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Bacteria Antibiotic Formal Lab

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Bacteria Antibiotic Formal Lab Powered By Docstoc
					SBI3UO-D Bacteria
Antibiotic Resistance
Formal Lab:
By: Amanjot Bhullar
Lab Performer : Amanjot Bhullar
Group Members: Samantha & Jennifer
Miss. Tran Period 3
Student #: 401-738


4/27/2012
         Performer: Amanjot Bhullar      April 30th 2012   Miss. Tran Student Number: 401 738

Background Research: Bacteria are small organisms that have one cell. In that one cell, they do not
have a membrane-enclosed nucleus or other membrane-enclosed organelles. Bacteria have different
range of shapes and sizes. The mode of bacterial reproduction is asexual reproduction. Asexual
reproduction refers to creation of an identical new organism without the need for fertilization. If the
conditions are friable, then the average time for bacterial reproduction is from fifteen to twenty minutes.
Binary Fission is some type of asexual reproduction. It is when the bacteria splits into two smaller
bacteria. The two smaller bacteria are equal in size and shape. The process begins when the cell’s
deoxyribonucleic acid is replicated. Each part of the deoxyribonucleic acid combines with the plasma
membrane. The plasma membrane grows inward and this causes the cell to split into two daughter
cells. Antibiotic products are products used in targeting bacteria. They target mostly soil bacteria or
bacteria found in the soil. Antibacterial products are products such as lotion, shampoo and soap. They
are used to kill bacteria. For example, antibacterial soap is a cleaning product that has active
antibacterial ingredients. These chemicals in it are used to kill bacteria and microbes. They target any
bacteria on your body or face. Bacterial resistance is the ability of certain parts of bacteria to develop a
tolerance to specific antibiotics.

Purpose: The purpose of this lab was to grow bacteria and to calculate the zone of inhibition from the
bacterial incubation.

Hypothesis: The independent variable of this lab is time given for the bacteria to grow. The dependent
variable of this lab is the length of the zone of inhibition. If three weeks are given for the bacteria to
grow, then the length of the zone of inhibition for blank disc would be 1mm. If three weeks are given for
the bacteria to grow, then the length of the zone of inhibition for antibiotic # 1 would be 0 mm. If three
weeks are given for the bacteria to grow, then the length of the zone of inhibition for antibiotic # 2 would
be 1 mm. If three weeks are given for the bacteria to grow, then the length of the zone of inhibition for
antibiotic # 2 would be 1mm. If three weeks are given for the bacteria to grow, then the length of the
zone of inhibition for antibacterial product # 1 would be 0 mm. If three weeks are given for the bacteria
to grow, then the length of the zone of inhibition for antibacterial product # 2 would be 1 mm.

Materials:

1. Sterile cotton swabs
2. Strips of parafilm
3. Marker
4. Dissecting microscope/ hand lens
5. Antibiotic discs (penicillin, ampicillin and erythromycin)
6. Agar plates
7. Forceps
8. Masking tape
9. Incubator
10. Metric ruler
11. Blank disc
Procedure:

1. Give two agars plates to each lab team.
2. Record the representation of antibacterial products in a lab note.
3. Divide the plate into three sections using a marker.
4. Label each region (A, B, C or A, D, E) on the bottom side.
5. Swipe someone inner cheek using a cotton swab.
6. Streak the agar as shown in the lab handout sheet.
7. Place the appropriate disc on the surface of the agar using the forceps.
8. Close the agar plate with its cover and seal the edges with parafilm.
9. Double seal the opening using the masking tape.
10. Print your group name on the tape.
11. Incubate the agar plates in an inverted position at 37oC.
12. Write down the time and the date of the bacterial incubation.
13. Measure the diameter of the zone of inhibition.
14. Calculate the area with three decimal places.
15. Make a sketch of the agar plate.

