TABLE OF CONTENTS by QeX83Lnj

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									                                                                                               Amajuba District Municipality
                                                                                              Integrated Development Plan
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                                           TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................................... 7

2. THE PLANNING PROCESS..................................................................................... 8
   2.1. REQUIREMENTS ...................................................................................................... 8
   2.2. INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS .............................................................................. 8
   2.3. PROCESS PLAN ...................................................................................................... 9
   2.4. DISTRICT FRAMEWORK ........................................................................................... 9
   2.5. PROCESS FOLLOWED.............................................................................................. 9
3. MUNICIPAL VISION, MISSION AND OBJECTIVES .............................................. 11
   3.1. VISION ................................................................................................................. 11
   3.2. MISSION ............................................................................................................... 11
   3.3. OBJECTIVES ......................................................................................................... 11
4. CURRENT REALITY .............................................................................................. 12
   4.1. BASIC FACTS AND FIGURES ................................................................................... 12
   4.2. IDENTIFICATION OF PRIORITY NEEDS/ISSUES .......................................................... 12
   4.3. SUMMARY OF MUNICIPAL ANALYSIS ISSUES/PRIORITIES .......................................... 13
   4.4. SPATIAL ANALYSIS ................................................................................................ 15
     4.4.1 Spatial Context............................................................................................... 15
     4.4.2 Land Use ....................................................................................................... 15
     4.4.3. Settlement Hierarchy..................................................................................... 16
     4.4.4. Transport and Communication Networks and Linkages ............................. 18
     4.4.5. Land Reform .............................................................................................. 19
   4.5. SOCIAL ANALYSIS ................................................................................................. 19
     4.5.1. Demography .............................................................................................. 19
     4.5.2 HIV/AIDS General trends ........................................................................... 21
     4.5.3. Cholera ..................................................................................................... 22
     4.5.4. Income and Poverty Levels ........................................................................ 22
   4.5. ECONOMIC ANALYSIS ......................................................................................... 23
     4.5.1. Economic Activities .................................................................................... 23
     4.5.2 Employment ............................................................................................... 25
   4.6. PROVISION OF MUNICIPAL INFRASTRUCTURE AND SERVICES ................................ 28
     4.6.1. Water Supply ............................................................................................. 28
     4.6.2 Sanitation ................................................................................................... 31
     4.6.3 Fuel for Lighting ......................................................................................... 33
     4.6.4 Telephones ................................................................................................ 36
     4.6.5 Refuse Removal ........................................................................................ 39
     4.6.6 Roads ........................................................................................................ 39
     4.6.7. Community Facilities .................................................................................. 40
   4.7. ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS ................................................................................ 40
   4.8. INSTITUTIONAL ANALYSIS .................................................................................... 46
   4.9. FINANCIAL ......................................................................................................... 46
     4.9.1 Salient Features of the 2001 Financial Statements .................................... 47
     4.9.2 Grant Allocations for 2001/2002 ..................................................................... 48
   4.10 PRIORITY ISSUES IN CONTEXT............................................................................. 50


5. DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES ............................................................................. 67
   5.1. KEY PERFORMANCE AREAS ................................................................................ 67


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                                                                                            Amajuba District Municipality
                                                                                           Integrated Development Plan
                                                                                                                        2


     5.2. DEVELOPMENT OBJECTIVES AND STRATEGIES ........................................................ 67
     5.3. FINANCIAL STRATEGY ......................................................................................... 78
       5.3.1. Revenue raising strategies ......................................................................... 78
       5.3.2. Asset management strategies .................................................................... 78
       5.3.3. Financial management strategies .............................................................. 78
       5.3.4. Strategies that would enhance cost-effectiveness ...................................... 79
     5.4. SPATIAL DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK ................................................................. 80
       5.4.1 Spatial Development Trends and Issues .................................................... 80
       5.4.2. Localised spatial Development principles ...................................................... 81
       5.4.3. Spatial Framework ..................................................................................... 81
       5.4.4. Land Use ................................................................................................... 86
       5.4.5. Key Intervention areas ............................................................................... 89
6. CAPITAL PROJECTS ............................................................................................ 92
     6.1.     SUMMARY LIST OF PROJECTS .............................................................................. 92
     6.2.     PROJECT PRIORITISATION................................................................................... 97
     6.3.     PRIORITY PROJECTS .......................................................................................... 98
     6.4.     POWERS AND FUNCTIONS ................................................................................. 101
7.          OPERATIONAL STRATEGIES ......................................................................... 104
     7.1 FINANCIAL 5 YEAR PLAN ................................................................................... 104
     7.2. CAPITAL INVESTMENT PLAN .............................................................................. 107
     7.3. INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS ....................................................................... 118
       7.3.1. Principles of Institutional Restructuring .................................................... 118
       7.3.2. Decentralisation versus Centralisation ..................................................... 118
       7.3.3. Restructuring Process .............................................................................. 119
       7.3.4. Implementation Planning .......................................................................... 126
     7.4 PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM ............................................................. 126
8. SPECIFIC PLANS ................................................................................................ 138
     8.1. WATER SERVICES DEVELOPMENT PLAN ............................................................ 138
       8.1.1. Introduction .............................................................................................. 138
       8.1.2. Strategy Guidelines .................................................................................. 138
       8.1.3. Sectoral Setting........................................................................................ 139
       8.1.4. Sector Vision and Applicable Objectives .................................................. 139
       8.1.5. Strategies and Projects ............................................................................ 140
     8.2. INTEGRATED TRANSPORT PLAN ........................................................................ 141
       8.2.1. Introduction .............................................................................................. 141
       8.2.2. Strategy Guidelines .................................................................................. 141
       8.2.3. Sectoral Setting........................................................................................ 142
       8.2.4. Sector Vision and Applicable Objectives .................................................. 142
       8.2.5. Strategies and Projects ............................................................................ 143
     8.3. INTEGRATED W ASTE MANAGEMENT PLAN .......................................................... 143
       8.3.1. Introduction .............................................................................................. 143
       8.3.2. Sectoral Setting........................................................................................ 144
       8.3.3. Sector Vision and Applicable Objectives .................................................. 144
       8.3.4. Strategies and Projects ............................................................................ 144
     8.4. INTEGRATED POVERTY REDUCTION AND GENDER EQUALITY PROGRAMME ........... 144
       8.4.1. Introduction .............................................................................................. 144
       8.4.2. Strategy Guidelines .................................................................................. 145
       8.4.3. Sectoral Setting........................................................................................ 145
       8.4.4. Sector Vision and Applicable Objectives .................................................. 145
       8.4.5. Strategies and Objectives ........................................................................ 145
     8.5. INTEGRATED ENVIRONMENTAL PROGRAMME...................................................... 146


SiVEST/Deloitte and Touche Consortium
                                                                                         Amajuba District Municipality
                                                                                        Integrated Development Plan
                                                                                                                     3


     8.5.1. Introduction .............................................................................................. 146
     8.5.2. Strategy Guidelines .................................................................................. 146
     8.5.3. Sectoral Setting........................................................................................ 147
     8.5.4. Sector Vision and Applicable Objectives .................................................. 147
     8.5.5. Strategies and Projects ............................................................................ 148
   8.6. INTEGRATED LOCAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT (LED) PROGRAMME ................... 149
     8.6.1. Introduction .............................................................................................. 149
     8.6.2. Strategy Guidelines .................................................................................. 149
     8.6.3. Sectoral Setting........................................................................................ 149
     8.6.4. Sector Vision and Applicable Objectives .................................................. 149
     8.6.5. Strategies and Projects ............................................................................ 150
   8.7. DISASTER MANAGEMENT PLAN ......................................................................... 151
     8.7.1. Introduction .............................................................................................. 151
     8.7.2. Strategy Guidelines .................................................................................. 151
     8.7.3. Sector Vision and Applicable Objectives .................................................. 151
     8.7.4. Strategies and Projects ............................................................................ 151
   8.8. INTEGRATED HIV/AIDS PROGRAMME ................................................................ 152
     8.8.1. Introduction .............................................................................................. 152
     8.8.2. Strategic Guidelines ................................................................................. 152
     8.8.3. Sector Plan .............................................................................................. 154
     8.8.4. Sector Vision and Applicable Objectives .................................................. 154
     8.8.5. Strategies and Projects ............................................................................ 154

Annexures
Annexure 1:           Maps
Annexure 2:           KZN Profiles
Annexure 3:           SERC Services
Annexure 4:           Overview of facilities in DC 25




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                                                                       Amajuba District Municipality
                                                                      Integrated Development Plan
                                                                                                   4


LIST OF MAPS

Map 1:                Administrative Context
Map 2:                Generalised Land Use
Map 3:                Current Settlement Hierarchy
Map 4:                Movement Corridors
Map 5:                Population Distribution
Map 6:                Population Density
Map 7:                Income Distribution
Map 8:                Poverty Indicators
Map 9:                Economic Activity
Map 10:               Agricultural Potential
Map 11:               Tourism Potential
Map 12:               Unemployment Levels
Map 13:               Water Supply
Map 14:               Sanitation
Map 15:               Electricity
Map 16:               Roads
Map 17:               Health Facilities
Map 18:               Education Facilities
Map 19:               Community Facilities
Map 20:               Environmental Analysis
Map 21:               Proposed Spatial Framework
Map 22:               Cross Border Alignment
Map 23:               Key Intervention Areas


LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1:             Population distribution in terms of Local Municipalities
Figure 2:             Number of people employed and unemployed
Figure 3:             Level of water supply
Figure 4:             Level of sanitation
Figure 5:             Lighting facilities
Figure 6:             Telephone facilities
Figure 7:             Graphical analysis of the 2001/2002 budget: total revenue
Figure 8:             Graphical analysis of the 2001/2002 budget: expenditure




SiVEST/Deloitte and Touche Consortium
                                                                        Amajuba District Municipality
                                                                       Integrated Development Plan
                                                                                                    5


LIST OF TABLES
Table 1:              Dates of Key Activities
Table 2:              Basic Facts and Figures
Table 3:              Stakeholder Priorities
Table 4:              Municipal Issues
Table 5:              Land Reform Projects
Table 6:              Key Demographic Indicators
Table 7:              Annual Household Incomes
Table 8:              Battlefields
Table 9:              Employment
Table 10:             Sectoral Employment
Table 11:             Water Supply
Table 12:             Water Supply – Newcastle Municipality
Table 13:             Water Supply – Utrecht Municipality
Table 14:             Water Supply – Dannhauser Municipality
Table 15:             Level of Sanitation Provision
Table 16:             Sanitation – Newcastle Municipality
Table 17:             Sanitation – Utrecht Municipality
Table 18:             Sanitation – Dannhauser Municipality
Table 19:             Sanitation – Amajuba District
Table 20:             Fuel Utilised for Lighting
Table 21:             Lighting – Newcastle Municipality
Table 22:             Lighting – Utrecht Municipality
Table 23:             Lighting – Dannhauser Municipality
Table 24:             Lighting – Amajuba District
Table 25:             Level of Telecommunication Services
Table 26:             Telecommunications – Newcastle Municipality
Table 27:             Telecommunications – Utrecht Municipality
Table 28:             Telecommunications – Dannhauser Municipality
Table 29:             Telecommunications – Amajuba District
Table 30:             Refuse Removal Services
Table 31:             Conservancies
Table 32:             Grant Funding
Table 33:             Number of Cases
Table 34:             Land Reform Detailed Project Information
Table 35:             Land Claims
Table 36:             Guidelines for Health Facilities
Table 37:             Requirements for Health Facilities in Amajuba
Table 38:             Impact of HIV and AIDS on Planning
Table 39:             Objectives and Strategies
Table 40:             Hub and Satellite Services
Table 41:             Settlement Hierarchy
Table 42:             Agricultural Potential
Table 43:             Projects
Table 44:             Priority Projects
Table 45:             Budget Projections
Table 46:             Functional Analysis
Table 47:             Functional Grouping
Table 48:             Key Performance Indicators & Departments
Table 49:             Water and Sanitation Objectives and Strategies
Table 50:             Road Infrastructure Objectives and Strategies
Table 51:             Waste Related Objectives and Strategies
Table 52:             Environmental Objectives and Strategies
Table 53:             LED Objectives and Strategies


SiVEST/Deloitte and Touche Consortium
                                                            Amajuba District Municipality
                                                           Integrated Development Plan
                                                                                        6


Table 54:             HIV/AIDS Objectives and Strategies




SiVEST/Deloitte and Touche Consortium
                                                                  Amajuba District Municipality
                                                                 Integrated Development Plan
                                                                                              7




1. Introduction

The Amajuba District Council (DC25) comprises three municipalities - Newcastle
Municipality (KZ252), Utrecht Municipality (KZ253) and Dannhauser Municipality
(KZ254) (see Map 1: Administrative context). The District comprises areas of the
northern portions of the former uMzinyathi Regional Council, the former Transitional
Local Councils of Dannhauser, Newcastle, Hattingspruit and Utrecht, and, the Tribal
Authority areas of Buhle-Bomzinyathi and Nyanydu.

In terms of the Municipal Systems Act (Act 32 of 2000), the Amajuba District Council
is required to undertake an integrated development planning process to formulate an
Integrated Development Plan (IDP). This process is a mechanism to eradicate the
development legacy of the past, and the IDP is a strategic planning instrument to
guide and inform the planning, budgeting, management and decision-making
activities in the municipality. An important function of the IDP, is also to guide the
budgets of other sector departments (National and Provincial) as to where their
services and resources are required, in terms of needs and priorities identified in the
IDP. In addition to guiding organs of state, the IDP should be an informative
document to encourage, and guide, potential investment in the municipal area.




SiVEST/Deloitte and Touche Consortium
                                                                   Amajuba District Municipality
                                                                  Integrated Development Plan
                                                                                               8



2.         The Planning Process

2.1. Requirements

The Municipal Systems Act (No 32 of 2000), together with the Local Government:
Municipal Planning and Performance Management Regulations, 2001 (R796 24
August 2001), set out the core components of the IDPs, as well as, the requirements
for public participation in their drafting.

The core requirements may be summarised as:
  A long term vision
  An assessment of the current level of development in the municipality
  Development priorities and objectives
  Development strategies
  A spatial development framework
  Operational strategies
  Applicable disaster management plans
  A financial plan
  Key performance indicators and performance targets

The approach adopted in the preparation of the IDP has been strongly guided by the
guidelines prepared by the Department of Provincial and Local Government as set
out in the IDP guidepack. The process is one that is integrative, sustainable, issue-
driven, people centered, practical and action oriented. The preparation of the IDP has
been undertaken in a phased manner, the focus of each phase being indicated
below:
Phase 1: Analysis
Phase 2: Development Strategies
Phase 3: Projects
Phase 4: Integration
Phase 5: Approval.

2.2. Institutional Arrangements

The Municipal Structures Act specifies a requirement of community participation in
the IDP process, thus ensuring that all role-players and stakeholders have an
opportunity to make inputs into issues directly affecting them. In order to achieve this,
a Representative Forum, comprising members from the local government structures
in the area, councillors, civic organisation representation and representation from the
government sector departments and other service providers active in the area was
established to provide input into the process. The Representative Forum has met
regularly to provide input into the process and to comment on documentation
emanating from the process.

An IDP Steering Committee was also established to provide management guidance
to the preparation of the IDP. The Committee comprises the Heads of Department of
the Municipality. This committee has met to discuss matters relating to the IDP,
review documentation prepared and provide overall guidance.

The day-to-day management of the IDP has been delegated to an appointed IDP
manager within the Council.



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                                                                  Amajuba District Municipality
                                                                 Integrated Development Plan
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2.3. Process Plan
Prior to embarking on the preparation of the IDP, a process plan was prepared and
adopted by the Amajuba District Municipality. The Process Plan set out the following:
   A programme specifying the planning activities to be undertaken and the
    associated time frames
   Appropriate mechanisms, processes and procedures for consultation and
    participation of local communities, organs of state, traditional authorities, and
    other role players in the IDP drafting process
   The institutional arrangements to manage the IDP
   The identification of all plans and planning requirements binding on the
    municipality in terms of national and provincial legislation

2.4. District Framework
The District Framework plan prepared by the Amajuba District Municipality, for the
district, provides for linkages and binding relationships to be established between the
Amajuba District Municipality and the three local municipalities within the district –
Newcastle, Utrecht and Dannhauser. The Framework Plan aims to facilitate proper
consultation, co-ordination and alignment of the planning process of the district
municipality with that of the three local municipalities.

2.5. Process Followed
Every attempt was made to follow the process set out in the Process Plan and the
District Framework Plan. However, due to a number of factors, such as delays in
initiating the preparation of the IDP, delays experienced in receiving, confirming and
consolidating data and difficulties in scheduling meetings, there were variations from
the Process Plan. The key activities in the actual process followed in the preparation
of the IDP are set out below. Every attempt was, however, made to ensure that the
deadlines for the major activities as indicated in the process plan were met.

The consultants to assist in the preparation of the IDP (Scott Wilson-Deloitte and
Touche consortium) were appointed August 2001.

The following reports were submitted and Representative Forum meetings held
during the preparation of the IDP:




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                                                                              Amajuba District Municipality
                                                                             Integrated Development Plan
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                                        Table 1: Dates of Key Activities
          Date                               Activity                      Comment/Topic discussed
                                                Phase 1: Analysis
21 September 2001              Representative Forum                   Presentation of Initial Analysis
                                                                      Findings
8 October 2001                 Draft Municipal Data and Spatial
                               Analysis Report submitted
10 October 2001                Representative Forum                   Finalise composition and constitution
26 October 2001                Representative Forum                   Revised Draft Municipal Data and
                                                                      Spatial Analysis Report considered
                                                                      Needs Identification
22 November 2001               Draft Aggregation Report submitted     Incl. revised Draft Municipal Data and
                                                                      Spatial Analysis
20 December 2001               Draft Priority Issues In-Depth Analysis
                               Report submitted
                                                  Phase 2: Strategies
29/30 October 2001             Strategic Planning Workshop             Separate process from IDP, but
                                                                       strongly linked
20 December 2001               Draft Vision, Objectives and
                               Strategies Report submitted
17 January 2002                Representative Forum                   Vision, Objectives and Strategies
                                                                      Draft Aggregation Report
12 February                    Workshop                               Strategies
1 March 2002                   Representative Forum                   Vision, Objectives and Strategies
                                                                      Resource Identification and Financial
                                                                      Strategies
8 March 2002                   Revised Draft Vision, Objectives and
                               Strategies Report submitted
                                                  Phase 3: Projects
18 March 2002                  Draft Project Business Plans Report
                               submitted
25 March 2002                  Representative Forum                   Project Prioritisation
                                                                      Draft Business Plans
                                                                      Spatial Development Framework
                                                Phase 4: Integration
22 April 2002                  Draft IDP Report submitted            Include sectoral programmes,
                                                                     operational and financial plans
25 April 2002                  Representative Forum                  Draft IDP Report




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                                                                 Amajuba District Municipality
                                                                Integrated Development Plan
                                                                                          11



3.         Municipal Vision, Mission and Objectives

3.1. Vision

Amajuba will be a fully developed District, with a vibrant and sustainable economy, a
better quality of life, preserved within its own cultural and traditional values.


3.2. Mission

The Amajuba District Municipality will through good governance and management,
based on accountable, transparent, democratic and developmental local government,
strive to achieve its vision, within the legal framework by:-
 Promoting shared and integrated service delivery
 Creating an enabling environment for economic activities
 Increasing opportunities for the previously disadvantaged
 Providing and maintaining integrated, affordable, equitable and sustainable
     services - economic and subsidised community services
 Facilitating access to land, housing and social services
 Promoting development of a safe and healthy environment, and
 Effective planning of infrastructure and technical services.


3.3. Objectives
The following objectives have been agreed to guide development in the Amajuba
District:
 To achieve sound management, administration and development in the District
 To ensure that municipal services are provided to all communities within the Amajuba
    District in the most efficient, effective, affordable and sustainable manner
 To facilitate, encourage and support the development of the local economy and job
    creation
 To ensure that social services are provided to all communities within the Amajuba
    District in the most efficient, effective, affordable and sustainable manner
 To rehabilitate and improve the environment
 To facilitate sound development in the district




SiVEST/Deloitte and Touche Consortium
                                                                                Amajuba District Municipality
                                                                               Integrated Development Plan
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4. Current Reality

4.1. Basic Facts and Figures

                                        Table 2: Basic Facts and Figures
                         Basic Facts                                       Figures
   Total population                                      410 439
   Amajuba population as % of KZN                        4.9%
   Total population of DC25 per KZN area                 KZ 252 – 287 260 (70.0%)
                                                         KZ 253 – 23 929 (5.8%)
                                                         KZ 254 – 99 250 (24.2%)
   % of total population urbanised                       57%
   Age profile                                           <20 – 48.5%
                                                         21-60 – 47.6%
                                                         >60 - 3.9%
   Unemployment                                          40.6%
   (%of income earning population)
   Households with no access to services:                KZ 252    KZ 253     KZ 254          District
     Water                                                4.45%    47.99%      21.45%              10%
     Sanitation                                           2.45%    47.28%       3.87%            4.85%
     Electricity                                         12.99%    67.83%      70.49%            27.6%
     Refuse                                              24.10%    74.20%      87.60%           39.68%
     Telephone                                           21.40%    67.26%      58.11%           31.26%


4.2. Identification of Priority Needs/Issues

The Registered Stakeholders were requested to identify district needs. When identifying
needs, the stakeholders were free to state anything that they felt was an issue or a need
in the district. However, to consider the immediate and most important needs in the
district, the stakeholders were requested to indicate their five most important needs.
These were listed as priority 1 to priority 5. The table below lists the priorities as
submitted by the registered stakeholders:




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                                                                           Amajuba District Municipality
                                                                          Integrated Development Plan
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                                        Table 3: Stakeholder Priorities

                 Newcastle Chamber of Commerce and Industry
job creation
potable water supply
refuse disposal and sewerage
maintenance of existing facilities
development of new roads

                             Utrecht Local Municipality
improving land reform delivery
economic development supported by skills training
social infrastructure such as district tertiary education, sport and recreation
transport
communication/attitudes

                             KZN Department of Health
reticulated water supply to Buffalo Flats communities
reticulated sewerage in Stafford, Osizweni E, Blaaubosch, Cavan, Buffalo Flats
sanitation, water supply, refuse collection and pension pay point shelters
hazardous waste disposal unit
refuse collection and disposal - Buffalo Flats
                                   Nedupola Trust
job creation
                                Newcastle Municipality
1. job creation
2. water and sanitation
3. roads and stormwater drainage
4. housing and land reform
5. recreation facilities
                               Dannhauser Municipality
1. institutional and financial
2. job creation and economic development
3. infrastructure and transportation
4. environment
5. land and housing


4.3. Summary of Municipal analysis issues/Priorities

The table below indicates that many issues were common in all three municipalities:




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                                                                               Amajuba District Municipality
                                                                              Integrated Development Plan
                                                                                                        14


                                          Table 4: Municipal Issues
 Issue                            Newcastle            Utrecht Municipality    Dannhauser
                                  Municipality                                 Municipality
 Job creation                                                                          
 Land and housing                                                                      
 Social infrastructure                                                                 
 Roads              and                                                                
 stormwater
 Communications                                                                            
 Institutional      and                                                                    
 financial
 restructuring
 Environment                                                                                
 Basic infrastructure                                                                     
 (water             and
 sanitation)
 Community gardens                         
 Safety and security                       
 Needs of women,                                                
 youth, disable and
 aged

At a Representative Forum meeting held on the 9th November 2001, the need analysis
from the various stakeholders (municipalities and other district stakeholders) were
considered and work-shopped. The list below indicates the agreed priority categories.
The representative forum agreed that these needs are all inter-linked and measures to
address them mutually supportive. They thus decided against prioritising these further,
suffice to say that it was recognised that job creation is the essential base for future
development.

 Safety and security
   - Crime prevention
 Land reform
  - Reform and distribution
 Environment
  - Potential / resources
 Job creation
  - Arts and culture
  - Tourism
  - Sports and recreation (business)
  - Agriculture
  - Economic development
  - Business centre
  - Inward investment
  - Skills facilitation
 Communication
  - Attitudes
 Transport
 Social infrastructure
  - HIV/Aids
  - Pension pay points

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                                                                       Amajuba District Municipality
                                                                      Integrated Development Plan
                                                                                                15


     - Health facilities
     - Social care and development centre
    Infrastructure
     - Informal settlements
     - Refuse collection and disposal
     - Hazardous waste disposal
     - Reticulated sewerage
     - Reticulated water supply
     - Cemetery and crematoria


4.4. Spatial Analysis

4.4.1 Spatial Context

The Amajuba District Council (DC25) is located in the north-west corner of KwaZulu-
Natal. The District comprises of areas formerly within the Umzinyathi Sub-region and
the Central and Northern Sub-regions.

In terms of the December 2000 demarcations, DC 25 comprises three Local Councils
(LC). These being:
- Newcastle (KZ 252)
- Utrecht (KZ 253), and
- Dannhauser (KZ 254).


4.4.2 Land Use

The District is characterised by a range of environments including commercial
agricultural areas, forestry and areas with inherent economic opportunity such as the
tourism areas, as indicated in the map 2: Generalised Land Use. A small proportion of
the district is characterized by urban (built up) settlement. This is concentrated along the
Newcastle-Madadeni-Osizweni axis and around the core areas of Utrecht, Charlestown,
Dannhauser, Hattingspruit and in the Blaauwbosch/Buffalo Flats area.

The land use reflects the spatial distribution of economic activity. Mining and quarrying
are distributed along the east-west coal seam extending from Newcastle to Utrecht, as
well as along the north-south seam extending from Newcastle towards Dundee.

The predominant use is agricultural. Commercially cultivated areas (both dry land and
irrigated) are clustered in the southern portion of the district towards Ladysmith as well
as to the east. Irrigated activities are concentrated along the Buffalo River as it
meanders thorough the central portion of Amajuba. The main crops grown are maize
and wheat. Subsistence agriculture is the predominant land use in Buffalo Flats-
Blaauwbosch area. The greatest proportion of the District is grassland, which is utilized
for grazing.

Forestry is prevalent in the higher lying areas, mainly in the north-eastern part of Utrecht,
along the N11 (Laingsnek Pass), and in the south-western areas of the district.


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                                                                                             Amajuba District Municipality
                                                                                            Integrated Development Plan
                                                                                                                      16


4.4.3. Settlement Hierarchy
The district is largely rural in nature and contains a settlement hierarchy that is
dominated by the Newcastle-Madadeni-Osizweni complex (see map 3: Settlement
Hierarchy). This forms the District Centre, by virtue of the population concentration , the
urban nature of goods and services available in the complex, its diverse economic base,
level of development and potential for future growth. Central and provincial agencies
also maintain a strong presence in the centre.

There are two municipal centres within the District – Utrecht and Dannhauser. These are
the seats of the local municipalities and are urban in nature, servicing their surrounding
rural areas by way of commercial and service related activities, centres of administration
for regional, provincial and central authorities, as well as service providers. Hattingspruit
is another settlement in the district that is urban in nature, although at a much smaller
scale. These urban centres have populations of less than 4000 people each.

The following facilities and services should be available in the municipal centres to
support the broadening of the centre's, and hinterlands, economic base (Scott-Wilson,
1998)1:
  Bitumen access road;
  Bulk water and electricity supply;
  Internal roads;
  Sewerage disposal system;
  Local government offices
  Magistrate's court
  Police station
  Post office
  Community/school hall
  Schools (pre-primary, primary and secondary)
  Hospital or health care
  Bus station/taxi rank with ablution facilities and a holding/parking area
  Premises for SMME's
  Market
  Airstrip
  Recreational facilities
  Agricultural extension services
  SMME support services
  Adult training
  Base for network for periodic/mobile function to SERC's
  Shops (consumer, durable and specialist)
  Personal and professional services
  Banks and other financial institutions
  Hotels and other accommodation establishments
  Garages with spares and repair facilities
  Bus/taxi service to regional centre and SERCs
  SMMEs
  Co-operatives
  Serviced residential areas.


