we are not reliant upon a centrally organised
location for people and material resources,
but instead can enable ‘near presence’
interactions between learners, experts,
advisors and mentors wherever they might
be?
                                 Daanen and Facer, 2007
Critical Transformation Zones
Technical level: Hardware/ software : ICT
                                                 Cultureware
    deployment mode should be:
  •   Admin / educative use ?
  •   Resource centre / library model?
  •   PC lab model / distributed model?           Socialware
  •   One2one, mobile, ubiquitous etc?

Process level: ”Warmware”; what are               Warmware
    educators supposed to do? What
    pedagogical processes should be
    developed based on use of ICT?
  •   Learning interaction ( among
      learners)                                   Hardware
                                                  Software
  •   Teaching interaction ( with learners)
  •   Management , monitoring, etc.
                                                  Hardware
      processes ?                                   ICT
Institution level: “Socialware”; what
    operational models should be developed    Principal, Teacher,
    based on use of ICT:
  •    Classroom / virtual model              Learners, Parents
  •    Single institution / network model
  •    Hybrid models
  •    De-schooling model                      School, University
                                                    Home
Society / policy level: “Cultureware”
    Relevance of the education system ( and         Society &
    ICT) for development of the society
  •   Reproduction / Innovation                     policies
  •   Production economy / Knowledge                                Pulkkinen, 2009
      economy?
  Workshop on North/South Research Partnerships for
                  ICT in Education
             April 21st Irish Aid Centre, Dublin

• New joint research
  projects                                Research

• New models for
  integrating research
  to education                            GeSCI
  development and
  policy making             Policy making            Education
                                                     Development
• New capacities in
  South and North
What is needed?
 Bridging the gap between research, policy and
    practice
   Coordinated and complementary efforts
   Re-examination of assumptions
   Fundamental re-thinking of educational purpose and
    practice
   Multi-disciplinary approaches and multiple
    perspectives
   Creation of innovative approaches which are
    contextually relevant
   Transformational models and strategies
   Sustainable capacities and capabilities in developing
    countries to develop own solutions
             GeSCI
Towards Inclusive Knowledge Societies




                           Contact & more information

                           mary.hooker@gesci.org

                           www.gesci.org
References
   Daanen, H. and Facer, K. 2007. 2020 and Beyond: Future scenarios for education in the age of new
    technologies [Online]. Available from Futurelab at:
    http://www.futurelab.org.uk/resources/documents/opening_education/2020_and_beyond.pdf [Acces 1 June
    2009]
   Engestrom, R. 2003. Change lab – a new perspective to teachers’ professional development [Online].
    Available from WITFOR at: www.witfor.org.bw/doc/dr_ritva_education.ppt [Accessed 19 April 2009]
   Evoh, C. J. (2007). Collaborative partnerships and the transformation of secondary education through ICTs
    in South Africa. Educational Media International [Online]. 44(2), 81-98. Available from: Academic Search
    Premier http://www.library.dcu.ie/Eresources/databases-az.htm [Accessed 26 March 2009]
   GeSCI 2008. Strategic Plan 2009 – 2011 [Online]. Available from GeSCI at: www.gesci.org [Accessed 15
    December 2008]
   Hakkarainen, K. et al. 2008. A Research Plan for the Academy of Finland. Helensinki: University of
    Helsinki (internal document)
   Hakkarainen, K. et al. 2008. Facilitating expansive school transformation in the SADC region. A Research
    Plan for the Academy of Finland. Helsinki: University of Helsinki
   Kennedy, A. 2005. Models for Continuing Professional Development: A framework for Analysis. Journal of
    In-Service Education [Online]. 31 (2), pp235-250. Available from Professional Development Collection at:
    http://www.library.dcu.ie/Eresources/databases-az.htm [Accessed 15 December 2008]
   Leach, J. 2008. Do new information and communications technologies have a role to play in the
    achievement of education for all? British Educational Research Journal [Online]. 34 (6), pp783 – 805.
    Available from: Academic Search Premier http://www.library.dcu.ie/Eresources/databases-az.htm
    [Accessed 26 March 2009]
References
   Nleya, P. 2009. Facilitating Expansive School Transformation Using ICT in the SADC Region: A Botswana
    Pilot Project IN: Workshop on Perspectives for North/South Research for ICT in Education 21 April, 2009
    [Online]. Available from GeSCI at: www.gesci.org [Accessed 27 April 2009]
   Papert, S. 1993. The Children’s Machine: Rethinkinh School in the Age of the Computer. New York: Basic
    Books
   Pulkkinen, J. 2009. Preliminary Conclusions and the Way Froward. IN: UN Global Alliance for ICT and
    Development Expert Group Web-Forum. 11 March 2009 [Online]. Available from GAID at: http://un-
    gaid.ning.com/forum/topics/preliminary-conclusions-and-1 [Accessed 17 April 2009]
   Senge, P. 2006. The Fifth Discipline: The Art & Practice of the Learning Organization.London: Random
    House
   Swarts, P. 2006. Teacher Professional Development Workshop Report. Dublin: GeSCI
   United Nations Conference on Trade and Development Secretariat 2007. The Least Developed Countries
    Report 2007 [Online]. Available from UNCTAD at:
    http://www.unctad.org/Templates/webflyer.asp?docid=8674&intItemID=4314&lang=1&mode=downloads
    [Accessed 24 May 2009]
   UNESCO 2005. Towards Knowledge Societies [Online]. Available from UNESCO at:
    http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0014/001418/141843e.pdf [Accessed 10 June 2009]
   UNESCO 2008. ICT Competency Standards for Teachers: Policy Framework [Online]. Available from
    UNESCO at: http://cst.unesco-ci.org/sites/projects/cst/The%20Standards/ICT-CST-
    Policy%20Framework.pdf [Accessed 11 April 2009]
   Yates, C. 2007. Teacher education policy: International development discourses and the development of
    teacher education. IN: Teacher Policy Forum for Sub-Saharan Africa November 2007, UNESCO Paris
    [Online]. Available from UNESCO at: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0016/001627/162798e.pdf
    [Accessed 8 April 2009]

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:3
posted:9/17/2012
language:Unknown
pages:33