Observations:

                 Table 1: Qualitative And Quantitative Observations Of Zone Of Inhibition

Date: April 2nd 2012                                                          Time: 3:01 pm
Product Type               Zone Of Inhibition (in mm)   Qualitative Observations      Photo Of Agar Plate
Blank disc                 Unknown                      Patches of bacteria
Antibiotic #1              Unknown                      Empty
Antibiotic #2              0 mm                         Empty
Blank disc                 0 mm                         Bacteria only found in A
Antibacterial product #1   Unknown                      Empty
Antibacterial product #2   0 mm                         Empty




                 Table 2: Qualitative And Quantitative Observations Of Zone Of Inhibition

Date: April 4th 2012                                                            Time: 2:57 pm
Product Type               Zone Of Inhibition (in mm)   Qualitative Observations      Photo Of Agar Plate
Blank disc                 0mm                          Patches of bacteria
Antibiotic #1              0 mm                         A huge patch of bacteria
Antibiotic #2              0 mm                         Small patch of bacteria
Blank disc                 0 mm                         Bacteria only found in this
                                                        section
Antibacterial product #1   Unknown                      Empty
Antibacterial product #2   0 mm                         A tiny patch of bacteria
                                                        growing
                        Table 3: Qualitative And Quantitative Observations Of Zone Of Inhibition

Date: April 5th 2012                                                             Time: 3:12 pm
Product Type                  Zone Of Inhibition (in mm)   Qualitative Observations      Photo Of Agar Plate
Blank disc                    0 mm                         Patches of bacteria
Antibiotic #1                 0 mm                         A huge patch of bacteria
Antibiotic #2                 0 mm                         Clearer bacteria
Blank disc                    0 mm                         Bacteria only found in A
Antibacterial product #1      Unknown                      Empty
Antibacterial product #2      0 mm                         Mostly empty
                                                           Bacteria starting growing




                 Table 4: Qualitative And Quantitative Observations Of Zone Of Inhibition

Date: April 10th 2012                                                         Time: 3: 00 pm
Product Type                  Zone Of Inhibition (in mm)   Qualitative Observations      Photo Of Agar Plate
Blank disc                    0 mm                         Patches of bacteria
Antibiotic #1                 0 mm                         A huge patch of bacteria
Antibiotic #2                 0 mm                         Small patches of bacteria
Blank disc                    0 mm                         Bacteria only found in this
                                                           section
Antibacterial product #1      Unknown                      Empty
Antibacterial product #2      0 mm                         A small patch of bacteria
                                                           finally growing




                 Table 5: Qualitative And Quantitative Observations Of Zone Of Inhibition

Date: April 13th 2012                                                         Time: 11: 37 pm
Product Type                  Zone Of Inhibition (in mm)   Qualitative Observations      Photo Of Agar Plate
Blank disc                    0 mm                         Patches of bacteria
Antibiotic #1                 0 mm                         A huge patch of bacteria
Antibiotic #2                 0 mm                         Small patches of bacteria
Blank disc                    0 mm                         Bacteria only found in A

Antibacterial product #1      Unknown                      Empty , but more fogging
                                                           type of section
Antibacterial product #2      0 mm                         A small patch of bacteria
                                                           Is growing
                 Table 6: Qualitative And Quantitative Observations Of Zone Of Inhibition

Date: April 19th 2012                                                         Time: 12: 29 pm
Product Type               Zone Of Inhibition (in mm)   Qualitative Observations       Photo Of Agar Plate
Blank disc                 0 mm                         Patches of bacteria
Antibiotic #1              0 mm                         A huge patch of bacteria
Antibiotic #2              0 mm                         Small patches of bacteria
Blank disc                 0 mm                         Bacteria only found in this
                                                        section
Antibacterial product #1   Unknown                      Empty , but more fogging
                                                        type of section
Antibacterial product #2   0 mm                         More bacteria is growing



                 Table 7: Qualitative And Quantitative Observations Of Zone Of Inhibition

Date:    April 20th 2012                                                      Time: 2: 53 pm
Product Type               Zone Of Inhibition (in mm)   Qualitative Observations       Photo Of Agar Plate
Blank disc                 0 mm                         Patches of bacteria
Antibiotic #1              0 mm                         A huge patch of bacteria
Antibiotic #2              0 mm                         Small patches of bacteria
Blank disc                 0 mm                         Bacteria only found in A
Antibacterial product #1   Unknown                      A very tiny spot of bacteria
                                                        Unclear to see
Antibacterial product #2   0 mm                         More bacteria is growing