1
    Scott-Wilson (1998) Final Draft Perspective Report: Regional Development Plan for the uMzinyathi Region.


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The remainder of settlements in the district are dispersed rural settlements and those
associated with land reform projects. These settlements are primarily located along or
close to the main roads like beads on a string separated by pockets of agricultural land.
These rural settlements have been categorised in four groups:

(1)      Large rural settlements with populations greater than 10 000 people. They have
low levels of service provision and generally lack critical urban elements. This group
includes Trekboer, Kilbarchan, Gardenia Colliery, Ingagane Colliery, Kaalvlakte,
Braakwater, Uithyk, Birkenstock, Inverness, Jackalspan, Dicks, Springboklaagte and
Milford. The large size of these settlements are a cause for concern and should be an
area for intervention. These interventions should be directed towards the provision of
the following services and facilities:
   all weather access roads
   bulk water supply
   electricity supply
   telephones (public and private)
   post office / boxes
   refuse dump
   cemetery
   police station
   community hall with facilities for NGO's and other community activities
   schools (primary and secondary, with facilities for adult training and library)
   clinic
   sports / recreation facilities
   bus/taxi rank with ablution facilities
   market/meeting place
   slaughter block
   woodlot
   pension pay pint
   license pay point
   mobile banks
   space for the development of shops, buses and taxis, filling stations, garden plots,
    etc.

(2)      Small and emerging rural centres (SERC), which are rural settlements with an
apparent economic base, include Hilda/Amajuba Forest, Redmain, Chelmsford, Leokop,
Naasfarm, Thirst, Kilegethe and Flint. Their emergence is driven by a variety of
economic, social and even political factors. Most offer a range of services but, lack the
comprehensiveness of the range available in higher order settlements (Scott Wilson,
1998)2. The type of services and facilities in these settlements should include:
   all weather access roads
   bulk water supply
   electricity supply
   telephones (public and private)
   post office / boxes
   refuse dump
   cemetery
   police station
   (periodic) offices for local government and magistrate
2
    Ibid.


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    community hall with facilities for NGO's and other community activities
    schools (primary and secondary, with facilities for adult training and library)
    clinic
    sports / recreation facilities
    agricultural demonstration plot
    bus/taxi rank with ablution facilities
    market/meeting place
    space for small industries and traders
    slaughter block
    woodlot
    residential sites with basic infrastructural services
    pension pay point
    licence pay point
    mobile banks
    training courses
    support for SMME's
    space for the development of shops, service industries, buses and taxis, filling
     stations, garden plots, housing etc.

In order to maximise inputs from a relatively low level of initial investment, development
should initially be targeted at those settlements with existing high levels of infrastructure
and facilities. Further, the provision of the most necessary services should be prioritised.
The services identified in these SERCs is documented in Annexure 3.

(3).  Smaller settlements, which make up the bulk of the settlements in the district.
These are remote residential areas with a limited economic base (if at all).

(4).   Land reform                  projects   such   as   Amantungwa,   Nkululeko     Yomphakathi,
Charlestown.

There are few settlements in the Utrecht Municipality. This may be due to the
topography of the northern portions of the municipality, and the considerable area
devoted to commercial agriculture and forestry. However, this is the area in which the
bulk of the land reform projects are located.

Please refer to Annexure 4 for an overview of facilities available within DC25.

4.4.4. Transport and Communication Networks and Linkages

Transportation infrastructure is concentrated in the central portion of the district, which is
traversed by the N11, linking the district to Gauteng and through Ladysmith to Durban,
and providing an alternative to the N3. This forms the primary movement corridor in the
district (see map 4: Movement Corridors).

Other important external road linkages are the R34, providing eastward linkages to
Vryheid and westward towards Vrede, and the R68/R621 linkage to Dundee. These form
the secondary and tertiary movement corridors through the district.




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                                                                               Integrated Development Plan
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The railway line, connecting Gauteng to Durban, and branching off to connect Newcastle
to Vryheid, Ulundi and Richards Bay is another important external linkage, reinforcing
the movement corridors.

In addition, the district is well served by the network of provincial and district roads. A
small airport, located at Newcastle provides facilities for light aircraft, and is supported
by small airstrips scattered throughout the commercial farming area.


4.4.5. Land Reform
Numerous land claims have been lodged with the Land Claims Commission, and, the
Department of Land Affairs is involved in numerous land reform projects in the area.
The following identified land reform projects are currently underway in the district:

                                        Table 5: Land Reform Projects
 Programme Type                   Project name         Location                 Comment
 Redistribution                   Amantungwa           Bordering     Utrecht    No        infrastructure
                                                       urban area               development         has
                                                                                taken place. Need for
                                                                                basic services and job
                                                                                opportunities
                                  Mossdale             Near     Dannhauser      Likely to have access
                                                       urban area               to      services      in
                                                                                Dannhauser town
                                  Shabalala            Utrecht     municipal    Basic infrastructure in
                                                       area,         around     place.      Need job
                                                       Groenvlei                creation.
                                  Nzima                Northern    part   of    Location is a problem
                                                       Utrecht     municipal    in terms of service
                                                       area therefore closer    delivery. Need for
                                                       to Mpumulanga            development.
                                  Mabaso               Utrecht                  -
 Tenure                           Charlestown          Newcastle                Possible access to
                                                                                basic     services    in
                                                                                Charlestown.
                                  Alcockspruit         Newcastle                -
                                  Blaauwbosch          Newcastle                -
                                  Gavin                Newcastle – south of     -
                                                       Blaauwbosch


4.5. Social Analysis

4.5.1. Demography

The total population of the district was recorded as 410 439 in the 1996 census. Of this
70% was located within the Newcastle Municipality, 24.2% in Dannhauser, and, only
5.8% in the Utrecht Municipality. This is reflected in the pie chart below:




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                                                                                     Amajuba District Municipality
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                                             Figure 1: Population Distribution
                                              in terms of Local Municipalities



                                                                                    KZ252
                                                                                    KZ253
                                                                                    KZ254




The district’s demographic situation is also clearly illustrated in the Population
Distribution map (map 5). This map shows a concentration of people in the Newcastle-
Madadeni-Osizweni area, a smaller concentration in the Blaauwbosch area and very
dispersed population in the remainder of the district, with the notable exception of the
area in the north-east of the Dannhauser municipal area, referred to as Buhle-
Bomzinyathi. Population densities in the area are reflected on map 6: Population
Density. This illustrates very low population densities (less than 2 people per ha) across
the district, with the exception of the Newcastle-Madadeni-Osizweni axis, where
densities may reach above 50 people per ha, and, the Blaauwbosch area where
densities are recorded as reaching up to 10 people per ha.

The key demographic data relating to the district is presented in the table below. The
statistics used are from the Demarcation Board's database. Figures used differ to those
from the Interim Integrated Development Plan (IIDP) which was based on an analysis of
the 1996 Census.

                                        Table 6: Key Demographic Indicators
                         KZ 252             KZ253       KZ254      Urban       Non-Urban        Total
  Total                     287 260          23 929       99 250     73 758        336 681         410 439
  Population                (70.0%)           (5.8%)     (24.2%)      (18%)          (82%)
  Male                      134 393          12 882       48 256    108 409         87 122           195 531
  Female                    152 784          11 031       50 953    124 131         90 637           214 768
  Age Group

  0-4                           11.0%         13.0%       13.5%                                        9.8%
  5-19                          34.0%         34.9%       39.0%                                       35.9%
  20-29                         18.0%         17.0%       16.0%                                       18.0%
  30-49                         23.0%         21.9%       19.0%                                       22.0%
  50-64                          7.2%           6.9%       6.8%                                        7.1%
  65 and Over                    3.6%           4.3%       4.2%                                        3.8%
  Unknown                        1.3%           1.6%       0.8%                                        1.2%
  Number of                    55 184          3 488     15 582      46 852         27 402            74 254
  households                  (74.3%)         (4.7%)    (21.0%)       (63%)          (37%)
  Household                        5.2            6.8        6.3         1.6           12.3                5.5
  size



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                                                                                       Amajuba District Municipality
                                                                                      Integrated Development Plan
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The following summarises the situation:
 Females are dominant in the district, constituting 52.3% of the total population
 In all three local municipalities, the age group 0-19 years is the predominant
   proportion of the total population. At district level, this category makes up 47.9% of
   the total population. This indicates that the district is likely to maintain demographic
   momentum in terms of population growth and will be faced with challenges in the
   provision of education and health facilities, as well as to create employment
   opportunities. This, in effect, implies that the District Municipality will have to take
   cognisance of the demographic profile when determining strategies and projects.
 Those 65 years and over make up 3.8% of the total district population
 The dependency ratio in the district is 1:4.3 (total population minus persons
   employed divided by persons employed). This indicates that each employed member
   of the population supports 4.3 other people.
 Household size varies from 5.2 to 6.8 people per household, with an average
   household size is 5.5 people. This indicates the variation between household size in
   urban areas and the larger households found in the rural areas.

In terms of population trends, out-migration from rural areas has been seen to be
prevalent in those areas where mining and agriculture have been the dominant
economic activities.


4.5.2 HIV/AIDS General trends

It has been reported that KwaZulu Natal and Gauteng are the regions most affected by
the AIDS pandemic. This is partly due to high rates of urbanisation and high mobility
among the residents in these provinces. The seventh national HIV survey of women
attending antenatal clinics of the public health services in South Africa in October/
November 1996 reported a 20% HIV rate, while in 1997 a higher rate of 26.92% HIV rate
of mothers in KwaZulu Natal was reported. In 1998, this had increased to 32.5% (Town
and Regional Planning Commission, 2000)3.

Previous studies of the district (Metroplan,1999)4 indicate that this pandemic is likely to
have profound negative impacts on the district in the medium to long term. This includes
the likely depletion of certain age groups more than others. Mason and Wood (cited in
Metroplan) project that by 2014, the number of children under 10 will be more than 25%
below the number expected AIDS free, while the age group between 20-35 will be
depleted by 40% or more. Mason and Wood projected further that at the provincial level,
by the end of 1997, about 800 000 people were living with HIV/AIDS, i.e. more than 1 in
ten of the total population. The South Africa Insurance industry predicts that nationally
by the end of 2025, about 5.5 million people will be living with HIV/AIDS (Town and
Regional Planning Commission, 2000)5.

It will be important to factor into planning the impacts associated with this pandemic.
The epidemic for example, will affect infrastructure planning by reducing the projected
number of people, impacts on households requiring services such as their ability to pay
for these services and increased demand for health care facilities and social services.
3
  Town and Regional Planning Commission (2000): The Impact of HIV/AIDS on Planning Issues in KwaZulu-Natal
4
  Metroplan (1999): uMzinyathi Sub-regional Plans – Status Quo Northern and Central (Draft)
5
  ibid


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4.5.3. Cholera

In April 2001, the Medical Research Council (MRC)6 reported that there had been “72
738 cases of cholera in the last 10 months and still counting”. More recently, however,
the Newcastle Advertiser7 warned “Cholera outbreak – DOH on full alert”. However, this
epidemic in KwaZulu-Natal is known as having the least death rate per case, a case
fatality rate of 0,2%. The link between poverty and cholera, as well as AIDS, is a strong
one.

Cholera is a water-borne disease spread via the oral-fecal route, thereby, people must
drink water contaminated with the vibrio cholera bacteria in order to suffer from cholera.
The symptoms of cholera are diarrhoea, leading to dehydration which, untreated, result
in death.

The Medical Research Council states that there are no cases reported where the
bacteria were transmitted to humans through piped water. Thus, it is populations in
un/under-developed areas, which have no access to adequate water and sanitation, that
are susceptible and vulnerable to cholera and other water-borne diseases. As a result,
more money has been spent to combat the epidemic than would have been spent in
order to provide safe and efficient water and sanitation services (MRC, 2001)8.

As one is well aware, prevention is better than cure. Thus, it is vital that infrastructure
development in rural and informal areas takes place or else, as stated by the MRC, “we
will pay for it later”. Inherent in this challenge is educating the communities about the
disease. While people may be aware of the risks of drinking water from certain sources,
they may have no alternative source.

A monitoring process undertaken by the Department of Health in the Ladysmith region
shows that most of the rivers in the region have a high level of faecal contamination.
Water tests are to be undertaken on the Newcastle’s surrounding rivers9. In an
immediate effort to combat the disease, the Department of Health is dispatching water
tankers to fill water tanks throughout the region with purified water.


4.5.4. Income and Poverty Levels

Income levels in the district are generally low. Annual household incomes are
summarized in the table below. Over half of households (52.2%) have an annual income
of less than R12 000 per annum, or R1 000 per month, of which 27.5% have no income
(18.6% of all households). Households with no income are those in which there is not
one income earner. In addition:
 25.8% of households in the district earn less than R6 000 per annum or R500 per
    month
 Only 10% of the total number of households earns over R42 000 per year.
 It must be noted that the categories "income unspecified" and 'income not
    applicable" do not indicate that the people are unemployed and cannot be seen to

6
  Patrice Matchaba, Cholera, AIDS and poverty (Medical Research Council – April 2001) (on the World Wide Web)
7
  Advertiser, Newcastle, 11 January 2002
8
  Patrice Matchaba, Cholera, AIDS and poverty (Medical Research Council – April 2001) (on the World Wide Web)
9
  Advertiser, Newcastle, 11 January 2002


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                                                                                   Amajuba District Municipality
                                                                                  Integrated Development Plan
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     contribute to the unemployment figure. These categories appear in the demarcation
     information. "Not applicable" includes people who are, for example, hospitalised or in
     prison but, are not necessarily "unemployed". Further, many people who are
     employed fail to fill in their employment status on the questionnaire.

                                        Table 7: Annual Household Incomes
Annual            KZ 252                              KZ253             KZ254          TOTAL
Household incomes No.    %                     Cum    No. %        Cum. No.   %   Cum. No.   %                 Cum.
                                               %                   %              %                            %
No income                   7376         13%   13%    416    12%   12% 2567 16%   16% 10359 14%                14%
R1-6000                     12852        23%   36%    1250   36%   48% 5430 35%   51% 19532 26%                39%
R6001-12000                 6637         12%   47%    493    14%   62% 2600 17%   68% 9730 13%                 52%
R12001-R18000               5415         10%   57%    221    6%    68% 1529 10%   78% 7165 9%                  62%
R18001-R30000               4954         9%    65%    158    5%    73% 968 6%     84% 6080 8%                  70%
R30001-R42000               2773         5%    70%    98     3%    76% 394 3%     87% 3265 4%                  74%
over R420000                10771        19%   89%    470    13%   89% 944 6%     93% 12185 16%                90%
Income unspecified          6031         11%   100%   275    8%    97% 1134 7%    100% 7440 10%                100%
Income not                  73           0%    100% 107      3%    100% 16   0%   100% 196            0%       100%
applicable
Source: Demarcation Board, Population Census 1996

The Income Distribution map (map 7) highlights the distribution of the low income (less
than R12 000 p.a.) households across the district. It is evident from this that
Blaauwbosch and Buffalo Flats as well as the rural areas in the east of Utrecht
Municipality have the greatest concentration of lowest income households.

A composite poverty measure has been used to analyse poverty levels in the district.
This index incorporates measures of low income, unemployment, dependency and
access to water. Map 8: Poverty Indicators, reflects the distribution of poverty, with the
Blaauwbosch and Buffalo Flats areas recording the highest levels of poverty, while the
formally developed urban core of Newcastle has the lowest level of poverty.


4.5.       Economic Analysis

The economy of Amajuba has historically been focused on mining, manufacturing and
commodity services. However, the decline of the mining sector and variable
performance of the manufacturing sector, together with limited diversification has
contributed to a slow economy. The spatial distribution of economic activities is indicated
on Map 9: Economic Activity.


4.5.1. Economic Activities

Mining has been focused on coal mining, but the majority of the collieries have closed.
These include Durnacol, Spring Lake Collieries and Balgray Colliery, while Welbedacht
Collieries has reduced employment levels. Despite this, the Utrecht coalfield has
sufficient reserves for another fifteen years.


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Newcastle Municipality is by far the largest and most important economic center.
Manufacturing is the dominant employment sector, employing about 20% of the
workforce. Iscor has traditionally been the largest employer, but the company has
downsized in recent years, leading to employment losses. This has had broader
ramifications in supply industries. Chemicals are also produced in this area, mainly for
export. Textiles has historically also been an important component of the manufacturing
sector, although the sub-sector has experienced mixed fortunes in recent decades.

The agricultural sector expanded in the 1970s from livestock production to intensive crop
production. The Utrecht area is a considerable maize producer, yielding about 2.4 tons
per hectare. 21% of the province’s soya comes from Utrecht. Cedara has identified the
district as having areas with high, good and moderate agricultural potential for a range of
activities including cash cropping, arable farming and forestry. These potentials are
indicated on the map 10: Agricultural Potential. If compared with the Economic Activity
map, it can be seen that this potential is already being exploited.

Tourism has been identified has having the potential to play an important role in the
district economy. Gauteng and Durban are the major domestic tourism markets for the
district, with overnight stays popular with travellers from these areas. Accommodation
facilities enjoy a competitive advantage in this area. It has also been reported that of the
total international tourists visiting South Africa, KwaZulu Natal attracted 33% in August
1997, 25% in January 1997 and 30% in August 1996 (Metroplan, 1999)10. Some of these
may have been on short or day trips to Amajuba, by virtue of the attractions in the
district.

In Newcastle alone, tourism has brought in R165 million to establishments, and, R116
million for the town11. Tourism has generated 1066 jobs to date. Without tourism, these
employees would be without work and unemployment figures would increase.
Employment is generated through tourism, in accommodation establishments,
restaurants, craft shops, eco-tourism projects etc. In the Newcastle area, there are 555
tourism-related activities. Tourist attractions include; historical buildings; factory tours;
fly fishing; hunting; art routes; absailing; hiking; adventure camps; battlefields; organised
bird shooting; museums; 4x4 trials; nature reserves; craft shops; birding meander;
gaming; horseback adventures; golf courses; legal street races; Newcastle air show;
Newcastle winter festival, Bergfees, and, township tours. The major tourist events,
which bring in income to the Newcastle Municipality are:
    Annual Newcastle Show: 35000 visitors, R21 million trading, biggest 4 day show in
     the country.
    Africa swimming challenge: 1200 participants, 4500 beds filled, an economic impact
     of over R6 million, biggest gala in South Africa.
The above figures indicate the importance of tourism in the Amajuba District and the
importance of promoting tourism in the area.

Tourism attractions in the district include: the Battlefields Route, the Biggersberg
Mountain range, Ntshingwayo Dam, Rorke’s Drift, Fugitive’s Drift, Helpmekaar, Maria
Ratschitz Mission, Cundycleig, Elandskraal and the Mkunze Valley. The location of the
tourism attractions are indicated on map 11: Tourism Potential. Most of the tourist
attractions are located close to major roads, thus affording good access.

10
     Metroplan (1999): uMzinyathi Sub-Regional Plans – Status Quo Northern and Central (Draft)
11
     Tourism Newcastle, The Importance of Tourism in Newcastle, March 2001-2002.


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The district has battlefields from a variety of conflicts which include: Voortrekker, Anglo
Zulu War, First War of Independence 1880 – 81 and the Anglo Boer War. Some of the
battlefields in the district, mainly in the Newcastle Municipality and those just outside the
district, but forming part of the Battlefields Route are indicated in the table below.

                                              Table 8: Battlefields
Battle Field                            War                     Date         Nearest Town
Blood River                             Voortrekker             16/12/1838   Dundee/Utrecht
Fugitive’s Drift                        Anglo Zulu War          22/01/1879   Dundee
Fort Pine                               Anglo Zulu War          1878         Dundee
Talana Battlefield                      Anglo Zulu War          20/10/1899   Dundee
Rorkes Drift Battlefield                Anglo Zulu War          22-          Dundee
                                                                23/01/1879
Prince Imperial Memorial                Anglo Zulu War          01/06/1879
Fort Mistake                            Anglo Zulu War          1880-81
Elandslaagte Battlefield &              Anglo Zulu War          1819-1902
Cemetery
                                         st
Laing’s Nek Battlefield                 1 War of Independence   28/01/1881   Newcastle/Volkskrust
                                         st
Schuinshoogte Battlefield               1 War of Independence   08/02/1881   Newcastle/Volkskrust
                                         st
Majuba Battlefield                      1 War of Independence   27/02        Newcastle/Volkskrust
                                         st
O’Neills Cottage                        1 War of Independence                Newcastle/Volkskrust
Fort Amiel                              Anglo Zulu War          1876         Newcastle/Volkskrust
Fort Terror
Botha’s Pass                            Anglo Zulu War          08/06/1900   Newcastle
Source: Metroplan (1999)

A number of hiking trails have been developed in the district:
-     Bushmanskrans Trail
-     Eikenhof
-     Fort Mistake Trail
-     Holkrans Trail
-     Hunter’s Valley Game Ranch
-     Majuba Mountain Resort
-     Ncandu Trail

Another key tourism attraction is the Amajuba Birding Meander.

4.5.2 Employment

Only 27% of the population was employed in the formal sector in 1996. If those who
indicated that they were employed, but did not specify the type of employment, as well
those who indicated that they were not economically active (i.e. cannot or do not wish to
work) are acknowledged, the average unemployment rate is calculated as 22.1%. There
are considerable variations in this rate across the three local councils making up the
District, with the Utrecht Municipality reflecting an average unemployment rate of only


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                                                                                     Integrated Development Plan
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15%, while the highest unemployment levels were recorded in parts of Dannhauser (see
map 12: Unemployment Levels 1996).

Based on the assumption that those who are potentially economically active 12, but not in
formal employment or defined as not economically active or unemployed are involved in
the informal sector, it has been calculated that informal sector employment accounts for
approximately 50% of participation in the economy. This sector is important, serving as a
survival strategy and providing opportunities for income generation.

                                                 Table 9: Employment
                                             KZ252           KZ253          KZ254               TOTAL
Potentially economically active              173 723         13 405         54 312              241 440
Employment                                   50 595          3 753          11 388              65 736
                                             (29.1%)         (28.0%)        (21.0%)             (27.2%)
Employment unspecified                       1 098           52             298                 1 448
Not Economically Active                      10 298          558            2 112               12 968
Persons unemployed                           40 033           2 026         11 241              53 300
                            13
Unemployment Rate                            23.0%           15.1%          20.1%               22.1%
                     14
Informal Sector                              82 185          6 198          34 382              122 765
Source: Demarcation Board, Population Census 1996

Figure 2 below gives a diagrammatic overview of unemployment in the district.



                                             Figure 2: Number of people
                                             employed and unemployed

                                        150000                          Persons
                                                                        Unemployed
                                        100000
                                                                        (aged 15yrs +)
                                        50000                           Persons
                                            0                           Employed
                                                 KZ252 KZ253 KZ254      (aged 15yrs +)




12
   Defined as those who are between the ages of 16 and 64 years
13
   Calculated as those specified as unemployed as a percentage of the potentially economically active population
14
   Assumption that potentially economically active persons who are not recorded as employed, unemployed or not
economically active are involved in the informal sector.


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                                         Table 10: Sectoral Employment
                                        KZ252       KZ253          KZ254              TOTAL
Farming                                 1 417       1 637          694                3 748
                                                                                      (4.8%)
Mining                                  1 394       547            4 256              6 197
                                                                                      (8.0%)
Manufacturing                           14 651      107            1 454              16 212
                                                                                      (20.8%)
Utilities                               821         26             146                993
                                                                                      (1.3%)
Construction                            2 819       127            607                3 553
                                                                                      (4.6%)
Trade                                   6 031       151            800                6 982
                                                                                      (9.0%)
Transport                               2 856       92             516                3 464
                                                                                      (4.4%)

Business Services                       2 670       105            268                3 043
                                                                                      (3.9%)
Social Services                         11 233      474            1 087              12 794
                                                                                      (16.4%)
Private Household                       6 697       487            1 552              8 736
                                                                                      (11.2%)
Total                                   50 589      3 753          11 380             65 722
                                        (78.0%)     (5.7%)         (17.3%)            (100.0%)
Source: Demarcation Board, Population Census 1996

Manufacturing is the main employer in the district, although employment in the sector is
concentrated in Newcastle (90% of manufacturing employment is in this municipality).
This sector has been the main catalyst of economic development in the district since the
1970’s, although the slow down in manufacturing has impacted significantly on the
economy and employment levels in the last decade.

The social services sector is the second most important employer, providing 16.4% of
employment opportunities. This is followed by the private household services sector.
Combined these services sectors provide 26% of employment in the district, indicating
the importance of the services sector. These services are concentrated in Newcastle
Municipality, highlighting the role of Newcastle as a higher order services centre.

Farming is the dominant occupational sector in the Dannhauser Municipality (KZ254)
with 43% of employment opportunities. The dominant farming activities are cattle (beef
farming), maize growing and dairy farming. This area employs 43% of all those
employed in farming in the district.

Mining is the main employer of the local population in Utrecht (KZ253), employing 38%
of those employed. The municipality is the centre of the district mining activities, with
68% of the district mining employment opportunities located in the municipality. Mining
activities focus on the extraction of high quality coal from the Klipriver and Utrecht
coalfields.




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                                                                      Integrated Development Plan
                                                                                                28


4.6.       Provision of Municipal Infrastructure and Services

Infrastructure and housing investment is concentrated in formal serviced settlement
along the main transport corridors. This section provides an overview of the levels of
service for each of the municipal services considered as well as of the bulk infrastructure
in the district.


4.6.1. Water Supply

The levels of water supply in the district are summarised in the table below. Key points
to note are:
 56% of households have piped water supply either to inside the home or on site
 10% of households rely on public taps for water supply
 19.8% of the households use boreholes
 6.9% of households are reliant on natural water sources, while another 1.8% are
    reliant on other sources of water. The quality of the water obtained from these
    sources is unknown and cannot be guaranteed, thus possibly leading to health
    problems.
 While it appears that a large percentage of households have access to sources of
    water, it cannot be confirmed that these households have access "to a secure source
    of water for human consumption". Many people have to travel a distance to collect
    water from a public tap. Further, while it is apparent that a large percentage of
    households have access to a tap, the quality of this water cannot, based on available
    information, be commented on, and, many households only have access to borehole
    water.

Despite the relatively high level of water provision, there are concerns within the district.
91% of households with piped water supply either to inside the dwelling or on site are in
Newcastle Municipality, while 46% of households in Utrecht Municipality are reliant on
natural and other water supplies. Almost 20% of households in Dannhauser Municipality
are reliant on natural and other water supplies.

Map 13: Water Supply provides an indication of the bulk supply network as well as the
distribution of households without any secure water supply.




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                                                                                    Amajuba District Municipality
                                                                                   Integrated Development Plan
                                                                                                             29


                                             Table 11: Water Supply
                                   KZ252      KZ253      KZ254      Urban       Non-Urban TOTAL
  Households with Tap                  29 084      1 049      1 688     29 763       2 058    31 821
  in Dwelling                         (52.7%)    (30.1%)    (10.8%)      (94%)        (6%)   (42.9%)
  Households with Tap                   8 723        319        909       8 679      1 272     9 951
  In Yard/On Site                     (15.8%)     (9.1%)     (5.8%)      (87%)       (13%)   (13.4%)
  Households       Using                9 767        117      4 789         237        436    14 673
  Public Tap                          (17.7%)     (3.4%)    (30.7%)      (49%)       (51%)    (9.8%)
  Households       Using                  328         46        208         287        295       582
  WaterTanker                          (0.6%)     (1.3%)     (1.3%)      (49%)       (51%)    (0.8%)
  Households       Using                5 153        329      4 854         552      9 784    10 336
  Boreholes                            (9.3%)     (9.4%)    (31.2%)        (5%)      (95%)   (13.9%)
  Households       Using                  848      1 555      2 746          50      5 099     5 149
  Natural         Water                (1.5%)    (44.6%)    (17.6%)        (1%)      (99%)    (6.9%)
  Sources*
  Households       Using                   1 029         50        273             84          1 268         1 352
  Other Water Sources                     (1.9%)     (1.4%)     (1.8%)           (6%)          (94%)        (1.8%)
  Unspecified     Water                      252         23        115            203            187           390
  Source                                  (0.5%)     (0.7%)     (0.7%)          (52%)          (48%)        (0.5%)
  Total Households                        55 184      3 488     15 582         46 852         27 402        74 254
                                        (100.0%)   (100.0%)   (100.0%)                                    (100.0%)
           Source: Demarcation Board, Population Census 1996
* Dam, River, Stream, Spring

The table: water supply provides an overview of the level of water supply in DC25. The
following tables provides one with the rural and urban split in terms of service provision
within the three municipal areas:

                           Table 12: Water Supply – Newcastle Municipality
                                                                           KZ252
                                                   URBAN      %          NON-           %            TOTAL
                                                                         URBAN
Total Households                                   44886      81%        10298          19%          55184
Households with Tap in Dwelling                    28539      98%        545            2%           29084
Households with Tap In Yard/On Site                8336       96%        387            4%           8723
Households Using Public Tap                        7210       74%        2557           26%          9767
Households Using WaterTanker                       286        87%        42             13%          328
Households Using Boreholes                         203        4%         4950           96%          5153
Households    Using    Natural    Water            37         4%         811            96%          848
Sources*
Households Using Other Water Sources               79         8%         950            92%          1029
Unspecified Water Source                           199        79%        53             21%          252




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                                                                                                           Amajuba District Municipality
                                                                                                          Integrated Development Plan
                                                                                                                                    30


                              Table 13: Water Supply – Utrecht Municipality
                                                                                             KZ253
                                                             URBAN              %             NON-                 %          TOTAL
                                                                                             URBAN
Total Households                                                   697            20%           2791                 80%           3488
Households with Tap in Dwelling                                    599            57%            450                 43%           1049
Households with Tap In Yard/On Site                                 60            19%            259                 81%            319
Households Using Public Tap                                         22            19%              95                81%            117
Households Using WaterTanker                                         0             0%              46               100%             46
Households Using Boreholes                                           2             1%            327                 99%            329
Households Using Natural Water                                       5             0%           1550                100%           1555
Sources*
Households Using Other Water Sources                                  5           10%                     45          90%              50
Unspecified Water Source                                              4           17%                     19          83%              23

                          Table 14: Water Supply – Dannhauser Municipality
                                                                                             KZ254
                                                             URBAN              %             NON-                 %          TOTAL
                                                                                             URBAN
Total Households                                                 1269              8%          14313                 92%          15582
Households with Tap in Dwelling                                   625             37%           1063                 63%           1688
Households with Tap In Yard/On Site                               283             31%            626                 69%            909
Households Using Public Tap                                         5              0%           4784                100%           4789
Households Using WaterTanker                                        1              0%            207                100%            208
Households Using Boreholes                                        347              7%           4507                 93%           4854
Households Using Natural Water                                      8              0%           2738                100%           2746
Sources*
Households Using Other Water Sources                                  0             0%                   273        100%             273
Unspecified Water Source                                              0             0%                   115        100%             115



Figure 3 below gives a diagrammatic overview of the level of water supply in the district.



                                            Figure 3: Level of water supply

                                        40000
                                        30000                                                                   KZ252
                                        20000                                                                   KZ253
                                        10000                                                                   KZ254
                                            0
                                                Households    Households     Households   Households

                                                 with taps    with public      Using       using other

                                                              water source   Boreholes    water sources




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                                                                               Amajuba District Municipality
                                                                              Integrated Development Plan
                                                                                                        31


4.6.2 Sanitation

The levels of sanitation services in the district are summarized in Table: level of
sanitation provision. From this it is evident that:
 Approximately 4% of households have no toilet facilities at all
 42% have pit latrines
 53% have flush / chemical toilets

There are, however, widespread variations within the district. 45% of households in
Utrecht Municipality have no toilet facilities at all. Out of the three municipal areas, the
highest level of service is found in Newcastle Municipality, where almost 98% of
households have either flush or chemical toilets or pit latrines. Following Newcastle, is
Dannhauser Municipality, where 96% of the households have either flush or chemical
toilets or pit latrines.
While the statistics reflect that a substantial proportion of the households have
sanitation, this includes pit latrines. It has, however, been noted from comments and
needs analysis done within wards in the municipal areas within the DC, that pit latrines
are not ideal and many of them are full, thereby exacerbating the problems connected to
poor sanitation.

Map 14: Sanitation provides an indication of the bulk facilities as well as the distribution
of households without any toilet facilities.

                                    Table 15: Level of sanitation provision
                                                     KZ252       KZ253        KZ254             TOTAL
Households with Flush/Chemical Toilets                  36 521       1 160        1 897            39 578
                                                       (66.2%)     (33.3%)      (12.2%)           (53.3%)
Households with Pit Latrine                             17 312         679       13 082            31 073
                                                       (31.4%)     (19.5%)      (83.6%)           (41.8%)
Households with Bucket Latrine                             247          36           44               327
                                                        (0.4%)      (1.0%)       (0.3%)            (0.4%)
Households with No Toilet Facilities                       871       1 594          446             2 911
                                                        (1.6%)     (45.7%)       (2.9%)            (3.9%)
Toilet Facilities Unspecified                              233          19          113               365
                                                        (0.4%)      (0.5%)       (0.7%)            (0.5%)
Total Households                                        55 184       3 488       15 582            74 254
                                                      (100.0%)    (100.0%)     (100.0%)          (100.0%)
Source: Demarcation Board, Population Census 1996

The following tables reflect the level of services in terms of urban and rural areas within
the district and the three municipal areas.




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                                                                              Integrated Development Plan
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                              Table 16: Sanitation – Newcastle Municipality
                                                                 KZ252
                                               URBAN        %     NON-             %          TOTAL
                                                                 URBAN
Total Households                                  44886      81%   10298             19%         55184
Households with Flush/Chemical                    35929      98%     592              2%         36521
Toilets
Households with Pit Latrine                        8184      47%      9128           53%         17312
Households with Bucket Latrine                      118      48%       129           52%           247
Households with No Toilet Facilities                506      58%       365           42%           871
Toilet Facilities Unspecified                       185      79%        48           21%           233

                                Table 17: Sanitation – Utrecht Municipality
                                                                 KZ253
                                               URBAN        %     NON-             %          TOTAL
                                                                 URBAN
Total Households                                    697      20%    2791             80%           3488
Households with Flush/Chemical                      628      54%     532             46%           1160
Toilets
Households with Pit Latrine                          44       6%       635           94%            679
Households with Bucket Latrine                        2       6%        34           94%             36
Households with No Toilet Facilities                 21       1%      1573           99%           1594
Toilet Facilities Unspecified                         2      11%        17           89%             19

                            Table 18: Sanitation – Dannhauser Municipality
                                                                 KZ254
                                               URBAN        %     NON-             %          TOTAL
                                                                 URBAN
Total Households                                   1269       8%   14313             92%         15582
Households with Flush/Chemical                      923      49%     974             51%          1897
Toilets
Households with Pit Latrine                         337         3%   12745          97%          13082
Households with Bucket Latrine                        2         5%      42          95%             44
Households with No Toilet Facilities                  7         2%     439          98%            446
Toilet Facilities Unspecified                         0         0%     113         100%            113

                                   Table 19: Sanitation – Amajuba District
                                                              Amajuba district
                                               URBAN        %     NON-         %              TOTAL
                                                                 URBAN
Total Households                                  46852      63%    27402       37%              74254
Households with Flush/Chemical                    37480      95%     2098        5%              39578
Toilets
Households with Pit Latrine                        8565      28%     22508           72%         31073
Households with Bucket Latrine                      122      37%       205           63%           327
Households with No Toilet Facilities                534      18%      2377           82%          2911
Toilet Facilities Unspecified                       187      51%       178           49%           365




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                                                                                  Amajuba District Municipality
                                                                                 Integrated Development Plan
                                                                                                           33


The figure below gives a diagrammatic indication on the level of sanitation services per
municipality, within the Amajuba District.




                                            Figure 4: Level of sanitation
                                                                    Households with
                                                                    Flush/Chemical
                                40000
                                                                    Toilets
                                35000
                                                                    Households with
                                30000                               Pit Latrine

                                25000
                                                                    Households with
                                20000                               Bucket Latrine

                                15000
                                                                    Households with
                                10000                               No Toilet Facilities
                                 5000
                                                                    Toilet Facilities
                                        0
                                                                    Unspecified
                                            KZ252   KZ253   KZ254


4.6.3 Fuel for Lighting

Table 20 and the analysis below summarise the position of the district in relation to the
fuel source utilised for lighting:
 72.3% of households use electricity supply provided by the local authority
 24.1% of households use candles for lighting
 2.1% of households use paraffin

The level of lighting facilities in the district is indicated below:




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                                                                                     Amajuba District Municipality
                                                                                    Integrated Development Plan
                                                                                                              34




                                             Figure 5: Lighting facilites
                                                                      Households using
                                                                      Electricity
                                                                      Households using
                                                                      Gas
                                                                      Households using
                                                                      Paraffin
                                                                      Households using
                                                                      Candles
                                                                      Households Using
                                                                      Other Lighting
                                                                      Unspecified




However, there are differences across the district:
 The majority (90%) of households utilising electricity are in Newcastle Municipality
 The majority of households in Utrecht and Dannhauser Municipalities are reliant on
   other sources of energy for lighting.

Although this provides an overview of the level of electrification in the district, it does not
necessarily mean that those households with electricity use it for purposes other than
lighting, due to the relative cost of electricity, the cost of electrical equipment and the
multiple purposes served by other fuels e.g. wood/coal provides heating and cooking.

The Map 15: Electricity indicates the extent of the electrification network. From this, and
the underlying population distribution, it is evident that the network does not extend to
the densely population Buffalo Flats area, explaining the number of households in
KZ254 who do not use electricity for lighting.

                                        Table 20: Fuel utilised for lighting
                                                        KZ252        KZ253          KZ254             TOTAL
Households using Electricity from LA                      47 970        1 108          4 572             53 650
                                                         (86.9%)      (31.8%)        (29.3%)            (72.3%)
Households using Electricity from Other                       47           14             26                 87
                                                          (0.1%)       (0.4%)         (0.2%)             (0.1%)
Households using Gas                                         179           10            121                310
                                                          (0.3%)       (0.3%)         (0.8%)             (0.4%)
Households using Paraffin                                    458          537            571              1 566
                                                          (0.8%)      (15.4%)         (3.7%)             (2.1%)
Households using Candles                                   6 198        1 799         10 169             18 166
                                                         (11.2%)      (51.6%)        (65.3%)            (24.5%)
Households Using Other Lighting                                7            0              0                  7

Unspecified                                                   325           20             123              468
                                                           (0.6%)       (0.6%)          (0.8%)           (0.6%)
Total Households                                           55 184        3 488          15 582           74 254
                                                         (100.0%)     (100.0%)        (100.0%)         (100.0%)
Source: Demarcation Board, Population Census 1996




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                                                                                Amajuba District Municipality
                                                                               Integrated Development Plan
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The following tables indicate the levels of lighting in urban and rural areas in the district
and respective municipal areas:

                               Table 21: Lighting – Newcastle Municipality
                                                                     KZ252
                                                URBAN        %       NON-            %          TOTAL
                                                                    URBAN
Total Households                                   44886      81%     10298            19%         55184
Households using Electricity from LA               40818      85%      7152            15%         47970
Households using Electricity from Other               38      81%          9           19%            47
Households using Gas                                 105      59%        74            41%           179
Households using Paraffin                            279      61%       179            39%           458
Households using Candles                            3388      55%      2810            45%          6198
Households Using Other Lighting                        7     100%          0            0%             7
Unspecified                                          252      78%        73            22%           325

                                  Table 22: Lighting – Utrecht Municipality
                                                                     KZ253
                                                URBAN        %       NON-            %          TOTAL
                                                                    URBAN
Total Households                                     697      20%      2791            80%           3488
Households using Electricity from LA                 556      50%       552            50%           1108
Households using Electricity from Other                3      21%        11            79%             14
Households using Gas                                   5      50%          5           50%             10
Households using Paraffin                              3       1%       534            99%            537
Households using Candles                             128       7%      1671            93%           1799
Households Using Other Lighting                        0       0%          0            0%              0
Unspecified                                            2      10%        18            90%             20

                              Table 23: Lighting - Dannhauser Municipality
                                                                     KZ254
                                                URBAN        %       NON-            %          TOTAL
                                                                    URBAN
Total Households                                    1269       8%     14313           92%          15582
Households using Electricity from LA                1012      22%      3560           78%           4572
Households using Electricity from Other                0       0%        26          100%             26
Households using Gas                                   0       0%       121          100%            121
Households using Paraffin                              4       1%       567           99%            571
Households using Candles                             252       2%      9917           98%          10169
Households Using Other Lighting                        0       0%          0           0%              0
Unspecified                                            1       1%       122           99%            123




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                                                                                                  Amajuba District Municipality
                                                                                                 Integrated Development Plan
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                                        Table 24: Lighting – Amajuba District
                                                                       TOTAL DC25
                                                     URBAN         %      NON-                         %          TOTAL
                                                                         URBAN
Total Households                                        46852       63%    27402                         37%         74254
Households using Electricity from LA                    42386       79%    11264                         21%         53650
Households using Electricity from Other                    41       47%       46                         53%            87
Households using Gas                                      110       35%      200                         65%           310
Households using Paraffin                                 286       18%     1280                         82%          1566
Households using Candles                                 3768       21%    14398                         79%         18166
Households Using Other Lighting                             7      100%        0                          0%             7
Unspecified                                               255       54%      213                         46%           468



4.6.4 Telephones

A review of household access to telecommunications is contained in Table 25: level of
telecommunication services. The key points to note from this are that:
 24.2% of households have telephones in their dwellings, some of which may be
    cellular telephones
 44.3% of households use nearby public telephones
 13.9% of households have no access to telephones
 Only 0.2% of the hostels / institutions have telephones
 The remainder of households (17.4%) have access to telephones through
    arrangements with neighbours or at locations which are not close to their places of
    residence. These factors place restrictions on the quality of access.

Level of telecommunication services is reflected diagrammatically below:


                                               Figure 6: Telephone facilities
                                                                       Households with
                                                                       Telephone in
                                                                       Dwelling/Cell Phone
                                                                       Households using
                                                                       Telephone at Neighbour
                                                                       or Nearby
                                                                       Households using Public
                                                                       Phone Nearby

                                                                       Households using Other
                                                                       Telephone Nearby

                                                                       Households using
                                                                       Telephone at Location
                                                                       Not Nearby
                                                                       Households with No
                                                                       Access to Telephone

                                                                       Hostel/Institution with
                                                                       Phone on Premises

                                                                       Hostel/Institution with No
                                                                       Telephone

                                                                       Unspecified




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                                                                         Amajuba District Municipality
                                                                        Integrated Development Plan
                                                                                                  37


There are spatial disparities in the access of households to telecommunications:
 Over half of the households without access to telephones are in Dannhauser (54%)
 Serious backlogs are found in Dannhauser where only 6.0% of the households have
   telephones in their homes.
 Newcastle Municipality has the highest level of service, with 78% of households
   having a telephone or cell phone in the home or access to a nearby public phone.
   Only 5.9% of households have no access to telephones.

                              Table 25: Level of telecommunication service
                                                  KZ252     KZ253     KZ254     TOTAL
Households with Telephone in Dwelling/Cell Phone     16 386       665       933    17 984
                                                    (29.7%) (19.0%)      (6.0%) (24.2%)
Households using Telephone at Neighbour or Nearby     2 531       181       530     3 242
                                                     (4.6%)    (5.2%)    (3.4%)    (4.4%)
Households using Public Phone Nearby                 26 935       369     5 578    32 882
                                                    (48.8%) (10.6%) (35.8%)       (44.3%)
Households using Other Telephone Nearby               2 372       188       808     3 368
                                                     (4.3%)    (5.4%)    (5.2%)    (4.5%)
Households using Telephone at Location Not Nearby     3 335       470     2 045     5 850
                                                     (6.0%) (13.5%) (13.1%)        (7.9%)
Households with No Access to Telephone                3 311     1 485     5 558    10 354
                                                     (6.0%) (42.6%) (35.7%)       (13.9%)
Hostel/Institution with Phone on Premises                53       108        16       177
                                                     (0.1%)    (3.1%)    (0.1%)    (0.2%)
Hostel/Institution with No Telephone                      3         2         0         5
Unspecified                                             258        20       114       392
                                                     (0.5%)    (0.6%)    (0.7%)    (0.5%)
Total Households                                     55 184     3 488    15 582    74 254
                                                   (100.0%) (100.0%) (100.0%) (100.0%)
Source: Demarcation Board, Population Census 1996

The following tables reflects the level of telecommunication service in urban and non-
urban areas in the district, and, the three municipal areas:

                      Table 26: Telecommunication – Newcastle Municipality
                                                                        KZ252
                                                      URBAN    %      NON-       %           TOTAL
                                                                      URBAN
Total Households                                      44886    81%    10298      19%         55184
Households with Telephone in Dwelling/Cell            15970    97%    416        3%          16386
Phone
Households using Telephone at Neighbour or            2248     89%    283        11%         2531
Nearby
Households using Public Phone Nearby                  21288    79%    5647       21%         26935
Households using Other Telephone Nearby               1307     55%    1065       45%         2372
Households using Telephone at Location Not            1332     40%    2003       60%         3335
Nearby
Households with No Access to Telephone                2490     75%    821        25%         3311
Hostel/Institution with Phone on Premises             46       87%    7          13%         53
Hostel/Institution with No Telephone                  3        100%   0          0%          3
Unspecified                                           205      79%    53         21%         258


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                                                                       Amajuba District Municipality
                                                                      Integrated Development Plan
                                                                                                38


                        Table 27: Telecommunication – Utrecht Municipality
                                                                     KZ253
                                                    URBAN %        NON-        %           TOTAL
                                                                   URBAN
Total Households                                    697     20%    2791        80%         3488
Households with Telephone in Dwelling/Cell Phone    394     59%    271         41%         665
Households using Telephone at Neighbour or          36      20%    145         80%         181
Nearby
Households using Public Phone Nearby                179     49%    190         51%         369
Households using Other Telephone Nearby             20      11%    168         89%         188
Households using Telephone at Location Not          26      6%     444         94%         470
Nearby
Households with No Access to Telephone              34      2%     1451        98%         1485
Hostel/Institution with Phone on Premises           4       4%     104         96%         108
Hostel/Institution with No Telephone                0       0%     2           100%        2
Unspecified                                         4       20%    16          80%         20

                    Table 28: Telecommunications – Dannhauser Municipality
                                                                     KZ254
                                                    URBAN %        NON-        %           TOTAL
                                                                   URBAN
Total Households                                    1269    8%     14313       92%         15582
Households with Telephone in Dwelling/Cell Phone    445     48%    488         52%         933
Households using Telephone at Neighbour or          37      7%     493         93%         530
Nearby
Households using Public Phone Nearby                398     7%     5180        93%         5578
Households using Other Telephone Nearby             33      4%     775         96%         808
Households using Telephone at Location Not          194     9%     1851        91%         2045
Nearby
Households with No Access to Telephone              161     3%     5397        97%         5558
Hostel/Institution with Phone on Premises           1       6%     15          94%         16
Hostel/Institution with No Telephone                0       0%     0           0%          0
Unspecified                                         0       0%     114         100%        114

                           Table 29: Telecommunication – Amajuba District
                                                                  TOTAL DC25
                                                    URBAN %        NON-    %               TOTAL
                                                                   URBAN
Total Households                                    46852   63%    27402   37%             74254
Households with Telephone in Dwelling/Cell Phone    16809   93%    1175    7%              17984
Households using Telephone at Neighbour or          2321    72%    921     28%             3242
Nearby
Households using Public Phone Nearby                21865   66%    11017       34%         32882
Households using Other Telephone Nearby             1360    40%    2008        60%         3368
Households using Telephone at Location Not          1552    27%    4298        73%         5850
Nearby
Households with No Access to Telephone              2685    26%    7669        74%         10354
Hostel/Institution with Phone on Premises           51      29%    126         71%         177
Hostel/Institution with No Telephone                3       60%    2           40%         5
Unspecified                                         209     53%    183         47%         392


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4.6.5 Refuse Removal

An overview of household refuse removal arrangements is contained in the table below.
The key points to note from this are that:
 57.1% of households have weekly refuse collection undertaken by the local authority
 33.9% of households have their own refuse dump
 Only 4.5% of households report having no refuse collection arrangement

There are spatial disparities in the provision of solid waste removal services:
 Almost half of households in Utrecht Municipality and almost 80% of households in
   Dannhauser use their own refuse dump for refuse disposal.
 Newcastle Municipality has the highest level of service, with almost 75% of
   households having solid waste removed by the local authority. Only 2.6% of
   households have no solid waste removal.
 Over a quarter of households in Utrecht do not have any form of refuse removal. This
   has significant implications for health conditions in the municipality.

                                        Table 30: Refuse Removal Service
                                                   KZ252          KZ253         KZ254           Total
Households with Weekly collection by                     40 043           736          1 669            42 448
Local Authority                                         (72.3%)       (21.1%)        (10.8%)           (57.1%)
Households with collection by Local                       1 366            38             32             1 436
Authority (less than weekly)                             (2.5%)        (1.1%)         (0.2%)            (1.9%)
Community Refuse Dump                                       622           127            219               968
                                                         (1.1%)        (3.6%)         (1.4%)            (1.3%)
Own Refuse Dump                                          11 247         1 584         12 371            25 202
                                                        (20.3%)       (45.4%)        (79.9%)           (33.9%)
None                                                      1 443           954            978             3 375
                                                         (2.6%)       (27.4%)         (6.3%)            (4.5%)
Other                                                        24             1              4                29
Unspecified                                                 644            48            208               900
                                                         (1.2%)        (1.4%)         (1.3%)            (1.2%)
Total Households                                         55 389         3 488         15 481            74 358
                                                       (100.0%)      (100.0%)       (100.0%)          (100.0%)
Source: Demarcation Board, Population Census 1996



4.6.6 Roads

Although the main roads have been reported on in the section dealing with
transportation routes, it is important to consider localised access in areas that are not
serviced by the main roads. The map 16: Roads indicates the community access roads
which provide access to the high density settlements of Blaawbosch and Buffalo Flats.




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4.6.7. Community Facilities

    Health: The district is fairly well served by health facilities. There are 4 hospitals in
     the municipal district, concentrated in/around Newcastle, thus illustrating the
     influence of urban concentration and the mining industry on the development of
     facilities and infrastructure in the district. Three of these hospitals are State owned.
     The fourth hospital is a private hospital. There are clinics in the urban centres and
     mobile clinics covering a fairly wide area outside the urban centres (refer to map 17:
     health facilities).
    Education: There is a wide distribution of both primary and secondary schools
     throughout the region. In line with the population distribution and to ensure
     accessibility, primary schools are widely distributed, although with some
     concentration in the urban areas. Secondary schools in contrast are more
     centralised, being located in the urban centres and SERC’s. There is one district
     adult education centre, located in Newcastle (refer to map 18)
    Safety and Security: Police stations are concentrated along the N11 and in the
     main urban centres (refer to map 19: community facilities).
    Postal Services: Postal service facilities are concentrated around the main urban
     centres, with very little provision in rural areas.
    Community Centres in the district are clustered in the urban centers, where the
     highest population densities are recorded
    Centres of Justice (Magistrate’s Courts) are also concentrated in the urban centers.

The distribution of these community facilities is illustrated on maps: Educational facilities,
Health facilities and Community Facilities.


4.7.       Environmental Analysis

High lying western and northern areas, drained in a southerly direction by the Buffalo
River flowing through its central areas characterise the Amajuba District. This central
area is relatively low lying (at <900 msl) and underlain by Karoo Sequence sediment,
while the higher-lying horseshoe is underlain by a combination of geological formations.
The countryside is relatively flat to gently undulating, occasionally interrupted by mine
dumps or a knoll of land, while steep slopes are found in the high lying areas.

The Buffalo River is the major system in the Amajuba District, draining in to the Tugela
River. The Ncandu and Ngagane Rivers are the main tributaries in the district. The
Ngagane River catchment is said to have fairly good quality water. However, pollution
problems have been cited such as high salinity and metal salts.

The district has an extensive system of rivers and tributaries, with those in the Utrecht
district forming the headwaters of the Pongola river. This extensive system has been
categorised in the provincial SEA as of high and intermediate value. Four particularly
important and sensitive wetlands have been identified as the Blood River Vlei,
Boschoffsvlei, Groenvlei and Paddavlei. Many of the land reform projects identified in
the district are in proximity to wetland and riverine areas, which may result in negative
impacts on these wetlands. In particular, the Doornkop, Amatungwa, Nkosi Shabalala
and Zenzelani Community land reforms projects will require careful management and

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                                                                     Integrated Development Plan
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monitoring. The wetland area around the Zaaihoek Dam is also an important linkage to
the Wakkerstroom wetland, the habitat of species such as the white wing flufftail. The
headwaters of the Slang River are regarded as one of the most pristine catchments, but
increasingly under threat from forestry permit applications.

Solid pans and rocky dolerite outcrops are common and soils here are subject to wind
and soil erosion. Three soil types (transported soils, colluvial and residual of Pleistocene
and Recent origin) have been recognised in the area by Kantey and Partners. Most
soils appear to be very clayey, and expansive i.e. they have shrink and swell properties
according to their water content. These soils often associated with wetlands.

The district lies in Veld type 66 (Natal Sour Sandfield) according to Acocks, 1968 and
the Interface between Bioresource Groups 12 (Moist Tall Grassland) and BRG 13 (Dry
Tall Grassland). The Dry Tall Grassland is dominated by Hyparrhenia hirta with
occassional Acacia sieberana savannas or woodlands. Disturbed areas have tall
communities of Hyparrhenia dregeana, Hyparrhenia tamba, etc. The grasslands have
been identified as of ‘intermediate’ value in a provincial SEA conducted by KZN Wildlife.
The Grassland Biosphere Initiative is an important initiative within the district to protect
this important resource.

The extensive wetlands associated with the Ngagane and Ncandu Rivers support a
variety of hygrophilous vegetation types.

Within the district there are areas of natural forest, which have been identified as of
‘intermediate’ value in a SEA conducted of the province. These include the areas of:
    Amajuba Forest south of Charlestown;
    Ncandu Forest on the western border of the district;
    Areas to the south of Donkerhoek on the western border of the district;
    Areas north of Utrecht.

There are relatively few formal conservation areas in the District, although there are
many environmentally sensitive areas e.g. wetlands. The formal conservation areas are:
-     Ntshingwayo Resort Game Park
-     Ncandu Nature Reserve / Incandu Forest Reserve
-     National Monuments

There are several registered conservancies in the Amajuba district. Some of these have
been developed with the tourism sector in mind, while others are purely for conservation
purposes.