 Analysis: There wasn’t any zone of inhibition in our agar plates. There were just huge patches of
 bacteria in the agar plates. In the blank discs, the zone of inhibition was 0 millimetre. In the
 antibacterial product # 1, the zone of inhibition was unknown because there was only a tiny spot of
 bacteria found in the section. At first in the antibacterial product # 2, there wasn’t any bacteria growing
 and then in the second week, little patches of bacteria started growing. In the other sections, there
 were patches of bacteria. The colour of the bacteria growing in the agar plates was a brownish colour.

 Error Analysis: One source of error for this experiment is that there could have been a measurement
 error. When measuring the zone of inhibition with a metric ruler, the certainly of the measurement is
 not precise. There could be uncertainly to the measurement. A person can reduce this error by using a
 millimetre ruler.

 Discussion:

 1). The blank discs were used in the experiment because to compare the experimental disc with the
 actual disc. The blank disc is the actual disc and it shows if there was an evolutionary change. If there
 is difference between the two discs, then it tells us that there was some type of bacterial evolution.
2). The top three bacterial species found commonly in human mouth are streptococcus, lactobacillus
and E-coli. Streptococcus species are found in chains of bacterial cells. Lactobacillus species are
species that convert lactose into lactic acid. E-coli species are one of the few gram-negative living
organisms found in the mouth.

3). Our group did not observe scatter bacterial growth inside the zone of inhibition on the first
observation day. One could expect to see scattered bacterial growth inside the zone of inhibition if the
ampicillin was used. If there is a lot of ampicillin used in a part of a section, some bacteria can start
growing. When stirring ampicillin around the section, some parts have a lot of ampicillin and some
have less ampicillin. The parts that have a lot of ampicillin will see bacteria growing.

4). I did detect bacterial evolution in my lab because as shown in my observations. My observations
stated that there were patches of bacteria growing in most of each section. In antibiotic # 1, there were
patches of bacteria growing the first week of observation. In antibacterial product # 1, the section was
mostly empty. There were bacteria growing. In the blank disc A, there were a lot of bacteria growing
and sometimes, the bacteria spread over the zone of inhibition part.

5). If the bacteria colonies were detected in the zone of inhibition in the second week of incubation, I
might conclude that these bacteria is spreading fast and therefore there might be a lot of bacteria
growing. This shows that the bacteria found outside of the zone of inhibition is weaker and does not
have enough bacterial resistance.

6). A person should not use antibiotics to treat viral infection because antibiotics are only used for
curing bacterial infections. Antibiotics are only for killing infections related to bacteria and viral infection
does not relate to bacteria. You should continuously take antibiotics once started until all infectious
bacteria targeted by the antibiotic are killed because if some bacteria are left, they could reproduce
more bacteria and therefore bacteria can spread again. This meant that if some infectious bacteria are
left, they can reproduce to form more bacteria and therefore, it could harm the organism.

Conclusion: My hypothesis stated that the length of zone of inhibition would be 1 mm for blank disc,
antibiotic # 2, blank disc # 2 and antibacterial product # 2. My hypothesis also stated that the length of
zone of inhibition would be 0 mm for antibiotic # 1 and antibacterial product # 1. The observations had
shown that all product types had 0 mm for its zone of inhibition. For antibacterial product # 1, the zone
of inhibition was unknown because the product was mostly empty. Therefore, my hypothesis was half
correct and half rejected. My hypothesis was half rejected because all the observations stated that the
length of zone of inhibition was 0 mm.

References:

James. (June 2009). Get Smart: Know When Antibiotics Work.
     Centers For Disease Control And Prevention. Vol. 1

Bob. (November 2008). Reproduction: Bacteria & Bacteria Resistance.
      Microbiological Concepts. Vol. 1

				
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