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                                         Table 31: Conservancies
Conservancy                     Inception    Purpose
                                date

Doornberg                       18/10/89          Catchment, game, Security

Balele                                            Game Conservation
Sunset Rest                     5/5/84            Crop theft, security, game
Helpmekaar                      14/6/84           Game conservation, Security, Accommodation,
                                                  Game farming
Dundee Research                 1/8/91            Game conservation, Security,
Gregory’s Neck                  4/3/94            Game farming, Security, Accommodation
Buffelshoek                     1/4/97            Game farming, security
Ilanga                          20/9/98           Game farming, accommodation, security
Vants Drift                     1/1/89            Catchment       conservation,    game   farming,
                                                  Accommodation, hiking trails, Security
Hattingspruit                   1/1/89            Game conservation, Security
Aalywynkop                      1/1/88            Game conservation, security
Boschfontein                    1/1/88            Game conservation, Crop Theft, security
Isibindi                        1/1/96            Game farming, Security, Accommodation
Fugitives Drift                 1/1/91            Game farming, Security, Accommodation
Ndumeni                         1/1/88
Valhalla                        1/1/88            Game farming, Security, Accommodation
                                        15
            Source: Metroplan ,1999

The key areas of environmental concern are highlighted on the map 20: Environmental
Analysis. The greatest areas of concern are the mine and quarrying areas. Many of the
mines have been closed and in some instances abandoned. Operational mines
(“operational” meaning that the mines are either in possession of a valid mining
authorisation or their authorisation is pending) in DC 25 include:

 Welgedacht Exploration Company (PTY) LTD – Utrecht
Welgedacht Colliery. Authorisation valid for the period ending 31/10/2003. Numerous
revisions of the original Environmental Management Plan have been made as the
original was found to be inadequate to address current and past mining activities. As a
result, six stand-alone EMPs had to be submitted to the Department of Mineral and
Energy Affairs, thus six mining authorisations. The rehabilitation of these six mines is
as follows:

1. Umgala Mine. This mine is comprised of :
    Vryheid Shaft (south)
    Vryheid Opencast,
    Umgala Shaft – East Incline;
    Vryheid West – West shaft;
    Magazine Opencast
    Mike Opencast/Shaft
    LTA1 – Opencast
    LTA2 – Opencast and Adit
15
     Metroplan (1999): uMzinyathi Sub-Regional Plans – Status Quo Northern and Central (Draft)


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                                                                  Integrated Development Plan
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          Donkey Area
          Umgala Co-Disposal Dump

All underground mining has ceased. Remnant coal reserves are currently by opencast.
The EMP is aimed at:
        Closure of underground sections
        The 5 year life of mine plan for the opencast mining
        Rehabilitation of surface workings
        Development of a new discard and disposal facility and the rehabilitation of
           existing facilities
        Ground water monitoring
        Surface water pollution control structures

2. Zimbutu Mine
Situated on Farms Tussichenbei and Ermelo. Underground mining ceased in 1997.
Currently mined by the open cast roll-over method. Components of this mine are
currently being used for agricultural purposes. Requests to allow the dam to remain to
be considered in consultation with DWAF due to the potential to pollute.

3. Klipspruit
Ceased operation in 1991. Closure application was submitted. Shaft area has been
sealed and backfilled. The discard dump has been whalebacked and revegetated.
Plant area has been profiled and revegetated. A pollution control dam remains in site to
catch run off or seepage from the dam.

4. Aasvoelkrans
Underground working ceased in 1997. Two of the four dams have been demolished and
rehabilitated. According to the EMP, the potential for acid mine drainage is high, thus
the construction of a treatment plant in the future would be necessary. Most of the
rehabilitation is complete however, the roads need urgent attention as there is severe
erosion on either side of the road.

5. Utrecht Mine
Mining ceased in 1997 and there are no future plans to further mine this section. This
area falls under the Balela Bewaria nature conservancy and the offices are currently
used as a youth camp. An inspection of the mine revealed that measures in terms of the
EMP were not implemented hence there is erosion. This is exacerbated by the grazing
of livestock on revegetated ground.

6. Knights Hill
This mine has been earmarked as a potential reserve. Monitoring of ground and surface
water is ongoing. Financial provision has been made.

 Cambrian Dump – 3km north-east of Dannhauser
This mine was operational from 1903-1958 and later abandoned. The coal discard
dump has been polluting the adjacent watercourses feeding into the Alcockspruit
drainage basin. The EMP was approved in 1998. Application has been made to mine
the fine coal discard. Inspection reveals that rehabilitation and implementation of
conditions of the EMP have not been adhered to. Financial provision was to be made



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for future rehabilitation by the applicant in terms of a trust fund however, this has not
been done thus, the State may inherit the rehabilitation liability.

 Aviemore
This mine is situated near Impati Mountain, Dundee, within close vicinity of DC25. The
approval of the EMP is subject to the issue of mining authorisation.

 Corpcoal 184 CC
Burnside Collieries – west of Glencoe, within the vicinity of DC 25. The EMP was
approved in 1998.

 Spies Dump –Corobrick
This mine is midway between Dundee and Dannhauser. The EMP was approved 1996.
Pollution control measures were installed by DWAF, for which the State took
responsibility.

 Macalman Walmsley
This mine is close to the Ingagane Coliery, south-east of the Ingagane Power station.
The EMP was approved in 1998. This mine has not been rehabilitated.

 Struisvogelkop Opencast and Tendeka North Opencast (Osizweni area)
This operation ceased recently. The EMP can be approved however, due to a lack of
financial provision, it is been withheld.

 Talana Opencast – Talana Mountain Dundee
This is outside the jurisdiction of DC5. The EMP was approved in 1998.

 Ballengeich – Natal Cambrian Colliery (approximately 15km from Newcastle). Active
mining ceased in the early 1980’s. An EMP and a closure plan have been submitted
although have not been approved.

 High Carbons Products CC.
The EMP has not been approved due to insufficient financial provision.

 Springlake-Afri Ore Expansion Project.
Production commenced in 1979 and the mine is now closed with most of the reserves
having been worked out. The mine consists of various sections each with rehabilitation
liabilities. An EMP was approved in 1997 however, amendments to the EMP have not
been approved. The mine is conducting concurrent rehabilitation and financial provision
has been made.

 Solma –Grinaker.
This opencast operation has been backfilled and revegetated. No closure has been
granted due to problems in regard to the water aspect. Pollution of the Mtotwana stream
has been an issue. The applicant is currently submitting a revised closure plan.

 Burnside Opencast – Grinaker.
Operation 1980-1982. Rehabilitation has commenced.         A closure plan is still to be
approved.


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    Durnacol – Durban Navigation Colliery (Iscor). Activities commenced 1904 and
     production finally ceased on 23/12/2000. The rehabilitation schedule extends from
     1997 – 2009 with a total liability of R36185, 003.00. Financial provision has been
     made in the way of Trust Fund.

 Kilbarchan Colliery.
The mine stopped underground production on 31 March 1992 but continued to process
coal form outside sources until September 1992. A closure document has been
submitted although not approved. Financial provision has been made. Surface
rehabilitation has been completed however, there appears to be erosion gullies and bare
patches on the dump.

 Gardinia.
The mining operations ceased in the late 1980’s. EMP submitted – not approved.
Surface rehabilitation has been complete. The rehabilitation work at the mine entailed:
    Reshaping, top-soiling and vegetation of the old spoils areas
    Filling of the final void
    Reshaping and creating a free draining topography on the northern and southern
       sponge area.

According to the Department of Mineral and Energy Affairs, the re-working of coal
dumps appears to be feasible for the smaller mining concerns. Mining of these dumps,
while limiting development, lessens the burder on the environment in regard to pollution.
However, the financial policy that states that “at all times there must be sufficient funds
available to rehabilitate a mine” is proving an obstacle to this. The decrease in formal
mining has led to an increase in the informal mining sector. However, as a result,
rehabilitated ground is being disturbed in the search for coal, proving to be a major
obstacle to the mines obtaining closure in terms of the Mineral Act, 1991.

The following are liquidated and abandoned mines within the district:
 Magdalena Colliery, between Dundee and Osizweni. Liquidated in 1992, informal
   miners form the local community are currently mining under dangerous conditions.
   Rehabilitation of this mine is required.
 Bulwer section of Kliprand Coliery. This mine was rehabilitated by DWAF and Shell.
   This area is currently acceptable to the local community and farmer of the area.
 Nonsana Plant Area of Kliprand Colliery. This has been rehabilitated by DWAF.
 Kliprand Proper / Kliprand collieries. This has not been rehabilitated although, it is
   not a significant polluter and therefore responsibility of DME to rehabilitate. DWAF is
   also looking at rehabilitating this mine.
 Gladstone colliery.
 Central and Ramsey Collieries.             Defunct mining companies left dangerous
   excavations on the farm. No record exists that these excavations have been made
   safe.
 Jubama (Pty) Ltd and Ingogo coal Mining (Pty) LTD (Witklip Colliery) at the foot of
   the Amajuba Mountain.
 Witklip Colliery. The company went into liquidation leaving a large incline shaft and
   large adit excavations that need to be rehabilitated.
 Strip mining in the Farm Chelmsford 8642 – liquidated.
Natal Cambrian Colliery – closure plan still required to be submitted.


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Other areas of concern in the district are the industrial area of Newcastle, where there is
a seemingly high level of air pollution resulting from industrial activity, as well as the
areas of donga and sheet erosion. Although the latter are widely distributed through the
district, this is cause for concern due to the loss of valuable top soil.

Map 20 also indicates the areas identified in the SEA as of high and intermediate
intrinsic biodiversity value in the province. The northern and western edges of the
district, characterised by high lying and mountainous terrain are identified as of high
biodiversity value. Included in these areas are ‘high value’ landscapes, including the
areas around Charlestown and Amajuba Forest, Zaaihoek Dam and the Inkosi
Shabalala Land reform project. These ‘high value’ areas are also those where Oribi,
Wattled Crane, Rudd’s Lark and medicinal plant species are found. The areas of
‘intermediate’ biodiversity value are predominantly those areas where there are
communities of important vegetation species (particularly grassland species), wetland
and riverine environments and birdlife.

Areas of historical/archaeological value in the district are the Amajuba and Blood River
Battlefields.

4.8.       Institutional Analysis

The Amajuba District Municipality is a new municipality, having been established in
December 2000.

The approved organisational structure makes provision for the following departments
namely Administrative (Municipal Manager), Corporate Services, Planning and
Development, Technical Services and Financial Services. Although the organisational
structure has been agreed, there are processes underway to revise this structure to
ensure a more streamlined municipal administration.

The administration is currently not fully staffed, particularly at senior level, with the result
that there is despondency among staff and uncertainty regarding job security. In order to
address the limited capacity of the administration, a consultancy has been appointed to
provide support. This entails the placement of short term consultants in key positions
within the administration to establish systems and procedures for the administration and
to recruit and train new staff to fill key positions.


4.9.       Financial

The Municipality operates in line with legislation on a balanced budget. However, it is
financially constrained in terms of its ability to respond to the many developmental
challenges facing it.

The financial services division is responsible for financial planning, budgeting and
management, tenders and procurement, grants, levies and rates and business plans.
The main responsibility of the financial services department is the preparation of the
annual budget and annual financial statements. The budget takes into account the new
powers and functions of municipalities that came about with the changes in legislation,

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particularly with respect to District Municipalities. The department is also tasked with
identifying ways of obtaining finance from Government and other organisations for
projects identified by other departments.

This report will give an overview of the 2000/2001draft budget in graphical format and
salient features of the 2000/2001 financial statements.

           Figure 7: Graphical Analysis of the 2001/2002 Budget: Total Revenue

                 Amajuba District Municipality
                 Total Revenue - R 45 122 145                   Establishment levy
                                6%
                            2%                   25%            Services levy

                                                                Water services -
                                                                Ngagane
                                                                Water services -
                                                   14%          Escom
                     53%
                                                                Other revenue



     Figure 8: Graphical Analysis of the 2001/2002 Budget: Expenditure

                                        Amajuba District Municipality
                                         Expenditure - R 36 733 278


                                        2%                        Resource support
                                                                  services
                                             32%
                                                                  Water services: Ngagane

                                66%                               Water services: Escom




4.9.1 Salient Features of the 2001 Financial Statements

With the re-determination of boundaries that were effected with the December 2000
elections, the area of the formerly known as Umzinyathi Regional Council were split into
two district councils, namely DC 24 & DC 25.

Previous years financial statements do not exist, as this is the first year of existence for
Amajuba District Municipality.

The current financial statements include all transactions for the period 1 December 2000
to 30 June 2001. In order for Amajuba District Municipality to establish a workforce and


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infrastructure to perform its daily operations, the Umzinyathi District Municipality
performed most of the administrative and financial tasks.

Total income for the 2001 period of assessment amounted to R 28 004 616, of which R
4 342 335 were grants from National & Provincial Government. Total expenditure
amounted to R 22 081 571 resulting in a net surplus of R 5 923 045.

The District Municipality undertook capital projects amounting to R 7 196 864 during the
2000/2001 financial period. Of this amount, 11,35% was funded by grants and the
balance by levy income.

External loans outstanding amounted to R 37 688 544 at year end. This consisted of a
loan from DWAF bearing interest at 14,82% pa redeemable in 2027, INCA loan bearing
interest at 16.85% redeemable in 2011, DBSA loan bearing interest at 12% pa
redeemable in 2019 and various finance leases that are secured by fixed assets
amounting to R 986 380.

Investments amounting to R 42 187 381 consisted of Long term deposits and call
deposits. The recoverability of 9,45% of this amount is considered uncertain as the
financial institution in which the funds were invested was placed under curatorship
subsequent to year end.

Two critical points emerge from this preliminary analysis. The first is that the District
Municipality is reliant to a large extent on grant funding at present – a situation that does
not ensure financial sustainability. However, given that this is a ‘set up’ phase for the
new municipality, future expenses may be reduced and the municipality could become
self-sustaining reliant on levy income. Second, there are significant carry-overs from
previous years. This suggests that the municipal administration does not have the
capacity to implement identified projects and programmes.


4.9.2 Grant Allocations for 2001/2002

The following grants were allocated during the 2001/2002 financial year:




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                                        Table 32: Grant Funding
 Source            Grant                                      2001/2002      Funds available from
                                                                             2000/2001 grant
 DPLG              Transitional Grant (Establishment Plan)        400 000
 DPLG              Transitional    Grant       (IIDP    and       815 000                     357 270
                   Implementation Plan)
 DTLGA             GIS Support                                     575 000                    219 269
 DTLGA             Social Empowerment                              150 000                    143 250
 DTLGA             Rural Service Centre                            450 000                    200 000
 DTLGA             Capacity Building                               400 000
 DLA               Land Reform Projects                          8 600 000
 DPW               Public Works Projects                         3 004 495
                   Equitable Share                               4 512 014
                   Unspent Equitable Share                       1 350 000
 DTLGA             Change in Management Committee                                             100 000
 DTLGA             Immediate Support                                                          133 357
 DTLGA             Office Rent Accommodation                                                   54 603
 DTLGA             Panel Support Grant                                                        354 721
 DTLGA             Secretariat Support                                                         17 220
 TOTAL                                                          32 406 509                  1 579 690

These grants are mainly conditional grants, associated with the implementation of
specific programmes and projects.




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4.10       Priority Issues in Context

                                  Issue : Safety and Security
                               Detailed description of problem
The problem crimes for Newcastle, Madadeni and Osizweni are burglaries, assault, theft and
robbery with aggravating circumstances. Rape is also an issue, particularly in Madadeni,
Osizweni and Dannhauser. Assault cases are often family related. Utrecht, Kingsley,
Hattingspruit, Groenvlei, Ingogo, Charlestown, Dannhauser and Normandien stations largely
police farming areas and some rural settlements. In these areas, the main problem is stock theft.

To prevent criminal activities there is a need for a stronger, visible police presence. This relates to
an issue of police stations and the need there for. Further, it is inter-related with the issue of
access and communication. Improvement of road infrastructure will facilitate access of
emergency and police vehicles into the communities. This in turn can be seen as related to the
need for improved communication, which will be facilitated by telecommunications. The
communities can thus work together with the SA Police Services in crime prevention. The SAPS
cannot address the social issues alone. NGO’s, Welfare and Health Departments must also be
involved.

To ensure efficient service, the SAPS require effective fleet management and an increase in
manpower. Further, it is the responsibility of the community to prevent misuse of the vehicles
through false complaints and cases and faulty alarms. Human resource issues within the SAPS
must be addressed to increase the forces ability to serve the community. The community can
however, contribute to crime prevention through more involvement of reservists in functional
issues (e.g. in the radio room).
Affected parties                 No. of people affected Extend of problem
All residents of the Amajuba                               There is an indication that there has
District                                                   been an increase in crime in the area
                                                           since 1998. See table 33
Causing factors                                            Consequences

    Unemployment. This is exacerbated by the closure of Criminal activity
     mines in the area.
 youth (street children) (this can be attributed to a lack
     of recreation facilities)
 convicted criminals return to commit the same crime
 the community generates crime by purchasing stolen
     goods.
 Community is involved in criminal activities in
     insurance frauds.
 Poor legislation, by-laws, Bail Act and constitution.
 Lack of co-operation between the SAPS and the
     community / stake-holders
 Stock is not fenced in and guarded.
 Poor accessibility, no/little lighting, and, insufficient
     telecommunication.
                                        Resource availability
Natural
Human
Market
Infrastructure
Financial
Institutional


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                                                                                                                                                     Integrated Development Plan
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                                                                  Table 33: Number of Cases16

                                                                                       Place and Year
Crime                                                    1997                                                                       2001
                      N/C        M        O    C    H       D    N       I     U       K     G     N/C      M        O       C    H    D         N        I    U       K     G
Burglary – R          565       489      310   23   12    140    5     15     58      9     5      425     599      441     38    30 153         6       26    70     13    6
Burglary – B          282       55       43    12   3     53     7     5      28      5     0      263     53       25      13    0   40         3       6     29     9     0
AA – GBH              294       452      331   11   25    178    1     15     103     10    6      240     449      445     22    38 188         13      19    86     9     4
                                                                 7
ASS Com               456       257      259   13   31    84     2     10     64      11    4      392     490      279     16    32    100      8       14    58     11    2
Theft MV              137       42       26    0     1     14    0     1      3       2     0      89      38       25      2     1     5        0       1     5      0     1
Theft O/O             336       52       27    7    3     19     4     3      14      3     3      524     93       53      6     5     31       1       11    18     3     0
Rape                  46        111      132   4    6     50     2     2      10      7     0      35      161      113     7     0     48       3       8     3      2     1
Murder                12        49       37    2    1     13     0     0      7       2     1      13      30       33      0     2     14       2       0     3      2     1
Att murder            28        56       53    0    2     20     0     0      2       2     0      19      41       40      0     5     8        1       0     5      6     1
Robbery – agg         97        81       67    4    6     26     0     0      5       8     0      43      121      84      5     0     20       1       0     7      4     2
 Source: SAPS, February 2002




 16
  N/C = Newcastle; M = Madadeni; O = Osizweni; C = Charlestown; H = Hattingspruit; D = Dannhauser; N = Normandien; I = Ingogo; U = Utrecht; K = Kingsley; G = Groenvlei
 Burglary – R = Burglary, residential; Burglary – B = Burglary, business
 AA – GBH = Assault with intention to so grievous bodily harm
 ASS Com = Common assaults
 Theft MV = Theft of motor vehicle; Theft O/O = Theft out of motor vehicle
 Rape = includes juvenile rape; Att muder = attempted murder
 Robbery – agg = aggravated robbery (i.e. with firearm / weapon)




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                                                                               Amajuba District Municipality
                                                                              Integrated Development Plan
                                                                                                        52


                                         Issue: Land Reform
                                Detailed description of the problem:
The underlying rationale behind this issue was not to address the informal settlements in the area
but, rather, to address the inequities in land distribution as a result of the apartheid policies. Such
strategies must be aimed at effectively addressing the injustices of forced removals and the
historical denial of access to land.

In association with this, is the need to inform farm workers of their rights in terms of tenure
security. The harsh living conditions of farm workers have been identified as a priority issue in
Utrecht. In parts of the district, people reside on farms under the labour farm system. In this
system, people exchange labour for free housing. The housing comprises of mud huts, and,
water from springs or rivers. Sanitation services are very limited. People have to travel distances
to access shops and, access to education and health facilities, as well as, public transport, are
limited. Where wages are earned, they are below the minimum subsistence level. Job
opportunities are limited to farm work. High illiteracy levels and skills being associated with farm
operations further limit employment opportunities.

The issue of land reform is largely the concern of the Department of Land Affairs. Ultimately, this
issue raised by the Representative Forum identifies the need to provide security of tenure to all
the citizens of the Amajuba District.

The tables on the following page summarises the status of land reform and land claim projects in
the Amajuba District:

From the available information, it appears that land reform projects are concentrated along the
N11 axis, and, in Utrecht.

The Department of Land affairs and the District Council are faced with delays in land reform
projects. Appropriate land must be made available for such projects. It must be clarified whether
land is currently available or, it still has to be made available in terms of “willing buyer, willing
seller”, and, steps taken to expedite the process. Further, reform projects must also ensure that
the new tenants have access to basic infrastructure and services. It is important that they are
located close to places of employment and can easily access public transport. The potential
exists to land reform projects to sustainable small scale farming activities.

In addressing this priority, the District Council must ensure that they facilitate the Department of
Land Affairs with projects in the district as and when required by the Department. The DC must
work towards improving land reform, and security of tenure, delivery within its constituency.
Further, it is important that the Council provides a service to landless communities seeking to
make applications with the Department of Land Affairs. The Department is currently facing
problems in transferring projects to the District Councils. Currently, the Amajuba District Council
does not have the appropriate capacity to deal with land reform projects.
Affected parties                   No. of people affected             Extend of problem
Land claimants                      4504 households                  District wide
Causing factors                    Consequences
Apartheid policies                 Landless communities
                                   Limited or no service provision to landless communities
     Resource availability
Natural
Human
Market
Infrastructure
Financial
Institutional



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                                              Table 34: Land Reform Detailed project information

Project Name             Local          Households      Hectare         Phase: April 2002        Phase: April      Projected
                         Municipality                                                            2003              Budget 2002/3
Inkululeko               KZ253          104             974.2201        Implementation           Project closure   R 250 000
Yomphakathi
Tuam (nomsa)             KZ252          66              686.1031        Detailed planning        Implementation
Mossdale                 KZ252          31                              Detailed planning /      Implementation    R 100 000
                                                                        implementation
Ballengeich                             370                             Project Identification   Transfer
                                                                        Report (P.I.R)
Amantungwa               KZ253          600             5183.17         Detailed planning /      Implementation    R 1 000 000
Trust                                                                   implementation
Shabalala                KZ253          300             1381.9744       Detailed planning/       Implementation    R 100 000
                                                                        implementation
Mbatha                                  400                             P.I.R                    Transfer          R 100 000
Nzima                    KZ253          300             3351.8561       Detailed planning /      Implementation    R 1 000 000
                                                                        implementation
Mabaso                   KZ253          300             1435.1196       Detailed planning /      Implementation    R 1000 000
                                                                        implementation
Alcockspruit             KZ252          600                             Post designation /       Transfers         R30 000
                                                                        appoint service          underway
                                                                        provider
Blaauwbosch              KZ252          850                             Post designation         Transfers         Profs & specs
                                                                                                 underway          R100 000
Massondale               KZ252          250                             Post designation         Transfers         Profs & specs
                                                                                                 underway          R100 000
Gavin                    KZ252          33                              Post designation         Transfers         Profs & specs
                                                                                                 underway          R100 000
Clones                   KZ253          300                             Post designation         Transfers         Profs & specs
                                                                                                 underway          R100 000
Source: Department of Land Affairs, February 2002.




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                                                                            Amajuba District Municipality
                                                                           Integrated Development Plan
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Priority land claim projects identified by the Land Claims Commission through claims
lodged :

                                          Table 35: Land Claims
    Name of                    Project Name           Financial year   Cost
    Municipality
    Dannhauser                 Waagalles              2002/3           R800 000
    Utrecht                    Utrecht townlands      2002/3           -
                               Kingsley               2002/3           -
                               Waaihoek               2002/3           -
    Newcastle                  Tuam                   2002/3           -
                               Fairleigh, Lennixton   2002/3           -
                               & Milton
                               Koningsberg            2003/4           -
           Source: Land Claims Commission, February 2002




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                                                                          Amajuba District Municipality
                                                                         Integrated Development Plan
                                                                                                   55



                                      Issue: Environment
The use of the environment as a potential resource
                              Detailed description of the problem:
The issue raised in regard to the environment was the use of the environment as a potential
resource. The Representative Forum is of the feeling that there is a lot of potential to use the
environment in the area for economic benefit.

This issue will entail the protection of areas, which are of environmental significance. There are
relatively few formal conservation areas in the district, the most significant of these being the
Chelmsford Nature Reserve however, there are many environmentally sensitive features,
including wetlands, in the north-east. Identified areas of environmental significance and special
landscapes include:
A. 'Special Case Areas'. These include:
     The Blood River Vlei and Surrounds
     The Zaaihoek dam and northern boundaries of the District
     The Western Highlands (aquifers adjacent, and including the Ncandu Nature Reserve)
B. Areas of 'High Environmental Sensitivity' which need to be managed and conserved. Areas
     identified include:
     Dry Cut                      Indigenous forests
     Flint                        Indigenous forests
     Allen 1 and 2                Indigenous forests
     Nyanyadu Mountain
     Dorset farm
     Buffalo river wetlands
     Ncandu river
     Dorinskop farm (Anneville farm)
     Helpmekaar area
     Corek farm
C. 'Normal Concern Areas' where general environmental guidelines should be applied
D. 'Special Landscapes', including Boschoffsvlei, Groenvlei and Blood River Vlei, where general
     environmental guidelines should be adhered to.

The protection and enhancement of the environment would include the rehabilitation of degraded
areas in the district and the eradication of alien vegetation. Areas identified as requiring attention
in terms of the eradication of alien vegetation include:
 Nyanyadu (Currah farm) - Poetebos, Joy Weed, Black Jacks, Torber Weed and Dal-urah
 Helpmekaar, Glencoe and Hattingspruit - Torber Weed, Poetebos and Joy Weed
 Claremont (Dicks), Jobstown, Majorisu - Poetebos
 Buffalo Flats - Black Jacks, Poetebos, Muttinger and Bloem
 Milford Farm - Poetebos, Muttinger and Joy Weed
 Muisieskraal – Poetebos

Identified areas of bad soil erosion include:
Petti farm                Hilltop                   Currah farm               Mbabane farm
Kill-kill                 Allen No. 1 and 2         Irondale farm             Annieville
Ladybank farm             Clones                    Puma farm                 Blackbank farm
Emfundweni                Uitkuik South farm        Malonjeni farm
Magdalen farm             Rutland                   Mafahlawane farm          Spoorkmill
Allen                     Peachill                  Nkosibomvu farm           Groenvlei area
Wilts farm                Kwa-Sthwathwa             Martha farm

Two potential areas for eco-tourism have been identified:
 Western highlands including the Ntshingwayo dam and Ncandu Nature Reserve
 Northern areas including Utrecht and the Zaaihoek dam.

The area around the Zaaihoek Dam and the area around Ntshingwayo dam have been identified
as holding potential for recreation developments.

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                                                                             Amajuba District Municipality
                                                                            Integrated Development Plan
                                                                                                      56

Several areas offering scenic drives exist in the district, which offer tourism potential. These
include:
      the Normandien Road: the road passes through scenic mountainous areas which offer
       hiking trails, picnic and day outings from Newcastle, and guest farms where teas and
       lunches are served.
      the Memel Road: several battlefields and a fort (Fort Amiel which includes a museum) can
       be found along this route (R34) to the west of Newcastle. Guest farms and stalls also offer
       visitors teas and lunches.
      the Volksrust Road: like the Memel road, the N11 north of Newcastle has several historical
       and arts and crafts attractions along it including:
      Neill's Cottage where the peace treaty following the Battle of Majuba was signed
      the Schuinshoogte/ Igogo Battlefield
      the Valley Inn Hotel and the Inkwelo Motel and Mountain

In developing the environment as a potential resource, the pollution of catchments by industries
and mines must be addressed. The following potential pollution sources exist:
 The Durnacol, Ballengeich, CBR mining, Ngagane and Kilbarchan Collieries are polluting
    local rivers. The pollutants concerned are acidity, salinity and heavy metals. In the case of
    the defunct mines, the pollution loads will increase once the workings begin to decant unless
    some management methods are put in place. Careful consideration will have to be given to
    closure objectives and post closure management of the decants from a catchment wide
    perspective.
 The Iscor works release effluent streams into the Ngagane and Buffalo Rivers. These
    streams could contain pollutants such as ammonia, phenols, cyanide, flouride, heavy metals
    and salinity if not managed properly.
 The storage dams on the Siltech complex do not have sufficient capacity to cope with the
    runoff during particularly wet periods. Siltech has in the past applied for releases during rainy
    periods. The release water could be a source of calcium, alkalinity and salinity.
 Sentrachem Newcastle could be a source of organic materials. The measured effluent
    qualities indicate, however, that the levels of organic materials after treatment are within
    general effluent standards.

Inherent in the development of the environment as a potential resource, is the need to establish
an appropriate environmental management system and to encourage careful development in
order to protect the beauty and ambience of the area. It is important to promote environmental
awareness in the district.

Affected parties                        No. of people affected           Extend of problem
All residents                                                            District wide

Causing factors                         Consequences
Lack of formal conservation             Lack of protection of the environment

Resource availability
Natural
Human
Market
Infrastructure
Financial
Institutional




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                                                                        Amajuba District Municipality
                                                                       Integrated Development Plan
                                                                                                 57



                                        Issue: Job Creation
                               Detailed description of the problem:
This priority was listed as the top priority in terms of the Newcastle needs analysis. In terms of
the Dannhauser Interim IDP, job creation and economic development was ranked second. The
Utrecht municipality prioritised job creation as their second priority issue. The Newcastle
Chamber of Commerce has highlighted high unemployment and low incomes in the district with
particular reference to the Dannhauser area. The District Council’s Representative Forum has
agreed that job creation is the essential base for all future development.

The total population of the district was recorded as 410 439 in the 1996 censuses. Only 27% of
the population was employed in the formal sector in 1996. The average unemployment rate in the
district has been calculated at 22%. The informal sector plays an important role as a survival
strategy and opportunity for income generation in the area. The district is also characterised by
low levels of income – 52% of households earn less than R1000 per month. In addition to low
incomes, average household sizes are large (5.5 people), making incomes per capita low.

    This situation has arisen due to the declining employment trend in the district over the past
     decades. This has been in response to a number of factors:

An indication of the level of this downsizing is ISCOR, which has reduced staffing levels from
approximately 12 000 in the early 1990’s to 4 000 in 2001. The downsizing of these large plants
has had ramifications throughout the economy, with downstream operations being forced to close
or downsize.

Areas which the Representative Forum have identified where there should be investment, thereby
creating jobs, are:
 Arts and culture - this includes traditional handicrafts such as grass and beadwork.
 Tourism - the development of tourism opportunities in the district can be used to develop the
    economy.
 Sports and recreation - this can be a business venture, encouraging sports events in the
    area, which will have spin-off's on related activities - accommodation, restaurants, shops etc.
 Agriculture - the expansion of commercial agriculture and the support of emerging farmers.
 Amajuba Business centre - a proposal has been submitted to the District Council to develop a
    business centre driven by the Council.

In working towards job creation in the district, the Council must encourage investment
opportunities, which encourage human capital rather than capital intensive investment. It is
important to develop skills development programmes thereby, making people more marketable
and accessible to employment opportunities. Further, it is essential to ensure an economic and
political climate that is conducive to economic development. Discussion with the Newcastle
Chamber of Commerce and the Afrikaanse Sakekame, revealed that the level of investment and
unemployment opportunities in the district have also been influenced by the local political context
and concerns about safety and security.




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                                                                           Amajuba District Municipality
                                                                          Integrated Development Plan
                                                                                                    58


Affected parties                        No. of people affected        Extend of problem
All residents                                                         District wide

Causing factors                                        Consequences

  Closure of many of the collieries in the area          Low income levels
   as the viable deposits have been worked                Poverty
   out and the marginal deposits have                     Crime
   become increasingly uneconomic to mine.
 Downsizing of many of the manufacturing
   plants, in response to global recession,
   changing market demands (e.g. decline in
   the demand for steel products).
 Decline in the clothing and textile industry,
   as the impact of the WTO agreements on
   the national industry has resulted in the
   sector decreasing significantly
  Decline in the agricultural sector over the
    last few decades as well as increasing
    mechanisation in the sector
 Decreasing employment levels in the
   national gold mining industry, resulting in
   miners returning to their ‘homes’.
Removal of the incentives, such as the 1991
Regional Industrial Development Programme
and 1996 Manufacturing Development
Programme, which had provided a relative
advantage to firms.

                                           Resource availability
Natural
Human
Market
Infrastructure
Financial
Institutional




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                                                                           Amajuba District Municipality
                                                                          Integrated Development Plan
                                                                                                    59



                                       Issue: Communication
The need to improve communication
Detailed description of the project:
This priority issue highlights the need for improved communication between all roleplayers
involved in development issues in the District. A particular need for communication has been
identified between the District Council and the Local Municipalities. At present, these roleplayers
are involved in fulfilling a number of developmentally related activities, some of which overlap and
some of which could possibly contradict each other. This situation is worsened, as there is no
final clarity on the differentiation of the powers and functions of district councils and local
municipalities. In order to prevent any confusion, duplication of activities and hence ineffective
use of resources, it is essential that there be improved and greater communication between the
spheres of local government.

A similar situation exists in respect of the various service providers and provincial and national
government departments. These roleplayers have historically been active in the area under the
jurisdiction of the District Council, but there has not necessarily been good communication
between the parties. This has resulted in projects and programmes being implemented without
the knowledge of the District Council and its precursor (the uMzinyathi Regional Council). There
has therefore been little co-ordination of development and so instances such as where new
clinics have been constructed but no services such as electricity and water have been provided.

A final element of the need for improved communication is internally within the District Council
administration, so ensuring that there is integration in the delivery of services by the District
Council and situations do not arise where, for the example, the planning section is unaware of
land reform projects which are being implemented through the engineering section.

Affected parties                        No. of people affected        Extend of problem
Officials, councilors, service                                        District and Municipal level
providers, citizens
Causing factors                         Consequences
Lack in clarity in powers and            Duplication of activities
functions                                Ineffective use of resources
                                         Little co-ordination
                                         Lack of integration in terms of service delivery
                                           Resource availability
Natural
Human
Market
Infrastructure
Financial
Institutional




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                                                                           Amajuba District Municipality
                                                                          Integrated Development Plan
                                                                                                    60



                                          Issue: Transport
The need for improved transportation
Detailed description of the problem:
The rationale behind this priority is primarily that the rural areas have limited transport facilities.
This is both in terms of the lack of efficient public transport system, as well as, insufficient road
infrastructure in the rural areas. Accessibility of the rural areas will improve security, health
(accessibly to medical care) and commercial development opportunities. The communities in the
district largely rely on the mini-bus taxi system for transportation. The absence of a regular
transport system impacts on the community’s access to community services, such as health
facilities. Further, it limits employment opportunities, as it is difficult for people to commute to
places of employment (e.g. from Utrecht to Newcastle, which is the nearest place with a variety of
job opportunities).

Transport infrastructure was identified, and prioritised, by all three Municipalities within the DC.
All identified the need to upgrade, and maintain the existing road infrastructure, as well as, the
stormwater drainage system and pavements. Associated with this is the need to improve, and
maintain, street lights and traffic lights. The municipalities within the district have apparently
primarily focussed on internal road requirements, rather than connector roads. Provincial and
national road issues, which are the responsibility of the Department of Transport, need to be
considered.

It is important that there is a safe and efficient transport infrastructure in place for both vehicles
and pedestrians. Once appropriate infrastructure is in place, there must be a mechanism to
ensure that it is properly maintained. Further, an investigation should be undertaken into the
provision of a safe, reliable, public transportation service.
Affected parties                                No. of people Extend of problem
                                                affected

Causing factors                            Consequences
The development of a cost effective public  Lack of efficient public transport system
transport system is not so much limited  Poor accessibility
due to the rural nature of the areas but  Limited employment opportunities
rather:
 The long distances between places
 Low incomes of the population
 Low population thresholds in certain
    settlements
 The condition of the roads
 Limited commercial needs of the
    people due to limited spending power
    (due to low incomes).
                                     Resource availability
Natural
Human
Market
Infrastructure
Financial
Institutional




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                                                                                         Amajuba District Municipality
                                                                                        Integrated Development Plan
                                                                                                                  61



                                    Issue: Social Infrastructure
HIV/AIDS; Pension Pay Points; Health Facilities, Social Care and Development Centres
Detailed description of the problem:
HIV/AIDS
                                                       17
According to the Medical Research Council (MRC) there has been an increase in HIV/AIDS
death registration from around 50% in 1990 to over 90% of adult deaths in 1999. There has been
an increase in both adult and child mortality. The MRC estimates that over half the deaths of the
population within the 15-49 age group, are due to AIDS. It is estimated that between 5 and 7
million South Africans will die from AIDS in the next 10 years.

The following are HIV statistics from the Faculty of Medicine, University of Natal, for the year
    18
2000 . Of their sample:
 Utrecht – 42% (may include some specimen from Newcastle)
 Madadeni – 32%.

The issue of AIDS is a difficult one for the council alone to address. This entails them working
together with the Department of Health and other organisations in developing Aids awareness
programmes. Further, it requires the council to take cognisance of the aids epidemic in its
jurisdiction when planning for its communities. While AIDS will not result in an immediate
decrease in the population, it will affect population growth and the demographic structure of the
district. The impact of AIDS will affect the demand for facilities such as an increasing demand for
health care and specialised care facilities such as AIDS care centres and home-based care
programmes hence, HIV/AIDS care will become a substantial part of health care spending. The
demand for schools and education will be affected through both staff and children becoming
affected and, through the increasing needs of affected children. This epidemic will also impact on
other facilities such as cemeteries and crematoria and the demand thereof.

The economic impacts of AIDS/HIV include a loss in productivity due to absenteeism and death
of staff (skilled and experienced staff) and therefore, a need for increased staff training. Needless
to say, AIDS/HIV will impact on families and family structures - dependency rates, heads of
households, AIDS orphans etc.

The MRC constitutes the country’s high incidence rate as a “priority of priorities” to which it states
there are only two options:
 To build more hospitals (which is unlikely to happen given the economic climate)
 To find alternative ways to care for people living with HIV/AIDS.

The potential impact of HIV/AIDS on planning and service delivery is highlighted in the table 38.

Pension Pay Points
The issue in regard to pension pay points appears not so much as to be the need for additional
pay points, than the need for secure pay points. This is turn relates to the priority of safety and
secure in the district. The communities expressed the need for secure pension pay points as the
elderly are exposed to crime when collecting their pension. Further, there is no proper shelter
and seating for the elderly at these points. Such issues must be addressed to ensure the comfort
and safety of the elderly when collecting their pensions. A second issue associated with pay
points in the distance that some people have to commute to these points. As an alternative to the
provision of more pay points (this would have to be explored further), the possibility of public
transport to pay points on pension day should be explored.


Health facilities
While the need for clinics have been identified by communities within the Local Municipalities, the
district municipality must look at the broader issue of health service provision and the adequacy
of the medical facilities in the region. If many other issues such as water and sanitation are
addressed, the need for medical attention is lessened. It is therefore, more a primary health

17
  Medical Research Council of South Africa Annual Report 2000-2001
18
  The Department of Health has advised that there may be errors in terms of calculation of HIV figures.
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                                                                                                  Amajuba District Municipality
                                                                                                 Integrated Development Plan
                                                                                                                           62


issue that the District Municipality must consider a priority. On the other end of the scale, in
terms of medical infrastructure provision, the District Municipality must be concerned with regional
facilities such as hospitals.

The guidelines for the provision of clinics in terms of the KwaZulu-Natal Provincial Health Plan
are outlined below:
 1 community health centre for every 50 000 population
 1 urban clinic for every 20 000 to 40 000 population
 1 rural clinic for every 10 000 population depending on population density, transport, access
    and other available health services in the district.
 1 type C clinic (largest) per 8 000 – 12 000 population.
 1 type B clinic (medium) per 4 000 – 8000 population.
 1 type A clinic (smallest) per 2000 – 4 000 population.
 1 mobile health team or day clinic per 2 000 – 5 000 population.
 1 mobile clinic visit < 2 000 population.

The following table quotes the guidelines in terms of the Red Book standards:




                                        Table 36 Guidelines for Health Facilities
         Facility     Location                 Access                 Size and dimensions        Use     capacities
                                                                                                 and thresholds
         Mobile       Mobile      facilities   Must             be    These      are     self-   A mobile facility
         clinic       which move from          accessible       by    contained         units.   will    serve    a
                      community           to   foot.                  Space is, however,         population      of
                      community-                                      required to park and       about     5   000
                      therefore there is       Maximum                operate the clinic: this   people.
                      no fixed location.       walking                can be done from a
                                               distance: 1 km         local park, community
                                                                      centre, church, etc.
         Clinic       Clinics should be        Maximum                The size of the clinic     An      estimated
                      accessible to the        walking                will vary according to     minimum of 5 000
                      greatest number of       distance: 2 km.        the number of services     people.
                      people and as            Where it is not        required, and as a
                      such should be           possible for the       result the larger the
                      located close to         facility to be         facility.
                      public    transport      placed        within
                      stops.                   walking                The           following
                                               distance, it must      guidelines          are
                      The facility need        be            easily   suggested:
                      not be located           reached          via
                      along a major            public transport,      0,1 ha per 5 000
                      route and can be         with a maximum         people
                      located a block or       walk       of      5
                      two     back,   in       minutes from the       0,5 ha per 20 000
                      quieter                  public transport       people
                      surroundings.            stop      to     the
                                               facility.              1 ha per      40   000
                                                                      people
                                               Maximum travel
                                               time      of    30 1,5 ha per 60-
                                               minutes to reach 80 000 people.
                                               the facility.
         Hospital     These are regional       Regional scale of facility means that they would be planned for in
         s            facilities,    which     terms of a development framework and not when designing
                      must be located          specific living environments.
                      along          major
                      transport routes in
                      close proximity to
                      public      transport
                      stops.




The following table indicates the requirements for health facilities in the Amajuba District, in terms
of the above standards:


SiVEST/Deloitte and Touche Consortium
                                                                                            Amajuba District Municipality
                                                                                           Integrated Development Plan
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                                 Table 37: Requirements for Health Facilities in Amajuba
           Municipality           Newcastle               Utrecht                   Dannhauser           DC25
           Total population       287260                  23929                     99250                410439
                                  RA      RB      A       RA        RB      A       RA      RB      A    RA     RB    A
           Mobile clinics         57      144     37      5         12      35      20      50      26   82     205   94
           Clinics                57      144     9       5         12      1       20      50      1    82     205   6
           Hospitals              Currently, there are 4 hospitals in the district.
          Note: the district figure does not equal the total of the municipalities as different sources were used.
          RA – Required number in terms of the Red Book guidelines
          RB – Required number in terms of Provincial Health Plan guideline
          A - Actual number of facilities available (based on information to date)




In terms of addressing health at grass root level, the Department of Health identified the following
five most important needs in DC25:
 Reticulated water supply to Buffalo Flats communities
 Reticulated sewerage in Stafford, Osizweni "E"; Blaaubosch, Cavan and Buffalo Flats (the
     closer communities)
 Sanitation, water supply, refuse collection and shelter at pension pay points throughout
     district.
 Hazardous waste disposal unit to serve whole district
 Refuse collection and disposal for Buffalo Flats communities.


Social Care and Development Centre
A proposal has been submitted to the District Council, to be driven by the Council, for the
development of a social care and development centre.
Affected parties                No. of people affected        Extend of problem
Namely rural communities

Causing factors                            Consequences
Lack of adequate social                    Lack of adequate, and safe, social infrastructure
infrastructure

                                                Resource availability
Natural
Human
Market
Infrastructure
Financial
Institutional




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                       Table 38: The Impact of HIV and AIDS on Planning
                                                                         19
The implication of HIV and AIDS for planning in KwaZulu-Natal

Effect                                  Indicator                        Action for Planners
1. Demographic
Slowing of population growth            Fewer births, higher mortality   Monitor demographic data;
                                                                         revise population projection
Changing structure                      Higher mortality in 15-39 year   Monitor demographic data and
                                        age group and higher infant      identify implications of this for
                                        mortality                        planning norm
2. Demand for Services
Decline in school entrants              Enrollment rates decline         Monitor enrolments, ensure
                                                                         children not excluded because
                                                                         of poverty, liaise with
                                                                         Education Department
Increase in health care need            More patients at clinics,        Monitor demand, identify how
                                        hospitals and hospices           it will be met and change
                                                                         planning standards
                                                                         accordingly. Liaise with
                                                                         Health department.
Increased mortality                     More deaths                      Monitor mortality, provide
                                                                         cemetery space more rapidly.
Increased dependency ratio              Adult deaths, increase in        Monitor and protect orphans,
(elderly, orphans)                      orphans and destitute elderly    plan for their and elderly
                                                                         people’s needs. Liaise with
                                                                         relevant departments.
Housing needs                           Declining rate of population     Monitor demographic trends
                                        growth
Ability to pay                          Changes in household income      Evaluate the importance of
                                        and expenditure patterns         this data to planning, develop
                                                                         mechanisms for monitoring
                                                                         changes and possibly
                                                                         assisting vulnerable groups.
3. Provincial / National Environment
Variable sub-regional           Increase HIV seroprevalence,             Assess sub-regional
vulnerability                   high number of AIDS cases,               vulnerability. Consider making
                                mobility, poverty                        most vulnerable areas
                                                                         priorities of development.
Change in economic growth               Decline in savings and           Include potential decrease in
rates                                   investment, increased            growth in plans, consider
                                        mortality                        potential migration
Demand for services coupled             Increased demand on state        Include potential demand in
with decreased ability to pay           donor funds, with an increase    planning processes, and
                                        in donor dependency              indicate issues to government
                                                                         and NGO sectors dealing with
                                                                         donor agencies
Development projects                    AIDS spread speeded by           Consider AIDS Impact
                                        project/project made less        analysis for major projects –
                                        viable by AIDS                   currently under development
Provincial socio-political              KwaZulu-Natal seen as            De-mystify HIV/AIDS plan to
environment                             ‘plague’ province                mitigate impact, advocacy of
                                                                         prevention




19
   Whiteside et al, The impact of HIV/Aids on Planning Issues in KwaZulu-Natal, Town and Regional
Planning Commission, 1995.
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                                      Issue: Infrastructure
Informal settlements; waste disposal; sanitation, water, cemeteries and cremotoria.

Detailed description of the project:

Informal Settlements
According to the 1996 Census data, there are 7934 informal households in the Amajuba district.
93% of these informal households are located in the Newcastle Municipality, primarily in the
Madadeni-Osizweni, and Blaauwbosch areas.

The need to address the issue of people living in shacks has been identified and the need to
provide them with appropriate structures. In addition to appropriate structures, security of tenure
is required. It is also essential that these communities have basic infrastructure and access to
community services. They need to be able to access public transport and places of employment.


Solid Waste
In terms of the Census database, 24% of households in Newcastle, 88% in Dannhauser and,
74% in Utrecht have no formal refuse removal systems. A large percentage of the population has
there own refuse dump on their site. It is important to manage refuse disposal to prevent
pollution from incorrect disposal and air pollution from households burying their own refuse. While
it is important to address solid waste in the entire district, areas of highest population densities
must be prioritised in terms of the quantity of waste generation in those areas. Therefore, while
the percentage of households in Utrecht with no formal refuse removal system is greater than that
of Newcastle, the Utrecht area has a low population density in comparison to Newcastle,
especially around the Newcastle urban area.

It is important, in protecting the environment and health of the community, that there is proper
refuse collection and disposal. The Utrecht IDP has identified the need to upgrade the existing
system through the replacement of refuse removal vehicles, and, provide the necessary waste
disposal facilities in rural areas. The Newcastle Local Council has been working with DWAF to
identify a new waste disposal site for the greater Newcastle region.

The District Council must also consider the proper management of hazardous waste disposal.
The Department of Health has identified 5 hazardous substances premises in Amajuba, 3 of
which are in Newcastle, and, the other 2 in Utrecht. The disposal of medical and bio-hazardous
waste is a problem for producers in the area. Incorrect disposal of such products puts the
communities at an unnecessary health risk. An approved local unit will make the disposal of such
products more efficient and economical.


Sanitation
In terms of sanitation in the district:
 Approximately 4% of households have no toilet facilities
 42% use pit latrines
 53% have flush/chemical toilets.
The greatest percentage of households with no toilet facilities is located in the Utrecht Municipal
area. The majority of households in Dannhauser Municipality use pit latrines and, the majority of
households in Newcastle have flush/chemical toilets.

Where sanitation is inefficient – in need of upgrading or non-existent –there is fouling of the area,
exacerbating poor health in the communities.

There are numerous factors/options associated with sanitation in the district:
 address those households who have no toilet facilities. There is an estimated 3603
   households who do not have any form of sanitation provision.
 Upgrade and maintenance of pit latrines.
 Upgrade existing infrastructure where blockages occur.
 The provision of reticulated sewerage to all households - this is the ideal situation although
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     there is the issue of affordability.

Water
In terms of water supply in the district:
 56% of households have piped water to the home or site
 10% of households rely on public taps for water
 20% of households use boreholes
 9% are reliant on natural or other sources of water.

There are inequalities in terms of service provision within the district:
 of the total district households with piped water, 91% are located within Newcastle
   Municipality
 60% of the total households in the district which use a public tap or borehole as there main
   water supply are in Newcastle
 20% of the households in Dannhauser are reliant on natural or other water sources.
 the greater percentage (45%) of households in the district with no main water supply are in
   Dannhauser.

There are numerous factors/options associated with water supply in the district:
 while a large portion of households have access to water, it cannot be confirmed that this is
   “a secure source for human consumption”
 many people suffer from cholera and other diseases as a result of drinking water of poor
   quality
 many communities have to walk far distances to obtain water
 there is a need to provide water fit for human consumption to the entire population
 there is a need for upgrading existing infrastructure
 the provision of reticulated water supply would be the ideal level of service to promote the
   health of the community however, this is not affordable for all communities.

Cemeteries and Crematoria
According to data received from the Department of Health, there is a total of 18
cemeteries/crematoria in Amajuba. There are 15 in Newcastle (5 in the rural area and 10 in the
peri-urban area) and, 3 in Utrecht urban area. In terms of the Newcastle IDP, 7 cemeteries are
located within the boundaries of the former TLC. Many of these cemeteries are reaching capacity
and the demand for burial plots is likely to be increased as the impact of the AIDS pandemic is
felt.

In terms of the Dannhauser Local Development Plan (LDP), there is a cemetery in Dannhauser
that is in need of upgrading. Utrecht has identified the need to provide cemeteries within the
respective areas in the Municipality.

Additionally, many families have traditionally utilised farm land for family burials. There are
increasing legal constraints to this practice, so a district0wide approach to the problem is
becoming increasingly important.
Affected parties                 No. of people affected          Extend of problem
Namely rural communities                                         District wide, particularly in
                                                                 rural areas.
Causing factors                  Consequences
Poor infrastructure provision    Health hazards
                                     Resource availability
Natural
Human
Market
Infrastructure
Financial
Institutional




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5.         Development Strategies

5.1.       Key Performance areas

Based on the issues identified, the key performance areas for the municipality have
been defined as:
 Institutional and Governance matters
 Shared and Integrated Service delivery
 Economic Development
 Social Facilitation and Development
 Environmental Management
 Municipal Planning


5.2. Development objectives and strategies

The District Council will continue to maintain existing services and infrastructure
within the municipal area. Further, projects that have already been identified and
initiated by the District Council are to be continued. The following strategies have
been proposed to guide the future development in the area.




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                                                                   Table 39: Objectives and Strategies

 Key Performance Area and                                 Strategies and Projects                   Timing       Responsible              Assumption/Remark
          Objective
Institutional and
Governance Matters
                                           Finance
To achieve sound                            To ensure that the financial reserves                 30/06/03   Director: Financial      All billed income is
management, administration                     (uncommitted) of the Municipality equate to at                 Services                  collected.
and development in the                         least the annual operating budget of the Council.
District.
                                              To ensure that the Municipality has adequate        30/06/03   Director: Financial      Utilise district council
                                               financial resources to meet the objectives and                 Services                  funds to leverage/ counter
                                               development needs of the District                                                        fund other funding
                                                                                                                                        sources.
                                              To adopt the approach of ‘rain-maker’ to source     Ongoing
                                               funding for project implementation




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 Key Performance Area and                                  Strategies and Projects                     Timing       Responsible              Assumption/Remark
          Objective
Institutional and                          Human Resources
Governance Matters                          To finalise the staff structure of the Council and       30/06/02   Director: Corporate      Staff structures are
                                              ensure that it meets the business of the Council.                  Services                  approved on time.
To achieve sound                                                                                                                          Business planning is
management, administration                                                                                                                 undertaken before the
and development in the                                                                                                                     30/04/02.
District.                                     To ensure that the staff structure of the              31/12/03   Director: Corporate
                                               municipality is representative of the demographics                Services
                                               of the District.

                                              To ensure that skills, capacity building and           30/06/03   Director: Corporate      Business planning is
                                               change management issues that affect the                          Services                  undertaken before the
                                               development and functioning of the Municipality                                             30/04/02.
                                               are brought to the fore and addressed                                                      Skills audit is undertaken


                                              To ensure that the personnel currently posted to       31/12/02   Director: Corporate      Co-operation from the
                                               other entities but performing Council                             Services                  unions
                                               responsibilities are transferred to Amajuba District                                       Amajuba District Council
                                               Council, with the corresponding funding                                                     to initiate this process




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 Key Performance Area and                                 Strategies and Projects                  Timing        Responsible              Assumption/Remark
          Objective
Institutional and                          Customer Care and Relationship Management
Governance Matters                           To develop strong relations between the District    30/06/02    Municipal Manager        Local Councils agree and
                                              and Local Councils by establishing an appropriate                                         commit to such Forum.
To achieve sound                              Forum and meeting regularly.
management, administration
and development in the                        To develop strong relations between the District   30/06/02    Municipal Manager        Service Providers agree
District.                                      and Service Providers by establishing a “Service   / 2-                                  and commit to such
                                               Providers” Forum and meeting bi-monthly.           monthly                               Forum.

                                              To ensure there is regular, clear and relevant     30/06/02    Municipal Manager        Representative Forum
                                               communication between all stakeholders in the      / Q-terly                             remains fully functional
                                               District, using the established Representative                                           and representative.
                                               Forum as the forum for this communication

                                              To ensure that there is good co-operation and                  Municipal Manager
                                               understanding between and amongst all
                                               Councillors, Staff and Customers

                                             To regularly measure levels of customer                         Director: Corporate
                                              satisfaction                                                    Services
                                           Business Planning
                                            To undertake departmental business planning and      30/04/02    Municipal Manager        Departmental Heads
                                              to streamline the business processes according to                                         appointed by 30/03/02.
                                              the needs of the Council and Communities.

                                           Information Technology
                                              To ensure that the information technology          30/06/03    Director: Finance     HODs to provide input/support
                                               requirements meet the business needs of the                                          for sector specific elements
                                               Municipality.




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 Key Performance Area and                                   Strategies and Projects                     Timing       Responsible           Assumption/Remark
         Objective
Shared and Integrated
Service Delivery                               To identify and agree the most effective, efficient,   31/12/02   Municipal Manager   District Council, local councils
                                                affordable and sustainable manner to render                                           and service providers to agree
To ensure that municipal                        these services                                                                        and commit to the provision of
services are provided to all                                                                                                          services.
communities within the                         To determine and agree on the functions to be          31/12/02   Municipal Manager
Amajuba District in the most                    performed by the various municipalities and
efficient, effective, affordable                service providers.
and sustainable manner.
                                               To meet a minimum of RDP level in the provision                   Director:
                                                of municipal services across the district through                 Engineering
                                                the upgrading of existing services or the provision               Services
                                                of new services where required.

                                            Water and Sanitation
                                               To provide all households with water at the            30/06/07   Director:
                                                minimum RDP level through the upgrading of                        Engineering
                                                existing services or the provision of new services                Services
                                                where required.

                                               To provide sanitation to all households at the         30/06/07
                                                minimum of RDP level through the upgrading of
                                                existing services or the provision of new services
                                                where required.

                                               To make raw water available for agricultural use.      30/06/03

                                               To make water available to support industrial          30/06/03
                                                activity.

                                               To facilitate the provision of higher levels of
                                                service in areas where this is affordable and
                                                sustainable.




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 Key Performance Area and                                  Strategies and Projects                     Timing       Responsible        Assumption/Remark
         Objective
Shared and Integrated                      Electricity
Service Delivery (cont)                       To provide electricity in rural areas.                 30/06/07   Director:        Service Provider to agree and
                                              To upgrade the existing electricity network.                      Engineering      commit.
                                                                                                                 Services

                                           Roads and Transport
                                              To upgrade roads and stormwater drainage in the        30/06/07   Director:        Department of Transport to
                                               district                                                          Engineering      agree and commit.
                                              Upgrade and provide community access roads to          30/06/07   Services
                                               ensure greater accessibility and mobility
                                              To provide public transport facilities (bus and taxi   30/06/04
                                               stops and ranks)
                                           Solid Waste
                                              To establish an integrated district-wide solid waste   30/06/03   Director:
                                               management system                                                 Engineering
                                              To promote and implement a recycling                   30/06/03   Services
                                               programme in the district
                                              To upgrade existing waste disposal facilities          30/06/04




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 Key Performance Area and                                 Strategies and Projects                      Timing       Responsible            Assumption/Remark
         Objective
Economic Development
                                              To facilitate inward investment into the Amajuba       Ongoing    Director: Planning   Organised business sector to
To facilitate, encourage and                   District.                                                         and Development      commit and contribute their
support the development of                                                                                       Services             expertise to the development
the local economy and job                     To promote networking opportunities and support        30/06/03                        of the local economy.
creation.                                      for economic development in the district.

                                              To retain existing businesses and the jobs they        Ongoing
                                               provide in the district.

                                              To support agricultural development in the district.   Ongoing

                                              To stimulate and support SMMEs.                        Ongoing

                                              To develop and promote the district as a tourist       30/06/04   Director:
                                               destination.                                                      Community
                                                                                                                 Services

                                              To support local business through a preferential       30/06/02   Director:
                                               procurement policy for locally based contractors                  Engineering
                                               and service providers and the adoption of labour                  Services
                                               based construction methods.

                                              To increase opportunities for the previously           Ongoing
                                               disadvantaged




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 Key Performance Area and                                   Strategies and Projects                     Timing       Responsible            Assumption/Remark
         Objective
Social Facilitation and
Development                                    To determine and agree on the functions to be          31/12/02   Municipal Manager   District Council, local councils
                                                performed by the various municipalities and                                           and service providers to agree
To ensure that social                           service providers.                                                                    and commit to the provision of
services are provided to all                                                                                                          services.
communities within the                         To identify and agree the most effective, efficient,   31/12/02   Municipal Manager
Amajuba District in the most                    affordable and sustainable manner to render
efficient, effective, affordable                these services.
and sustainable manner.                                                                                                               Service providers to be
                                               To respond to identified needs in a proactive and                 Director:           provide expertise in ensuring
                                                sustainable manner in the provision of new social                 Community           sustainability in the provision
                                                services and facilities in areas which are currently              Services            of services and facilities.
                                                unserviced or the upgrading of existing services in
                                                areas which are underserviced.
                                                                                                                  Director:
                                               To improve the accessibility of social services                   Community
                                                through the concentration of service provision at                 Services
                                                central points, and the utilisation of existing
                                                facilities e.g. multi-purpose centres.

                                            Health
                                               To establish an HIV/AIDS programme which               30/06/02   Director:           Department of Health to
                                                supports national and provincial initiatives                      Community           provide expertise and
                                                                                                                  Services            assistance and commit to the
                                               Upgrade facilities, access, staffing and equipment     31/12/02                       IDP
                                                at existing clinics

                                               Provide additional clinic services in areas which      30/06/04
                                                are currently under-and unserviced




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 Key Performance Area and                                  Strategies and Projects                      Timing      Responsible        Assumption/Remark
         Objective
Social Facilitation and                    Education
Development (cont)                            Upgrade facilities, access, staffing and equipment      31/12/03   Director:       Department of Education to
                                               at existing schools.                                               Community       commit to the IDP.
                                                                                                       30/06/05   Services
                                              Provide additional schools in areas which are
                                               currently under-and unserviced.

                                           Sports and Recreation/ Community Facilities
                                              Provide additional sports and recreational facilities   30/06/04   Director:       Local Councils and District
                                               at the identified hubs and satellites.                             Community       Council to agree on priority
                                              Provide multi-purpose facilities at the identified      30/06/04   Services        areas.
                                               hubs and satellites.
                                           Welfare
                                              Improve access to social welfare services.              30/06/03   Director:       Departments of Welfare and of
                                                                                                                  Community       Home Affairs to agree on
                                                                                                                  Services        priority areas and needs.

                                           Safety and Security
                                              To ensure access to police services through             30/06/04   Director:       SAPS and the community to
                                               additional police stations in the identified hubs and              Community       commit to addressing crime.
                                               satellites.                                                        Services

                                           Cemeteries and Crematoria
                                              To establish an integrated district-wide cemeteries     30/06/03   Director:
                                               system.                                                            Community
                                                                                                       Ongoing    Services
                                              To ensure the upgrading and maintenance of
                                               existing cemeteries




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 Key Performance Area and                                  Strategies and Projects                  Timing       Responsible            Assumption/Remark
         Objective
Environmental
Management                                    To establish an integrated environmental            30/06/03   Director: Planning   Department of Environmental
                                               management system.                                             and Development      Affairs and Tourism,
To rehabilitate and improve                                                                        30/06/05   Services             Department of Agriculture and
the environment.                              To conserve areas of environmental, conservation    30/06/05                        Environmental Affairs and
                                               and tourist significance.                                                           Department of Health to assist.
                                                                                                   30/06/03
                                              To undertake soil rehabilitation in areas of high
                                               erosion.                                            30/06/03

                                              To eradicate alien vegetation.                      30/06/03

                                              To address the pollution of water catchments by     30/06/03
                                               mining and industrial activity.

                                              To address environmental issues relating to waste
                                               disposal.

                                              To promote environmental awareness.




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Key Performance Area and                                   Strategies and Projects                   Timing       Responsible            Assumption/Remark
        Objective
Municipal Planning                            To provide guidance in the location of future        30/06/03   Director: Planning
                                               development.                                                    and Development
To facilitate sound                                                                                            Services
development in the District.
                                              To develop the rural service system to provide co-   30/06/03
                                               ordinated service delivery.

                                              To co-ordinate the implementation of projects with   Ongoing
                                               the provision of infrastructure and delivery of
                                               services.

                                              To monitor the implementation and review of the      Annual
                                               IDP.

                                              To facilitate access to and information regarding    31/12/02
                                               support programmes and funding (e.g. ISRDP,
                                               PGDS) for developmental activities and projects.

                                              To facilitate the provision of rural housing         Ongoing    Director:            Representative Forum felt
                                                                                                               Community            strongly that ensuring the
                                              To facilitate integrated planning and                30/06/05   Services             achievement of this was the
                                               implementation of land reform projects in the                                        responsibility of Planning, with
                                               district.                                                                            Engineering Services playing
                                                                                                                                    an important implementation
                                              Mitigate the risk of disaster.                       Ongoing                         function




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5.3.       Financial Strategy


5.3.1. Revenue raising strategies

     Ensure that there are adequate cashier points available, especially in new areas,
      for payments and purchase of pre-paid services.

     Consider outsourcing the sale of prepaid services in rural areas.

     Review contents of the Municipal Ratings Act once it is passed by Parliament
      and implement new valuation roll for new areas.

     Offer rate concessions to large industrial concerns enticing them to form
      operations in the district. Over a period of time, the differential rates will be made
      up.

     Review indigent applicants on a regular basis to ensure that they still qualify for
      support.

     Ensure that the billing database is complete and accurate, the correct persons
      are being billed and that the postal addresses are correct.

     Appoint/nominate individuals to obtain alternate sources of funding

     Retain minimal investment for contingencies and utilise funds released from
      reducing investments for capital projects.

     Consider raising levies.


5.3.2. Asset management strategies

     Conduct regular physical audits of all assets of the municipality ensuring that all
      assets are accounted for.

     Consider the rent versus buy option when a new asset is required.

     Ensure that policies are in place that prevent unauthorized use of the
      municipality assets eg. Vehicles are not be used after hours unless the situation
      warrants it (burst pipe).

     Enter into service contracts with service providers.


5.3.3. Financial management strategies

      Review existing credit control, debt collection and tariff policies and amend
       where necessary taking into account changes in legislation and additional areas
       added to the municipality.


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     When finalizing the tariff policy, ensure that all maintenance costs for all
      approved capital projects are taken into account.

     Adopt a financial policy that details budget formats, expenditure framework and
      performance targets.

     The budget formats to be in easily understandable formats and in accordance
      with budget reform criteria.

     A single bank account must be created, all short term investments to be
      consolidated and reviewed in terms of current returns.

     Review all current insurance policies relating to risk management .

     Develop and implement controls relating to cash management, expenditure,
      billing and receipts, procurement and stock control and reconciliations.

     Develop procedures relating to preparation of financial statements and review
      policies relating to provisions, valuations and statutory funds in relation to
      GAMAP.

     Develop a policy that deals with termination of basic services when they are not
      paid for.

     Before making grants available to local municipalities for project implementation,
      ensure that the financial maintenance obligations in respect of the project can be
      met by the local municipality.


5.3.4. Strategies that would enhance cost-effectiveness

     This area applies to all spheres of the municipality and should be an on going
      process.

     Apart from being cost effective when acquiring new services or assets, the
      current issues should also be addressed. For example many office automation
      copiers can print, fax and scan, thus allowing one piece of equipment to be
      bought, rather than many. This may result in huge cost savings

     In addition to office automation, the services that can be grouped as one billing
      for any company is network installation, management and maintenance,
      maintenance of all printers and PCs on a particular network.

     Insurance policies should be reviewed on an annual basis ensuring that the
      assets are not over insured.




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5.4.       Spatial Development Framework

The spatial development framework guides decision-making and action over a multi-
year period. The spatial framework thereby informs future decisions for development
and service provision, as well as, creating a framework for investor confidence,
facilitating both public and private investment in the district.


5.4.1 Spatial Development Trends and Issues

The region is largely classified as rural with concentrations of urban areas. The land
use is predominantly agriculture (maize and livestock), with other land uses mainly
related to manufacturing, mining and quarrying activities. There are numerous
conservation areas and tourism routes throughout the district.

The bulk of the urban land use is concentrated in the Newcastle Municipal Area, with
Newcastle classified as Regional Centre/PRAC (Provincial Rural Administration
Centre). Utrecht and Dannhauser are classified as municipal centres. The bulk of
settlements in the district are classified as smaller settlements.

In terms of current movement patterns in the district, the N11 National Road forms
the primary corridor, traversing the district in a north-south direction. The secondary
movement corridor follows the road from Newcastle to Hattingspruit. The R33 and
R34 form a tertiary corridor in the district.

The key issues arising from the spatial development pattern are:
  Land Reform projects change the settlement pattern of the area.
  Some land reform projects are located of areas of environmental importance (e.g.
   Groenvlei)
  Land Reform projects provide opportunities to concentrate service delivery.
  The area is characterised by urban centers and vast rural areas.
  The urban core of the district is the Newcastle-Madadeni-Osizweni complex.
  There are numerous small centres that are in remote, rural areas, which have a
   low threshold, making these settlements difficult and costly to service.
  The rural areas have low thresholds making them difficult and costly to service.
  The N11, R34 and R68/R621 provide good access within the area and links to
   surrounding areas.
  The N11, R34 and R68/R621 largely determine the spatial movement within the
   district and patterns of settlement.
  The typography in the Utrecht area makes it difficult to service.
  Typography, constraining development, covers areas of environmental
   importance hence, contributes to conservation efforts.
  Integration north of the district is hindered by the typography of the area, and,
   provincial boundaries.
  There is a concentration of mining activities, past and present, in Newcastle,
   Utrecht and Dannhauser.
  Mining activities limit settlement in these areas.
  The environmental quality of mines is a focus of intervention.
  Opportunities in the area are identified around tourism and recreation areas.




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5.4.2. Localised spatial Development principles

Policy documents and legislation which provide spatial strategic guidelines include:
 The Development Facilitation Act
 The White Paper on South African Land Policy
 The Housing Act
 The Housing White Paper
 Green Paper on Development and Planning
 National Environmental Management Act.

These spatial guidelines may be summarised as:
 Promote the integration of social, economic, institutional and physical aspects of
   land development.
 Promote integrated development in rural and urban areas, and with each other.
 Promote residential and employment opportunities, and in close proximity with
   each other.
 Optimise existing resources.
 Promote diverse combination of land uses.
 Promote compact cities and discourage urban sprawl.
 Assist in correcting historically distorted settlement patterns, and optimise the use
   of existing settlements.
 Encourage environmental sustainability.
 Meet basic needs in economically and environmentally efficient manner, and,
   should be viable.
 Provision must be made for security of tenure and different tenure options.
 Land development should be co-ordinated so as to minimise conflict and
   stimulate competition.
 There should be a rapid release of land for development.
 That the disturbance of eco-systems and loss of bio-diversity are avoided, or
   where they cannot be altogether avoided, minimised and remedied
 Pollution and degradation of the environment is avoided, or where they cannot be
   altogether avoided, minimised and remedied
 Disturbance of landscapes and sites that constitute the nations cultural heritage
   are avoided, or where they cannot be altogether avoided, minimised and
   remedied


5.4.3. Spatial Framework

The accompanying Spatial Framework (map 21) sets out a strategic overview of
future land use in the district. More detailed land use is reflected in the spatial
framework of the respective Integrated Development Plans for Newcastle, Utrecht
and Dannhauser Local Municipalities. The context of the spatial framework within
the context of the greater area is reflected on map 22: Cross Border Alignment.

The settlement hierarchy and development corridors provide a framework for future
provision of bulk infrastructure, services and facilities, and support for local economic
development initiatives.

5.4.3.1. Settlement Hierarchy

The Rural Service System model proposes a four-tier model of service delivery20:
20
  The Integrated Rural Service System Work Group of the Provincial Growth and Development Strategy, August
1999.


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                                            Regional Centres



                            Provincial Rural Administration Centres (PRAC)



                                 Small Emerging Rural Centres (SERC’s)



                                        Small or other settlements

This model encourages service providers to work together in the integration of
service activities, the co-ordination service provision, reducing cost of services and
improving convenience to communities, through the spatial integration of services,
and, creates economic opportunities at the service delivery points. The spatial
hierarchy determines the hierarchy of service provision.

Based on the status quo in the district and current populations and services at nodes,
the following settlement hierarchy has been proposed.

5.4.3.1.1 Regional Centre

The size of the Newcastle-Madadeni-Osizweni complex, in terms of its population
and economic significance makes it the regional centre. Further, in terms of
administrative functioning, the complex accommodates numerous government
departments. By virtue of the existing nature of this complex, it is proposed that in
terms of the future spatial pattern, the Newcastle-Madadeni-Osizweni complex will
continue to function as the regional centre or Provincial Rural Administration Centre
(PRAC).

5.4.3.1.2.            Small Emerging Rural Centres (SERC’s)

SERCS are relatively far apart (60-80kms) and therefore the model proposes that
they in effect comprise of the following components21:
 Rural Service Centres, or hub, which is located at the SERC and several satellite
   service locations within the service area of the SERC. This is the distribution and
   co-ordination point.
 Satellite service, or lower order hub, located within the service area of the SERC.
   Satellites will deliver supplementary services.
 Connecting infrastructure linking the hubs to the various satellites

To illustrate the difference between a hub and a satellite, below is an example of
typical services that could be provided at the hub and satellite.




21
     ibid

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                                   Table 40: Hub and Satellite Services
    HUB SERVICES                                       SATELLITE SERVICES
    Police station                                     Routine patrol
    Hospital                                           Clinic/mobile service
    Welfare office                                     Weekly mobile service
    Secondary & primary schools &                      Secondary & primary school
    Tertiary training facility                         None
    Tribal court                                       Tribal court
    Permanent information centre                       Weekly mobile service
    Post office & post boxes                           Postboxes
    Bank                                               Mobile service
    Regular bus service                                Weekly service
    Rural service information centre                   Mobile service as required
    Periodical court                                   No service

      Hub
The service hub serves as a distribution centre to the rural areas. It provides a range
of services and economic activities. The threshold of the hub is dependent on the
proximity of the nearest SERC.

The following are proposed hubs for the future settlement hierarchy of the Amajuba
district:
 Dannhauser
 Utrecht

The above were determined as hubs based on:
 The existing economic base of the settlement and future economic growth
   potential.
 Their location in terms of major transportation routes. Both are located at the
   intersections of development corridors.
 The existing and potential agglomeration effects.
 The level of existing public service provision
 Existing level of private / commercial investment in these urban areas.
 The existing level of infrastructural and logistical support from higher order
   centres.
 A need for services within the community and surrounding area.
 There is an existing level of local political organisation in these urban areas
 Land is accessible for development.

      Service Satellites
Service satellites are the lower order locality where a range of services and economic
activities could be concentrated in a sustainable way22.

It is proposed that the following settlements are developed as satellite service
locations:




22
     ibid
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                                        Table 41: Settlement Hierarchy
                             Hub                                    Satellites/Sub-satellites
                                                         Ingogo
Newcastle (PRAC)                                         Leokop
                                                         Charlestown
                                                         Amanthungwa Trust
                                                         Mbaso
Utrecht                                                  Groenvlei
                                                         Blue Mountain
                                                         Kingley
                                                         Nzima
                                                         Hattingspruit
                                                         Naasfarm
Dannhauser                                               Flint
                                                         Thirst
                                                         Kilkeel

The identification of satellites was based on the factors determined by the Rural
Service System Workgroup. These included:
 The density and distribution of the population to be served.
 The level of existing economic activity.
 Proximity of transport routes and modes of transport.
 Typography of the locality.
 Land tenure arrangements.
 Level of service infrastructure.

Based on the classification of satellites in the status quo analysis, and the location
and population densities, all of the above were considered appropriate points for
supplementary service provision, and as a result were not further classified in terms
of economic potential and location. The entire above are considered to be
conveniently located in positions so as to serve a high population. At these points
there is a level of investment (public / private), albeit minimal in some. It is, however,
advisable that initial infrastructure and service provision is of a temporary nature until
such time as it has proven itself to be viable. Appropriate infrastructure and services
should be channeled to all of the above-proposed satellites, and, thereafter, further
analysis can take place of further developing supplementary locations as satellites.

It is important that services are clusters at the satellite. Effective clustering of
services entails sufficient, and appropriate, interaction between service providers.
Further, at the satellite, a multi-purpose community centre (MPCC) can serve as a
focus point for service provision and community activities.

    Connecting infrastructure
The connecting infrastructure linking the hubs and various satellites has been
identified as development corridors, as discussed below.

5.4.3.2 Development Corridors

Development corridors provide strong linkages between the main settlements in the
settlement hierarchy, as well as channeling movement within the municipality. They
also provide strong structuring elements to guide future development.

5.4.3.2.1.            Primary Corridor

The Primary corridor is the N11. In terms of future development the N11, by means
of mass movement and number of people moving on the corridor, will remain the

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primary development corridor. In terms of the settlements on the corridor, the PRAC
is situated on the main development corridor. The N11 is the main movement
corridor north to Gauteng, and, south to Ladysmith and on to Durban in terms of both
passenger and goods transit. The corridor is reinforced as the primary corridor by
the location of the railway line that largely runs parallel to the N11 until the R621.

The primary corridor serves to facilitate movement as efficiently as possible through
the area. As a result, there should be little interruption to traffic flow along the
corridor, although there is the potential for development at nodes along the corridor.

5.4.3.2.2.             Secondary Corridor

In terms of the future development of the district, it is proposed that the current
secondary road from the Madadeni-Osizweni complex, towards Utrecht be developed
as the secondary corridor. This in terms of its location, the number of settlements it
passes, the location of land reform projects, and, the populations it serves. From
Utrecht the secondary corridor will continue along the R34 to Kingsley, which
continues to the R33 to Vryheid. Further secondary corridors are the R34 from
Newcastle, west to Memel and on to the N3, north to Gauteng, and, the R621 which,
from the N11 south of Newcastle, goes in an easterly direction to Dannhauser,
Hattingspruit, and on to Dundee.

The secondary corridors link two hubs and are links along which existing
development is located. The proposed secondary corridor serves to link Newcastle
and Dannhauser and Newcastle and Utrecht. Tourist and agriculture land uses can
be promoted along the secondary corridors.

5.4.3.2.3.            Tertiary Corridor

Three routes are proposed as tertiary development corridors:
 The road from Utrecht, north to Wakkerstroom, and north-east towards
   Paulpietersburg. This route is proposed as a future development corridor in
   terms of the future populations that it will serve once land reform projects are
   complete.
 The road in the south-west of the district which, from the N11 follows a westerly
   direction to Normandien. This corridor serves to provide access to the west of
   the district. Further, it links the service hub to the satellite at Normandien.
 Road from Madadeni in the PRAC, south-west to Buffalo flats and on to
   Dannhauser. This tertiary corridor also goes in a south-easterly direction to join
   the R33 to Dundee. This corridor serves to link the PRAC with numerous
   satellites (Naasfarm, Thirst and Flint) and the hub of Dannhauser.

It is apparent that the tertiary corridors function to link lower order settlements to
services. As these are local links, they are generally slower moving corridors in terms
of traffic speed. They serve to link settlements and thereby facilitate high levels of
economic activities and social interaction.          It is proposed that agricultural
development be supported along the tertiary corridors. The tertiary link from the
PRAC, south-east towards Dundee, could be developed as a lower order mixed-use
corridor due to the numerous satellites, dense settlements and land reform located
along this link.

5.4.3.3. Mixed Activity Corridor

It is proposed that the Madadeni Road from Newcastle, through Madadeni, towards
Utrecht be developed as a mixed-use corridor. Mixed-use development allows for

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the development of parcels of land as different land uses on adjacent sites. This
route has the threshold to support the development of a mixed-use corridor, in terms
of its location, the number of settlements it passes, and, the populations it serves.

Nodal points of activity will develop along this corridor, providing central points for the
provision of services, the development of economic activities as well as the
concentration of transport services. One such node which is already developing is
the location of the Madadeni Police Station, the Magistrate’s Court and the Amajuba
District Municipal Offices. Further developments such as the Amajuba Business
Centre will reinforce this node.

5.4.4. Land Use

5.4.4.1 Agriculture

This term denotes the use of land, and associated buildings, for production of food
and fibre. The district is currently predominantly agriculture in nature, with
commercial agriculture -livestock farming or cropping- being the dominant land use.
The agricultural land use in the district includes areas of natural grassland utilised for
animal grazing, cropping, livestock, traditional agriculture and scattered residential,
as well as, peri-urban agriculture.

Future development in the district must seek to preserve agricultural land, and,
develop the specific potentials. The use of land in the district for agricultural uses will
be determined on factors such as, inter alia, water sources, gradients of the land and
carrying capacity. Specific detail in general potential agricultural uses of land in the
district are listed below and included on the Spatial Framework Map.




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                                        Table 42: Agricultural Potential
   Type of Agriculture                            Locality            Detailed agriculture potential
Forestry                                 F4 South-western corner   Forestry
                                         of municipal area
Cropping                                 C1 North-west corner of   Cash crops
                                         municipal area
                                         C2 Area to the south of   Cash crops
                                         the Blood River Vlei
Extensive Grazing                        E1 Trekboer               Dairy Farming
                                         E2 Zaaihoek Dam           Beef farming
                                                                   Sheep farming
                                         E9 South of Normandien    Beef farming
                                                                   Game
Mixed Cropping                           M1 Mzima Tribe land       Maize cropping
                                         reform project area       Soya cropping
                                                                   Forestry
                                                                   Dairy farming
                                         M2 Amajuba Forest         Maize farming
                                                                   Beef farming
                                                                   Sheep farming
                                                                   Dairy farming
                                         M3 Mbaso tribe land       Beef farming
                                         reform project area       Sheep farming
                                                                   Forestry
                                                                   Trout farming
                                         M4 East of Utrecht        Soya farming
                                                                   Maize farming
                                                                   Beef farming
                                                                   Sheep
                                         M5 Donkerhoek             Dairy farming
                                                                   Beef farming
                                                                   Forestry
                                         M6                        Maize farming
                                                                   Beef farming
                                         M7                        Maize farming
                                                                   Soya farming
                                                                   Dry bean farming
                                                                   Dairy farming
                                         M9                        Maize farming
                                                                   Soya farming
                                                                   Dry bean farming
                                                                   Vegetable farming
                                                                   Beef farming
                                                                   Dairy farming


5.4.4.2. Conservation

These are areas of natural or conservation significance in the district. This includes
areas of natural features and nature reserves. The land use “conservation” has been
denoted to these areas to protect and manage areas. Conservation efforts should be
applied to these areas including the wetlands on river tributaries. Where areas of
environmental significance are not legally protected, informal means should be
explored such as local environmental protection mechanisms.

The location of existing conservation areas include:



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    Ncandu Nature Reserve –the Ncandu Forest is situated on the northern
     Drakensberg escarpment, about 40km from the Chelmsford Dam.
     Accommodation is provided in the form of trail mountain huts.
    Chelmsford nature reserve – Ntshingwayo dam is one of the largest in the area.
     It provides outdoor recreation under the administration of the KwaZulu-Natal
     Nature Conservation Services (KZNCS).
    Blood River Vlei and surrounds – an environmentally sensitive area, including
     wetlands, breeding sites, rare and threatened vegetation species. The area is
     also rich in archaeological and historical resources.
    Groenvlei – Groenvlei and wetlands within the Slang River catchment
    Boschoffsvlei
    Zaaihoek – critical watershed for several of the country’s main river catchments.
     The area encompasses flood plains around the Zaaihoek Dam, the Groen Vlei
     wetlands, and, the upper catchment areas of the Pongola River.

5.4.4.3. Urban

These are developed, built up areas. Urban areas within the district are the
Newcastle-Madadeni-Osizweni complex, and Dannhauser and Utrecht.                    It is
proposed that future urban uses are contained within the existing urban areas and
development first seeks to densify and infill the existing urban areas. Residential and
industrial activities, should, by virtue of their nature, take place on appropriate land
within the urban areas. Agriculture land should not undertake a change in land use
to accommodate such activities.

The urban edge of the Newcastle-Madadeni-Osizweni complex is defined to prevent
urban sprawl. It is proposed that the Utrecht and Dannhauser Local Municipalities
define an urban edge within their municipalities. An urban edge facilitates a planned
environment while protecting the natural environment so as to promote sustainable
development. The urban edge intends to ensure that ad hoc development will not
have a negative impact on planned development. Further, it facilitates the efficient
delivery of services and infrastructure.

Densification of the urban area, will maximise development opportunities and
facilitate the efficient utilisation of existing resources, services and facilities. Further,
it will promote the effective and efficient provision of future services and facilities.
The urban area, as defined, aims towards the restructuring of the urban environment
and the improvement of the quality of life of the municipality’s citizens.

5.4.4.5 Forestry

The land use “forestry” denotes the use of land for timber plantations and includes
associated uses such as tree farms, tree nurseries, the gathering of forestry products
or the performing of forestry services.

Forestry land use has been denoted to areas predominantly located to the north-
west, north-east and south-west. These are currently utilised as commercial
plantations and measure should be taken to continue such use and prevent the loss
of land to development

5.4.4.6. Mining and Quarrying

The use of land for extracting, mining, winning and quarrying of raw materials, and
buildings associated therewith, have been reflected as such in terms of future land


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use on the spatial framework. This includes all land use which is currently a mine or
quarry, whether currently operational or not.

5.4.4.7. Rural residential

The area of buffalo flats/ Buhle-Bomzinyathi, south east of the Newcastle-Madadeni-
Osizweni complex is characterised by land use, which is rural-residential in nature.
While some agricultural activities may take place in the area, this is neither
commercial agriculture, nor, subsistence agriculture in the true sense of the word.
Agricultural activities are primarily to supplement residents’ diets and not for
commercial purposes.         The homesteads are primarily traditional houses,
accommodating those working in urban areas.


5.4.5. Key Intervention areas

The following have been identified as specific areas in the district which require
targeted interventions to assist and guide development (refer to map 23: Key
Intervention Areas).

5.4.5.1. Special Environmental Management Areas
The areas falling within the foothills of the Drakensberg Escarpment and in the
highlying areas in the northern parts of Utrecht municipality are identified as Special
Environmental Management Areas as these are of intrinsic biodiversity value. This
value is the result of the landscape forms of the areas, the protection afforded by
both the designation formal conservation areas (Ncandu Nature Reserve), and
private land ownership, the probable distribution of endemic species in these areas
and the importance of the northern areas as bird-watching areas.

Due to the value attached to this area, activities in the area need to be carefully
planned and managed, so as not to impact significantly on the environmental
qualities of the area.

5.4.5.2. Recreation and Tourism areas

Tourism and Recreation Areas should be developed and promoted in order to
support LED and tourism initiatives, as well as, social development for residents of
the district. Identified sites include conservancies whose tourism potential can be
developed, as well as areas with recreation potential. The following areas have been
identified:
 Ntshingwayo dam
 Ncandu Nature Reserve
 Amajuba Battlefields
 Zaaihoek Dam
 Boschoffsvlei
 Blood River Vlei.
 Amajuba Birding Meander

5.4.5.2. Poverty Alleviation Areas
These are peri-urban areas in which there are low levels of economic activity and
high levels of poverty. Key intervention in these areas include:
 Provision of access to municipal and social services
 Support for LED initiatives such as SMME’s and small scale agriculture.
 Given priority in terms of development projects.


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5.4.5.3. Land Reform Areas

There are currently numerous land reform projects within the District as discussed
above. Please refer to map 23: Key Intervention Areas for location of projects.

These land reform projects are areas for special intervention in terms of the future
development, the provision of services and the potential to link to sustainable small
scale farming activities.

The intervention required in these areas includes:
 Proper planning prior to settlement
 Provision of basic services and infrastructure
 A basis for economic sustainability
 Preservation of agricultural land.

For new land reform projects, appropriate land should be identified. If the project is
not associated with commercial agriculture, projects should, ideally, be located within
the urban edge. This will prevent the loss of agricultural land to non-agricultural use
and facilitate the efficient provision of services and infrastructure. If land reform
projects are associated with commercial agriculture, they should have access to
transport routes and markets. The encouragement of mixed-use in association with
land reform must be considered on the merits of each project.

5.4.5.4. Mine Rehabilitation

The mines that have been identified as key intervention areas are those which have
closed and are in need of rehabilitation. The location of these is reflected on map 23:
Key Intervention Areas. From the discussion in the environmental section in regard
to mines within the district, it is apparent that the following are some of the mines
which need to be rehabilitated:
 Welgedacht Colliery
 Cambrian Dump
 Ballengeich
 Solma
 Kilbarchan
 Magdalena Colliery
 Kliprand
 Witklip Colliery

In terms of Section 38 of the Minerals Act, 1991, the rehabilitation of the surface of
land concerned in any mining operation is to be carried out by the holder of the
mining permit/authorisation. This is to be carried out in accordance with an approved
Environmental Management Plan, to the satisfaction of the Director: Mineral
Development. Policy makes condition for financial provision to ensure that there will
be sufficient provision for the final closure of the mine, and, sufficient rehabilitation in
terms of an approved environmental management plan.

Policy stipulates the process for mine closures in order to be granted a certificate in
terms of Section 12 of the Minerals Act, 1991. The objectives of mine closures are
stated as follows23:
   The safety and health of humans and animals are safeguarded from hazards
    resulting from mine operations.
23
  Policy concerning the granting of a certificate in terms of section 12 of the minerals act, 1991, to mines releasing
such mines form further regulatory responsibilities concerning environmental management and conservation,
Department of Mineral and Energy.

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       Environmental damage or residual environmental impacts are minimised to such
        an extent that it is acceptable to all involved parties.
       The land is rehabilitated to, as far as it is predictable, its natural state, or to a
        predetermined and agreed standard or land use which conforms with the concept
        of sustainable development.
       The physical and chemical stability of the remaining structures should be such
        that risk to the environment is not increased by naturally occurring forces to the
        extent that such increased risk cannot be contended with by installed measures.
       The optimal exploration and utilisation of South Africa’s mineral resources are not
        adversely affected.
       Mines are closed efficiently and cost effectively.
       Mines are not abandoned but closed in accordance with this policy.

In ceasing operations, included in the EMP shall be a closure plan, which includes24:
   The conditions for closure negotiated through the lead agent (the Department of
    Mineral and Energy Affairs) with the regulatory authorities;
   The manner in which the holder of a prospecting permit or mining authorisation
    intends dealing with its decommissioning and closure phases;
   The practical aspects of the execution of the requirements of the closure process
    which shall be negotiated on the basis of site specific BATNEE (Best (proven)
    Available Technology not Entailing Excessive Cost) as defined by the Aide-
    Memoire;
   The closure objectives
   Details of identified residual impacts including their synergistic effects, and
   Details of the financial arrangements for post-closure management or
    maintenance of rehabilitation measures, if required.

A number of mines in the area closed priority to the promulgation of this legislation.
There is therefore a need for a more detailed study to be completed, which identifies
the problematic mines as well include an assessment of the status and future plans
of the District.




24
     ibid

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6.         Capital Projects

6.1.       Summary list of projects

The following projects identified for the Amajuba District Municipality have emerged
from the priority needs identified by the communities, the local municipalities within
the district, the status quo of the area, the agreed vision, strategies and objectives for
the future development of the municipality, and the projects already identified by the
municipality for implementation over the next 5 years.

                                        Table 43: Projects
                Key Performance area and                          Project
                          Objective
            Institution    and     Governance    Service Providers Forum
            Matters:
                                                 Information Newsletter
            To achieve sound management,
            administration and development in    Department business plans
            the district.                        Project Business plans
                                                 Financial Management Plan
                                                 Skills audit
                                                 Training programme
                                                 Employment Equity Plan
                                                 Change Management Programme
                                                 Customer Care Centre and satellites
                                                 Liase with DWAF and the Local
                                                 Municipalities – uThukela Catchment
                                                 Management Forum
                                                 Participation in the WSDP prepared by the
                                                 uThukela Water Partnership
                                                 Customer Satisfaction Survey




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                Key Performance area and                              Project
                          Objective
            Shared and Integrated Service
            Delivery:                               Water Services Development Plan
            To ensure that municipal services       Valuation Report on Electricity Delivery
            are provided to all communities
                                                    Integrated Waste Management Plan
            within the Amajuba District in the
            most efficient, effective, affordable   Recycling project
            and sustainable manner.                 Water tankers
                                                    Land identification study
                                                    Rural Land Suitability Study Dannhauser
                                                    Wards 1 – 10
                                                    Solid Waste management Plan
                                                    Water pipe construction to Vaalbank,
                                                    Kilkeel, Thirst, Fairbreeze, Poona, Rutland
                                                    and Annieville
                                                    Construct bulk pipelines to:
                                                     Fairbreeze, Blackbank, Bonfe,
                                                        Greenock and Clifton
                                                     Flint and Cupar
                                                     Dorset, Witts, Devon, Nyanyadu,
                                                        Melford, Corx, Mulligar and Westpoort
                                                     Mornr, Verdriet and Kempshoek
                                                    Starter water – Koppie Allen KZ254
                                                    Starter water – Clifton KZ254
                                                    Starter water – Eastborne farm KZ 254
                                                    Starter water – Ladybank KZ254
                                                    Starter water – Rutland KZ254
                                                    Starter water – Martha KZ 254
                                                    Starter water – Uitkyk KZ 254
                                                    Starter water – Curragh KZ254
                                                    Starter water – Clones KZ 254
                                                    Starter water – Hattingspruit Drive In KZ254
                                                    Starter water – Doringkop KZ 254
                                                    Starter water - Benff KZ 254
                                                    Starter water – Kliprose KZ254
                                                    Starter water – Qhubimfundo Community –
                                                    KZ254
                                                    Starter water – Skambok KZ254
                                                    Starter water – Konning Werney De Lange
                                                    KZ 252
                                                    Starter water – Dragboor KZ 254
                                                    Starter water – Redman KZ 252
                                                    Starter water – Weid KZ254
                                                    Starter water – Bring KZ 253
                                                    Starter water – Home Farm Majuba trust –
                                                    KZ 252
                                                    Starter water – Kingsley KZ 253
                                                    Starter water – Roolval community KZ 253
                                                    Starter water – Enzimane community KZ253
                                                    Starter water – Ingwe KZ252
                                                    Starter water – Thlungu school KZ252
                                                    Starter water – Manga KZ253
                                                    Starter water – Magdajeni KZ 253
                                                    School sanitation – Mahlekehlathini KZ252
                                                    School sanitation – Ngogo KZ252
                                                    School sanitation – Ngogo pension paypoint
                                                    KZ252

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                  Key Performance area and                     Project
                          Objective
                                             School sanitation – Thlungu KZ252
                                             School sanitation –Mullerspass KZ252
                                             School sanitation –Nkethetal KZ252
                                             School sanitation –Groenvlei KZ253
                                             School sanitation – Mxhakeni KZ253
                                             School sanitation –Sizimele KZ 254
                                             School sanitation –Kiekiel KZ 254
                                             School sanitation –Siyaweha lower Primary
                                             KZ252
                                             School sanitation – Annlevale primary
                                             KZ254
                                             School sanitation – Ceca Combined KZ254
                                             School sanitation –Khlphokuhle KZ254
                                             School sanitation –Emfundweni KZ254
                                             School sanitation – Malambule High KZ254
                                             School sanitation –Nelievale KZ254
                                             School sanitation –Blackbank KZ254
                                             School sanitation –Greenock KZ254
                                             School sanitation – Springbok Primary
                                             KZ254
                                             School sanitation – Ngabade High KZ254
                                             School sanitation – Spookmill Combined
                                             School sanitation – Ekuhlakanipheni KZ254
                                             Identify schools which do not have at least a
                                             basic level of Service (VIP) in association
                                             with the Department of Education
                                             Upgrade the provision of water, sanitation
                                             and internal roads at Kingsley
                                             Upgrade the provision of water, sanitation
                                             and internal roads at Wit Umfolozi
                                             Upgrade the provision of water, sanitation
                                             and internal roads at Imphophoma
                                             Crèches at primary schools
                                             Crèches – Wit Umfolozi
                                             Crèches – Imphophoma
                                             Crèches – Amangthungwa
                                             Crèches – Nzima
                                             Crèches – Mabaso
                                             Crèches – Blue Mountain
                                             Crèches – Groenvlei
                                             Crèches – Kingsley
                                             Investigate feasibility of providing sewerage
                                             disposal systems in the service satellites
                                             (Flint, Kilkeel, Naasfarm and Thirst)
                                             Undertake spring protection programmes –
                                             all wards in Dannhauser
                                             Provide emergency water supply (until such
                                             time as rudimentary water has been
                                             provided)
                                             Allocation of funds for Cholera outbreaks




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                Key Performance area and                            Project
                           Objective
            Economic development :                 Local Economic Development (LED) Study
            To facilitate, encourage and support   Economic lobby
            the development of the local           Incentive programme
            economy and job creation               Investment Attraction
                                                   Diversify and expand the manufacturing
                                                   sector
                                                   Promote commerce
                                                   Promote small scale mining
                                                   Investigate opportunities presented by old
                                                   mines
                                                   Amajuba Business Centre (LBSC)
                                                   Satellite LBSC
                                                   Business database
                                                   Access funding for studies dealing with
                                                   agriculture and agri-industry
                                                   Amajuba Agricultural Co-operative
                                                   Promote small scale farmers
                                                   Expand Agricultural Extension Services
                                                   Land Identification study
                                                   Agriculture raw water
                                                   Marketing facility
                                                   Develop Market Gardens
                                                   Promote greater diversification of crops
                                                   SMME development strategy
                                                   Procurement policy
                                                   Legislative Review and Education
                                                   Taxi ranks with hawker facilities
                                                   SMME clusters
                                                   Tourism and recreation development study
                                                   Amajuba Birding Meander
                                                   Coal mining experience
                                                   Traditional Arts and Craft Festival
                                                   Amajuba re-enactment’s
                                                   Tourism awareness campaign
                                                   Tourism signage
                                                   Battlefields upgrade
                                                   Oribi environmental centre
                                                   Shelters for Arts and Craft traders
                                                   Tourism training programme
                                                   CTO support
                                                   Timber planting
            Social facilitation and                Cemetery plan
            Development                            Amangthungwa Cemetery
                                                   Groenvlei Cemetery
            To ensure that social services are     Kingsley Cemetery
            delivered to all communities within    Nzima Cemetery
            Amajuba District in the most           Mabaso cemetery
            efficient, effective, affordable and   Wit Umfolozi Cemetery
            sustainable manner.                    Imphophoma Cemetery
                                                   Blue Mountain Cemetery
                                                   Fence existing cemeteries – Ladybank
                                                   Farm and ward 7 Dannhauser
                                                   HIV/AIDS programme




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                  Key Performance area and                      Project
                          Objective
                                             Identify Upgradings required at pension
                                             payout points (shelters, seating, water,
                                             toilets)
                                             Pension payout points upgrade
                                             Amangthungwa bus and taxi rank
                                             Amanthungwa shelters
                                             Groenvlei bus and taxi facility
                                             Bus shelters – Wit Umfolozi
                                             Bus shelters – Imphophoma
                                             Bus shelters – access roads
                                             Kingsley bus and taxi facility
                                             Nzima bus and taxi facility
                                             Mabaso bus and taxi facility
                                             Blue Mountain bus and taxi facility
                                             Radio towers
                                             District policing forum
                                             Multi-purpose community hall –
                                             Amangthungwe
                                             Multi-purpose community hall – Wit
                                             Umfolozi
                                             Multi-purpose community hall –
                                             Imphpohpoma
                                             Multi-purpose community hall – Groenvlei
                                             Multi-purpose community hall – Kingsley
                                             Multi-purpose community hall – Nzima
                                             Multi-purpose community hall – Mabaso
                                             Multi-purpose community hall – Blue
                                             Mountain
                                             Multi-purpose centre – Charlestown
                                             Multi-purpose centre – Ingogo
                                             Multi-purpose centre – Leokop
                                             Multi-purpose centre – Fernwood,
                                             Newcastle
                                             Utrecht Stadium
                                             College Stadium
                                             Osizweni Stadium
                                             Sports field – Groenvlei
                                             Sports field – Kingsley
                                             Sports field – Wit Umfolozi
                                             Comprehensive sports field –
                                             Amangthungwa
                                             Two sports fields – Amangthungwa
                                             Sports field – Nzima
                                             Sports field – Imphophoma
                                             Sports field – Mabaso
                                             Sports field – Blue Mountain
                                             Sports Upgrade – Ward 13 NN
                                             Sports Upgrade – Ward 22 NN
                                             Sports Upgrade – Ward 10 NN
                                             Sports Upgrade – Ward 21 NN
                                             Sports Upgrade – Ward 27 NN
                                             Sports Upgrade – Ward 28 NN
                                             Provide potable water, sanitation and
                                             electricity to those facilities which do not
                                             have services



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                  Key Performance area and                       Project
                          Objective
                                                 Upgrade sports fields at Buffalo Flats,
                                                 Nkosibomvu, Eastbourne Farm, Grootgeluk.
                                                 Provide sports facility ground at Thirst
                                                 Provide sports ground at Naasfarm
                                                 Provide sports ground at Kilkeel
                                                 Provide sports ground at Flint
                                                 Provide multi-purpose centre at Thirst
                                                 Provide multi-purpose centre at Naasfarm
                                                 Provide multi-purpose centre at Kilkeel
                                                 Provide multi-purpose centre at Flint
                                                 Provide hall at Hattingspruit
                                                 Police Stations – Madadeni
                                                 Police Stations – Osizweni
                                                 Police Stations – Blaauwbosch
                                                 Crime education programme
                                                 Centralised emergency centre
                                                 Improve access to social grants
                                                 Support subsistence agriculture
            Environmental Management:            Environmental Management Plan
            To rehabilitate and improve the      Erosion control programme
            environment                          Alien vegetation
                                                 Emission control and monitoring
                                                 Environmental awareness campaign
            Municipal planning:                  GIS programme
            To facilitate sound development in   Land Use Management System
            the district                         Integrated Transport Plan
                                                 Demographic Study
                                                 Support programme and fund database
                                                 Land Reform Desk
                                                 LUMS training
                                                 IDP review
                                                 Disaster Management Plan
                                                 Aerial photography
                                                 Integrated Energy Centre


6.2.       Project Prioritisation
In order to guide project implementation, the identified projects have been prioritised
in terms of the capital budget available for implementation of projects. Projects were
initially prioritised in terms of a set of criteria agreed by the Representative Forum.
However, given that the funds required to implement the prioritised projects far
exceed amount available, a Council resolution was taken on the 18 June 2002, that
Councillors together with Heads of Departments and officials from the Amajuba
District Council, prioritise projects in accordance with the budget. The budget for IDP
projects, approved at ExCo on 18 June 2002 is R7,441,000.




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6.3.       Priority Projects
A meeting was held accordingly on the 20 June 2002. At this meeting the projects as
approved by the representative forum were considered and, projects were priroitised
in alignment with the 2002/3 capital budget. All projects categorised under the
2002/3 capital year are considered priority projects for implementation within the
financial year. Funding for priority projects comprises capital and grant funding. The
capital budget of the prioritised projects amounted to a sum of R11,060,000. This
exceeded the agreed capital budget of R7,441,000 for IDP projects. At an ExCo
meeting held on the 25th June 2002, a resolution was taken to increase the budget to
R 11,060,000.

                                        Table 44: Priority Projects
                        Category                                         Project
Electricity                                           Electricity KZ252
                                                      Electricity KZ253
                                                      Electricity KZ254
                                                      Electricity – KZ254
Grazing Camps                                         Fencing Grazing Camps KZ252
                                                      Fencing Grazing Camps KZ253
                                                      Fencing Grazing Camps KZ254
Multi-Purpose Halls                                   Multi-Purpose Halls KZ252
                                                      Multi-Purpose Halls KZ253
                                                      Multi-Purpose Halls KZ254
Roads and Stormwater                                  Roads and Stormwater KZ252
                                                      Roads and Stormwater KZ253
                                                      Roads and Stormwater KZ254
                                                      Access roads to cluster
Sportsfield                                           Sportsfield KZ252
                                                      Sportsfield KZ253
                                                      Sportsfield KZ254
Water                                                 Starter Water KZ252
                                                      Starter Water KZ2532
                                                      Starter Water KZ254
                                                      Water Tanker Amajuba
                                                      Starter Water - 20 projects
                                                      Water Supply - Ngagane 1 & 2
                                                      Water Supply – Annandale
                                                      Water Supply – Witteklip
                                                      Water Supply - Majorisu
                                                      Water Supply - Ngagane 3
                                                      Water Supply - Ngagane 4
                                                      ISWIP
                                                      Rudimentary Water
                                                      WSDP
                                                      Amantungwa Bulk
                                                      Kilbarchan Rural Water Supply
                                                      Ekalethu Village
                                                      Water at Imphophoma
                                                      Water at Umfolozi
                                                      Water at Kingsley
                                                      Water Reticulation to cluster




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Sanitation                              School Sanitation KZ252
                                        School Sanitation KZ253
                                        School Sanitation KZ254
                                        Household Sanitation – Amajuba
                                        Household Sanitation – Majorisu
                                        Household Sanitation – Witteklip
                                        Household Sanitation – Jakkalspan
                                        (Manzana)
Sports & Culture                        Sports & Culture Developmental KZ252
                                        Sports & Culture Development KZ253
                                        Sports & Culture Development KZ254
                                        Cultural Zulu Dance
Solid Waste                             Solid Waste
Infrastructure                          Amajuba DC
Land Reform                             Amatungwa
                                        Mossdale
                                        Shabalala (Thekwane)
                                        Nzima (Dlamenze)
                                        Zandspruit
                                        Rondavel (van Niekerk)
                                        Rondavel (Zondo)
Rural Housing                           Jakkalspan (Manzana)
                                        Inverness (Fulathela)
                                        Dicks Holt
                                        Mndozo (Witteklip)
CBPWP                                   Cluster Projects
                                        Rapid Delivery
Land Affairs and Housing                Block yard
Public Works                            Cluster Project
                                        Upgrade Community Gardens
                                        Gardens Nursery
Amajuba Business Centre                 Customer Care & Satellites
                                        Sewing Clubs
                                        Poultry Farms
                                        Community Gardens
                                        SMME Clusters
                                        LED Study
                                        Amajuba Agricultural Co-operative
                                        Amajuba Business Centre Implementation
GIS Database                            Business Database
                                        Mapping and Zoning of Undermined areas
                                        Aerial Photography
                                        GIS Info Update
                                        GIS Implementation
Environmental Management                Environmental Management Plan
                                        Alien vegetation program
                                        Environmental awareness campaign
                                        Erosion Control Program
                                        Emission control & monitoring
Land Use Management                     LUMS training
                                        Land identification Study / housing
                                        LUMS system implementation
Planning                                IDP monitoring and review
                                        Planning Implementation Forums
                                        IDP Review
                                        Development Planning Capacity Building


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Public Relations                        Customer Satisfaction Survey
                                        Information Newsletter
                                        Media Marketing
Tourism                                  Battlefields upgrade
                                         Oribi Environmental Centre
                                         Arts & Crafts Meander
                                         Amajuba Re-enactments
                                         Amajuba Birding Meander
                                         Coal Mining Experience
                                         Tourism Awareness Campaign
                                         CTO Support
                                         Tourism Signage
                                         Shelters for Arts & Craft Traders
                                         Tourism Plan
                                         Provincial Travel Guide
                                         Berg, Bush & Battlefields Book
                                         Tourism Shows & Exhibitions
                                         Tourism Product Development
Cemeteries                              Cemetery Plan
                                        Cemetery Implementation
Disaster Management                     Disaster Management Plan
                                        Centralised Emergency Centre
                                        Fire Station Equipment KZ 252-254
                                        Rural Fire fighting Units
Education                               Crèche implementation
                                        Youth care facilities
                                        Technicon Facilitation
                                        A.B.E.T Study
                                        Crime Education Programme
Health                                  HIV/AIDS Awareness
                                        HIV/AIDS Self Help Project
Community Facilities                    Upgrade and Provide Pension Pay Points
                                        Co-ordination
Safety and Security                     Police Station - Blaauwbosh
                                        Police Station - Madadeni
                                        Police Station - Osizweni
                                        District Policing Forums
Parks & Recreation                      Recreational Facilities - Jessie Farm
                                        Playgrounds at Rural Service Centres
                                        International Recreation Facility Study
Public Transport                        Integrated Public Transport Plan
                                        Provide & upgrade taxi Facilities
Human Resources                         Skills Audit
                                        Training programmes
                                        Employment Equity Plan
                                        Change Management Program
Legal                                   Legislative Review and Education
                                        Procurement Policy
Finance                                 Performance Management System
                                        Capacity Building




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6.4.       Powers and Functions

The Amajuba IDP projects have derived from legislative requirements and include
IDP requirements, as well as, projects that have resulted from needs and issues
identified during the Integrated Planning Process.

The projects are arranged into five (5) main categories as follows:

1. Category One: Core Functions
These projects include the IDP and water, as well as core functions of the District
Council as outlined by the Structures Act and amended according to Changed
Management Committee decisions

2. Category Two: Non-core functions

This category includes programmes prescribed by law to local government but which
are not exclusively District Council functions.

3. Category Three: Additional Functions
This category incorporated programmes and projects identified through the needs
assessments and key issue reports.

4. Category Four: Cross-cutting programmes
This includes the programmes prescribed by the IDP Guidelines as cross-cutting
programmes.

5. Category Five: Special Projects
Provision is made for special and ad hoc programmes and projects.




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 Group One: Core Functions
 1. Integrated Development Planning        Coordination and alignment of IDPs in
                                           accordance with the Act: includes all
                                           integrated sector planning (water,
                                           transport etc)
 2. Potable water                          Water Services Authority
 3. Energy                                 Bulk supplier in terms of the Act. NER
                                           issues licences
 4. Waste water and sanitation             Water Services Authority
 5. Regional solid waste disposal          Core function in terms of the Act.
                                           Includes:
                                           Regional waste disposal sites
                                           Regional transfer sites;
                                           Integrated Waste Management Plan
 6. Regional cemeteries and crematoria     Provisions of district scale facilities
 7. Municipal health                       District Health Authority
                                           Coordination of municipal health services
 8. Income of the Council taxes, levies    Core functions in terms of Act
     and duties
 9. Grants of the Council                  Core function in terms of Act
 Group Two: Non Core Functions
 10. Municipal roads                    Planning and coordination of DC roads
                                        and roads crossing boundaries.
                                        Formulation of Integrated Transport Plan
 11. (Passenger ) transport services    Integrated Transport Plan
                                        Planning and coordination
 12. Municipal airports                 Provision of regional airport
 13. Disaster management                Planning and monitoring
 14. Fire fighting services             Provision of district fire fighting services
 15. Fresh produce markets and Provision of district fresh produce market
         abattoirs                      and abattoirs if required
 16. Local tourism                      Planning and coordination
 17. Municipal public works             Public works in relation to the above
 Group Three: Additional Functions
 18. Telecommunication and technology Monitoring
 19. Education and training             Monitoring
 20. Safety and security                Monitoring
 21. Community services, facilities and Coordination, support of initiatives and
         actions                        monitoring
 22. Land reform                        Planning and coordination
 23. Housing                            Planning and coordination
 24. Local economic development         Planning, coordination and development
                                        of district strategic facilities
 25. Management and Admin services      Provision of effective and efficient
                                        municipal administrative services to the
                                        district




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 Group Four: Cross Cutting Programmes
 26. Poverty alleviation             Planning, coordination and development
                                     of district initiative
 27. Marginalised groups             Planning, coordination and development
                                     of district initiatives
 28. HIV/AIDS                        Planning, coordination and development
                                     of district initiatives
 29. Cholera and indigenous diseases Planning, coordination and development
                                     of district initiatives
 30. Environmental management        Planning, coordination and development
                                     of district initiatives
 Group Five: Special Projects
 31. Special Projects                Planning, coordination, development
                                     implementation of special projects

The Amajuba District Municipality will co-ordinate all non-core functions as per
legislative requirements. Co-ordination will include: -
 Establish communication channels with relevant departments and stakeholders
 Seek funding for projects
 Co-ordinate and facilitate the implementation of specific projects if and when
    project funding is obtained.




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               7. Operational Strategies

          7.1 Financial 5 Year Plan
          A projection of the operating budget for the Amajuba Municipality is contained in
          Table 45. The projections are based on the following principles and assumptions:

          Principles
            The budget should take into consideration the new powers and functions of
             municipalities that occurred with the changes in legislation.
            A budget is approved according to the Council’s needs and management is there
             to execute these needs that have been identified and approved in the budget.
            Municipalities are not permitted to budget for a year-end deficit.

          Assumptions
            Credit control and debt collection policies are strictly adhered to. Council to
             ensure that services that are not paid for on time are terminated.
            Tariff policy to be adjusted taking into account additional maintenance costs that
             will be incurred when capital projects are undertaken.
            A general increase of between 5 to 7% is anticipated for revenue over the next 5
             years. On average, this is the maximum increase allowed by National Treasury
             for the 2001/2002 budget.
            Municipality to implement cost cutting exercises in its departments.

                                                  Table 45: Budget Projections

                                 30/06/2001             30/06/2002    30/06/2003   30/06/2004             30/06/2005
                                  (Budget)               (Budget)      (Budget)     (Budget)               (Budget)

Revenue                          17,639,000             18,855,562    19,920,407   21,312,365             22,853,249

- Establishment Levy             11,163,000             11,932,912    12,606,809   13,487,722             14,462,884
- Services Levy                  6,476,000              6,922,650     7,313,598    7,824,643              8,390,365

Expenditure                      16,927,533             17,943,185    18,902,675   20,223,518             21,685,679

Surplus                             711,467              912,377      1,017,732    1,088,847              1,167,570

          The net result of this budget is that the anticipated surplus funds are available for
          capital development projects to be implemented in the municipality. As this amount
          varies between R0.7 and R1.1 mil per annum in the period, the Amajuba District
          Municipality will remain reliant on grant funding for much of its capital expenditure.
          Grants will be received by the Amajuba District Municipality and be apportioned to
          each local municipality within its jurisdiction. The amounts available from entities to
          Amajuba District Municipality, in terms of the Capital Investment Plan, over the next
          two years are as follows:

          CMIP                                      :        R 11 344 000
          DWAF                                      :        R 46 105 888
          Community Based Projects                  :        R 5 712 725

          Further, grant funding will be obtained from government departments to fund specific
          projects. The allocation of grant funding, an indication of the split of funding per
          financial year and, the prioritised projects which will receive this grant funding for
          implementation, is reflected on the Capital Investment Plan.

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In order to manage the financial affairs of the municipality, a financial management
system is being implemented. The following provides a summary of the financial
rules of the municipality:

     The municipality may raise loans for capital or current expenditure in terms of
      national legislation and subject to conditions as may be prescribed.

     The chief financial officer must obtain the necessary authority to raise loans to
      finance expenditure from external sources.

     The budget must promote transparency, accountability and effective financial
      management.

     The budget must show the sources of revenue of the municipality, contain
      estimates of revenue and expenditure, differentiating between capital and
      current expenditure, contain proposals for erasing any anticipated deficit for
      current and previous periods, make adequate provision for irrecoverable debt,
      indicate the municipalities intentions on borrowings, be in accordance with the
      municipality’s IDP and allocate funds to encourage and create conditions for the
      community to participate in the affairs of the municipality.

     The chief financial officer must prepare a three year capital programme which
      must be based on the municipality’s IDP and financial plan contained in the IDP,
      include an investment programme for municipal infrastructure, reflect the
      proposed finance source of each project, future capital, operation and
      maintenance charges and an indication of the future consequential influence
      thereof on levy rates and service charges.

     The council must adopt the capital budget for the ensuing year by no later than
      28 February of every year. No capital project for which provision had been made
      in a current budget may be continued in an ensuing financial year unless
      adequate provision has been made in respect thereof in the capital budget for
      the ensuing year.

     The chief financial officer must consolidate the capital budget proposals received
      form departmental heads, calculate the effect of the capital budget proposals on
      levy rates and service charges and determine the increase in proposed capital
      expenditure against current year.

     Subsequent to the capital budget being adopted, the chief financial officer must
      prepare the staff budget for the ensuing year after consulting with departmental
      heads.

     The council may revise its budget and adopt an adjustments budget when
      necessary due to the under collection of revenue that may result in a deficit, to
      appropriate funds for the reduction of debt & funding of capital projects, to
      appropriate funds that become available from another sphere of government and
      to incur unforeseeable and unavoidable expenditure.

     An adjustments budget must not exceed the total of the budget as approved by
      national treasury.

     Whenever actual expenditure on the revenue account exceeds or is likely to
      exceed an amount appropriated in the approved budget or actual revenue

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          amounts to less that the estimated revenue is unlikely to be collected, the
          department head must submit to the chief financial officer a written report giving
          reasons for the shortfall, likely shortfall, excess or likely excess, as the case may
          be.

         Expenditure is considered unauthorised if a payment is made without provision
          being made in the budget or a payment or part thereof results in the total amount
          of the approved operating or capital budget being exceeded or the municipal
          manager is unable to produce to the Auditor-General in respect of a payment, an
          appropriate authorisation required in terms of law or a payment is made
          inconsistent with a provision of any law, including the financial rules set out by
          the municipality.

         Unauthorised expenditure is disallowed and does not form a charge against the
          fund concerned until it has been approved in accordance with the normal
          budgetary procedure applicable to that fund.

         No capital expenditure may be incurred unless provision has been made for it in
          the approved capital budget, the council has expressly approved such
          expenditure and any approval legally required had been obtained.

         A report to obtain authority to incur capital expenditure must be submitted by the
          departmental head to the chief financial officer, containing the estimated total
          capital costs of the project and the effect on current and future operating revenue
          and expenditure including expenses related to employment or increases in the
          staff establishment.

         The municipal manager must submit a report containing at least the following
          information not later than the first ordinary council meeting after the end of
          September, December, March & June; the total amount owed to and received by
          the municipality in respect of levy rates, levies, rent, charges for water, solid
          waste removal & sanitation; the total amount of grants, fiscal transfers and
          subsidies, including any ad-hoc allocations received from national or provincial
          government; income owed to and received by the municipality and debtors
          status.

         The chief financial officer must maintain appropriate accounting systems in
          respect of capital and operational accounts and the financial records of the
          municipality.

         No work may be performed or materials provided to a third party unless the chief
          financial officer notified the department head that the amount of the estimated
          costs of the material or work has been paid for or provided in another manner.

         The municipal manager must implement and enforce the municipality’s credit
          control and debt collection policy and bylaws; establish effective administrative
          mechanisms, processes and procedures to collect money that is due and
          payable to the municipality and report to council.

         The receipts of all monies must be recorded on a pre-numbered official receipt
          and must not be altered. An error on the receipt will result in that receipt being
          cancelled and a new receipt being issued. Any cash surplus & deficits must be
          declared and reported immediately.



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      The chief financial officer must make appropriate recommendations regarding
       the revision of rent, service charges and other levies together with the
       department heads responsible for managing the property of the municipality in
       respect of rent payable and in respect of service charges and other levies in
       respect of services rendered by or behalf the municipality and the municipal
       manager in respect of levy rates tariffs.


7.2.       Capital Investment Plan

The Capital Investment Plan for the District Municipality is contained below. The
grant funder and responsible department is reflected for each project. For each
priority project a complete business plan is to be drawn up for ExCo approval. The
business plan will consider inter alia, the maintenance and operational costs of each
project.




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AMAJUBA DISTRICT MUNICIPALITY – CAPITAL INVESTMENT PLAN

         CATEGORY                                   PROJECT   BUDGET        2002/2003     2003/2004     2004/2005     2005/ 2006      2006/ 2007

A) ENGINEERING SERVICES

CAPITAL BUDGET
Electricity                     Electricity KZ252                450,000         90,000        90,000        90,000         90,000              90,000
Electricity                     Electricity KZ253                300,000         60,000        60,000        60,000         60,000              60,000
Electricity                     Electricity KZ254                750,000        150,000       150,000       150,000        150,000             150,000
                                                                1,500,000       300,000       300,000       300,000        300,000             300,000


Grazing Camps                   Fencing Grazing Camps KZ252      450,000         90,000        90,000        90,000         90,000              90,000
Grazing Camps                   Fencing Grazing Camps KZ253      300,000         60,000        60,000        60,000         60,000              60,000
Grazing Camps                   Fencing Grazing Camps KZ254      750,000        150,000       150,000       150,000        150,000             150,000
                                                                1,500,000       300,000       300,000       300,000        300,000             300,000


Multi-Purpose Halls             Multi-Purpose Halls KZ252        900,000        180,000       180,000       180,000        180,000             180,000
Multi-Purpose Halls             Multi-Purpose Halls KZ253        600,000        120,000       120,000       120,000        120,000             120,000
Multi-Purpose Halls             Multi-Purpose Halls KZ254       1,500,000       300,000       300,000       300,000        300,000             300,000
                                                                3,000,000       600,000       600,000       600,000        600,000             600,000


Roads and Stormwater            Roads and Stormwater KZ252       900,000        180,000       180,000       180,000        180,000             180,000
Roads and Stormwater            Roads and Stormwater KZ253       600,000        120,000       120,000       120,000        120,000             120,000
Roads and Stormwater            Roads and Stormwater KZ254      1,500,000       300,000       300,000       300,000        300,000             300,000
                                                                3,000,000       600,000       600,000       600,000        600,000             600,000




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         CATEGORY                                   PROJECT            BUDGET         2002/2003     2003/2004      2004/2005      2005/ 2006       2006/ 2007
Sportsfield                     Sportsfield KZ252                          750,000        150,000       150,000        150,000           150,000         150,000
Sportsfield                     Sportsfield KZ253                          500,000        100,000       100,000        100,000           100,000         100,000
Sportsfield                     Sportsfield KZ254                         1,250,000       250,000       250,000        250,000           250,000         250,000
                                                                          2,500,000       500,000       500,000        500,000           500,000         500,000


Starter Water                   Starter Water KZ252                        300,000         60,000        60,000         60,000            60,000          60,000
Starter Water                   Starter Water KZ2532                       200,000         40,000        40,000         40,000            40,000          40,000
Starter Water                   Starter Water KZ254                        500,000        100,000       100,000        100,000           100,000         100,000
                                                                          1,000,000       200,000       200,000        200,000           200,000         200,000


School Sanitation               School Sanitation KZ252                    600,000        120,000       120,000        120,000           120,000         120,000
School Sanitation               School Sanitation KZ253                    400,000         80,000        80,000         80,000            80,000          80,000
School Sanitation               School Sanitation KZ254                   1,000,000       200,000       200,000        200,000           200,000         200,000
                                                                          2,000,000       400,000       400,000        400,000           400,000         400,000


Sports & Culture                Sports & Culture Developmental KZ252       360,000         72,000        72,000         72,000            72,000          72,000
Sports & Culture                Sports & Culture Development KZ253         240,000         48,000        48,000         48,000            48,000          48,000
Sports & Culture                Sports & Culture Development KZ254         600,000        120,000       120,000        120,000           120,000         120,000
Sports & Culture                Cultural Zulu Dance                        300,000         60,000        60,000         60,000            60,000          60,000
                                                                          1,500,000       300,000       300,000        300,000           300,000         300,000


Water Tanker                    Water Tanker Amajuba                      3,000,000     1,000,000       500,000        500,000           500,000         500,000
                                                                          3,000,000     1,000,000       500,000        500,000           500,000         500,000


Solid Waste                     Solid Waste                               1,500,000       300,000       300,000        300,000           300,000         300,000
Crèche                          Crèche Implementation                     3,000,000       600,000       600,000        600,000           600,000         600,000
                                                                          4,500,000       900,000       900,000        900,000           900,000         900,000
Total Capital Budget                                                     23,500,000     5,100,000      4,600,000      4,600,000        4,600,000       4,600,000


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        CATEGORY                                    PROJECT                   BUDGET         2002/2003     2003/2004      2004/2005      2005/ 2006       2006/ 2007
DWAF
Water                           Starter Water - 20 projects                       600,000        600,000           -              -               -                    -
Water                           Water Supply - Ngagane 1 & 2                    10,280,000     4,990,000    4,300,000       600,000         390,000                    -
Water                           Water Supply - Annandale                          180,000        180,000           -              -               -                    -
Water                           Water Supply - Witteklip                           60,000         60,000           -              -               -                    -
Water                           Water Supply - Majorisu                           120,000        120,000           -              -               -                    -
Water                           Water Supply - Ngagane 3                        11,442,000       300,000    1,750,000      4,600,000      4,792,000                    -
Water                           Water Supply - Ngagane 4                         2,700,000           -             -              -       2,700,000                    -
Water                           ISWIP                                            2,400,000     1,200,000    1,200,000             -               -                    -
Water                           Rudimentary Water                                5,700,000     2,400,000    3,300,000             -               -                    -
Water                           WSDP                                              600,000        600,000           -              -               -                    -
Water                           Amantungwa Bulk                                  4,900,000           -        2,000,000      2,900,000            -                    -
Sanitation                      Household Sanitation - Amajuba                   4,855,000        55,000    2,160,000      1,320,000      1,320,000                    -
Sanitation                      Household Sanitation - Majorisu                   454,000        454,000           -              -               -                    -
Sanitation                      Household Sanitation - Witteklip                  526,000        526,000           -              -               -                    -
Sanitation                      Household Sanitation - Jakkalspan (Manzana)      1,288,888     1,288,888           -              -               -                    -
                                                                                46,105,888    12,773,888     14,710,000      9,420,000        9,202,000                -


CMIP
Water                           Kilbarchan Rural Water Supply                    5,945,000    1,800,000       4,145,000           -               -                    -
Water                           Ekalethu Village                                  300,000            -         300,000            -               -                    -
Infrastructure                  Amajuba DC                                       5,099,000           -             -         5,099,000            -                    -
Water                           Water at Imphophoma                                    -             -             -              -               -                    -
Water                           Water at Umfolozi                                      -             -             -              -               -                    -
Water                           Water at Kingsley                                      -             -             -              -               -                    -
                                                                                11,344,000     1,800,000      4,445,000      5,099,000            -                    -




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        CATEGORY                                   PROJECT   BUDGET         2002/2003     2003/2004      2004/2005   2005/ 2006       2006/ 2007
LAND REFORM
Land Reform                     Amatungwa                       6,496,700     6,496,700           -              -            -                    -
Land Reform                     Mossdale                         525,760        525,760           -              -            -                    -
Land Reform                     Shabalala (Thekwane)            3,336,803           -        3,336,803           -            -                    -
Land Reform                     Nzima (Dlamenze)                2,392,521           -        2,392,521           -            -                    -
Land Reform                     Zandspruit                       102,902        102,902           -              -            -                    -
Land Reform                     Rondavel (van Niekerk)            73,090         73,090           -              -            -                    -
Land Reform                     Rondavel (Zondo)                 101,760        101,760           -              -            -                    -
                                                               13,029,536     7,300,212      5,729,324           -            -                    -


HOUSING
Rural Housing                   Jakkalspan (Manzana)            8,000,000    4,000,000     4,000,000             -            -                    -
Rural Housing                   Inverness (Fulathela)           8,000,000    4,000,000     4,000,000             -            -                    -
Rural Housing                   Dicks Holt                      8,000,000    4,000,000     4,000,000             -            -                    -
Rural Housing                   Mndozo (Witteklip)              8,000,000    4,000,000     4,000,000             -            -                    -
                                                               32,000,000    16,000,000     16,000,000           -            -                    -




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              CATEGORY                                     PROJECT               BUDGET         2002/2003     2003/2004      2004/2005      2005/ 2006      2006/ 2007
CBPWP
CBPWP                                   Cluster Projects                            2,730,000           -      2,730,000             -               -                   -
CBPWP                                   Rapid Delivery                              1,170,000           -      1,170,000             -               -                   -
Land Affairs and Housing                Block yard                                   500,000        500,000           -              -               -                   -
Public Works                            Cluster Project                              407,725        407,725           -              -               -                   -
Public Works                            Upgrade Community Gardens                    100,000        100,000           -              -               -                   -
Public Works                            Gardens Nursery                              135,000        135,000           -              -               -                   -
Roads and Stormwater                    Access roads to cluster                      100,000        100,000           -              -               -                   -
Water                                   Water Reticulation to cluster                250,000        250,000           -              -               -                   -
Electricity                             Electricity - KZ254                          320,000        320,000           -              -               -                   -
                                                                                    5,712,725     1,812,725      3,900,000           -               -                   -
Total (Grants Engineering)                                                        108,192,149    39,686,825     44,784,324     14,519,000      9,202,000                 -


TOTAL (Engineering)                                                               131,692,149    44,786,825     49,384,324     19,119,000     13,802,000           4,600,000



B) PLANNING & DEVELOPMENT

CAPITAL BUDGET
Amajuba Business Centre                 Customer Care & Satellites                  2,500,000       500,000       500,000        500,000         500,000             500,000
Amajuba Business Centre                 Sewing Clubs                                 250,000         50,000        50,000         50,000          50,000              50,000
Amajuba Business Centre                 Poultry Farms                                250,000         50,000        50,000         50,000          50,000              50,000
Amajuba Business Centre                 Community Gardens                            250,000         50,000        50,000         50,000          50,000              50,000
Amajuba Business Centre                 SMME Clusters                               2,000,000           -         500,000        500,000         500,000             500,000
Amajuba Business Centre                 LED Study                                    350,000        350,000           -              -               -                   -
Amajuba Business Centre                 Amajuba Agricultural Co-operative            800,000            -         200,000        200,000         200,000             200,000
Amajuba Business Centre                 Amajuba Business Centre Implementation      2,500,000       500,000       500,000        500,000         500,000             500,000
                                                                                    8,900,000     1,500,000      1,850,000      1,850,000      1,850,000           1,850,000



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           CATEGORY                                       PROJECT                    BUDGET          2002/2003     2003/2004     2004/2005     2005/ 2006      2006/ 2007
GIS Database                            Business Database                                 100,000            -         100,000           -              -                   -
GIS Database                            Mapping and Zoning of Undermined areas            100,000            -             -             -          100,000                 -
GIS Database                            Aerial Photography                                400,000            -         100,000       100,000        100,000             100,000
GIS Database                            GIS Info Update                                   400,000            -         100,000       100,000        100,000             100,000
                                                                                         1,000,000           -         300,000       200,000        300,000             200,000


Environmental Management                Environmental Management Plan                     300,000        300,000           -             -              -                   -
Environmental Management                Alien vegetation program                 Co-ordinate                 -             -             -              -                   -
Environmental Management                Environmental awareness campaign         Co-ordinate                 -             -             -              -                   -
Environmental Management                Erosion Control Program                  Co-ordinate                 -             -             -              -                   -
Environmental Management                Emission control & monitoring            Co-ordinate                 -             -             -              -                   -
                                                                                          300,000        300,000           -             -              -                   -


Land Use Management                     LUMS training                            Co-ordinate                 -             -             -              -                   -
Land Use Management                     Land identification Study / housing               230,000            -             -         230,000            -                   -
Land Use Management                     LUMS system implementation                        250,000            -             -             -              -               250,000
                                                                                          480,000            -             -         230,000            -               250,000


Planning                                IDP monitoring and review                         200,000            -          50,000        50,000         50,000              50,000
Planning                                Planning Implementation Forums           Co-ordinate                 -             -             -              -                   -
                                                                                          200,000            -          50,000        50,000         50,000              50,000


Public Relations                        Customer Satisfaction Survey                      250,000         50,000        50,000        50,000         50,000              50,000
Public Relations                        Information Newsletter                            500,000        100,000       100,000       100,000        100,000             100,000
Public Relations                        Media Marketing                                   250,000         50,000        50,000        50,000         50,000              50,000
                                                                                         1,000,000       200,000       200,000       200,000        200,000             200,000




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           CATEGORY                                     PROJECT                      BUDGET             2002/2003     2003/2004      2004/2005      2005/ 2006      2006/ 2007
Tourism                                 Battlefields upgrade                              120,000               -          30,000         30,000          30,000              30,000
Tourism                                 Oribi Environmental Centre               Co-ordinate                    -             -              -               -                   -
Tourism                                 Arts & Crafts Meander                             200,000            40,000        40,000         40,000          40,000              40,000
Tourism                                 Amajuba Re-enactments                             200,000               -          50,000         50,000          50,000              50,000
Tourism                                 Amajuba Birding Meander                           250,000            50,000        50,000         50,000          50,000              50,000
Tourism                                 Coal Mining Experience                            200,000               -             -              -           100,000             100,000
Tourism                                 Tourism Awareness Campaign                        360,000               -             -          120,000         120,000             120,000
Tourism                                 CTO Support                                       300,000            60,000        60,000         60,000          60,000              60,000
Tourism                                 Tourism Signage                                   200,000               -          50,000         50,000          50,000              50,000
Tourism                                 Shelters for Arts & Craft Traders                 780,000               -         180,000        200,000         200,000             200,000
Tourism                                 Tourism Plan                                      300,000           300,000           -              -               -                   -
Tourism                                 Provincial Travel Guide                                60,000           -          15,000         15,000          15,000              15,000
Tourism                                 Berg, Bush & Battlefields Book                    360,000           120,000           -          120,000             -               120,000
Tourism                                 Tourism Shows & Exhibitions                       230,000            30,000        50,000         50,000          50,000              50,000
Tourism                                 Tourism Product Development                       400,000               -         100,000        100,000         100,000             100,000
                                                                                         3,960,000          600,000       625,000        885,000         865,000             985,000
Total Capital Budget                                                                    15,840,000        2,600,000      3,025,000      3,415,000      3,265,000           3,535,000


DTLGA & DPLG
GIS Database                            GIS Implementation                                400,000           400,000           -              -               -                   -
Planning                                IDP Review                                             70,000        70,000           -              -               -                   -
Planning                                Development Planning Capacity Building            500,000           500,000           -              -               -                   -
                                                                                          970,000           970,000           -              -               -                   -


TOTAL (Planning & Development)                                                          16,810,000        3,570,000      3,025,000      3,415,000      3,265,000           3,535,000




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          CATEGORY                                       PROJECT                     BUDGET             2002/2003     2003/2004      2004/2005      2005/ 2006        2006/ 2007

C) COMMUNITY SERVICES

CAPITAL BUDGET
Cemeteries                              Cemetery Plan                                      200,000          200,000           -              -               -                     -
Cemeteries                              Cemetery Implementation                          2,000,000             -          500,000         500,000        500,000              500,000
                                                                                         2,200,000          200,000       500,000         500,000        500,000              500,000


Disaster Management                     Disaster Management Plan                           350,000          350,000           -              -               -                     -
Disaster Management                     Centralised Emergency Centre                           50,000        50,000           -              -               -                     -
Disaster Management                     Fire Station Equipment KZ 252-254                5,000,000        1,000,000      1,000,000      1,000,000       1,000,000           1,000,000
Disaster Management                     Rural Fire fighting Units                        1,000,000          400,000       200,000         200,000        200,000                   -
                                                                                         6,400,000        1,800,000      1,200,000      1,200,000       1,200,000           1,000,000


Education                               Youth care facilitation                            150,000          150,000           -              -               -                     -
Education                               Technicon Facilitation                             150,000          150,000           -              -               -                     -
Education                               A.B.E.T Study                                      200,000          200,000           -              -               -                     -
Education                               Crime Education Programme                Co-ordinate                   -              -              -               -                     -
                                                                                           500,000          500,000           -              -               -                     -


Health                                  HIV/AIDS Awareness                                 500,000          100,000       100,000         100,000        100,000              100,000
Health                                  HIV/AIDS Self Help Project                       1,000,000          200,000       200,000         200,000        200,000              200,000
                                                                                         1,500,000          300,000       300,000         300,000        300,000              300,000


Community Facilities                    Upgrade and Provide Pension Pay Points   Co-ordinate                    -             -              -               -                     -


Safety and Security                     Police Station - Blaauwbosh              Co-ordinate                   -              -              -               -                     -
Safety and Security                     Police Station - Madadeni                Co-ordinate                   -              -              -               -                     -
Safety and Security                     Police Station - Osizweni                Co-ordinate                   -              -              -               -                     -



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           CATEGORY                                     PROJECT                       BUDGET             2002/2003     2003/2004      2004/2005      2005/ 2006        2006/ 2007
Safety and Security                     District Policing Forums                  Co-ordinate                    -             -              -               -                     -


Parks & Recreation                      Recreational Facilities – Jessie Farm              150,000               -         150,000            -               -                     -
Parks & Recreation                      Playgrounds at Rural Service Centres               120,000               -         120,000            -               -                     -
Parks & Recreation                      International Recreation Facility Study            500,000               -         500,000            -               -                     -
                                                                                           770,000               -         770,000            -               -                     -


Public Transport                        Integrated Public Transport Plan                   350,000           350,000           -              -               -                     -
Public Transport                        Provide & upgrade taxi Facilities         Co-ordinate                    -             -              -               -                     -
                                                                                           350,000           350,000           -              -               -                     -
Total Capital Budget                                                                     11,720,000        3,150,000      2,770,000      2,000,000       2,000,000           1,800,000


TOTAL (Community Services)                                                               11,720,000        3,150,000      2,770,000      2,000,000       2,000,000           1,800,000



D) CORPORATE SERVICES

CAPITAL BUDGET
Human Resources                         Skills Audit                                            80,000        80,000           -              -              -                      -
Human Resources                         Training programmes                                500,000           100,000       100,000        100,000        100,000               100,000
                                                                                           580,000           180,000       100,000        100,000        100,000               100,000


Legal                                   Legislative Review and Education                        50,000        10,000        20,000         10,000          10,000                   -
Legal                                   Procurement Policy                                      20,000        20,000           -              -              -                      -
                                                                                                70,000        30,000        20,000         10,000          10,000                   -
Total Capital Budget                                                                       650,000           210,000       120,000        110,000        110,000               100,000




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           CATEGORY                                    PROJECT          BUDGET         2002/2003     2003/2004       2004/2005       2005/ 2006      2006/ 2007
DPLG
Human Resources                         Employment Equity Plan               100,000       100,000           -               -                -                   -
Human Resources                         Change Management Program            200,000       200,000           -               -                -                   -
                                                                             300,000       300,000               -               -            -                   -


TOTAL (Corporate Services)                                                   950,000       510,000       120,000         110,000          110,000             100,000



E) FINANCIAL SERVICES

CAPITAL BUDGET                                                                   -             -             -               -                -                   -


DPLG
Finance                                 Performance Management System        500,000       500,000           -               -                -                   -
Finance                                 Capacity Building                    500,000       500,000           -               -                -                   -
                                                                           1,000,000     1,000,000           -               -                -                   -


TOTAL (Finance)                                                            1,000,000     1,000,000           -               -                -                   -



TOTAL All Directorates (Capital & Grants)                               162,172,149    53,016,825    51,399,324      24,644,000      19,177,000         10,035,000
TOTAL All Directorates (Capital budget only)                             51,710,000    11,060,000    10,515,000      10,125,000       9,975,000         10,035,000




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7.3.       Institutional Arrangements
The IDP forms the basis of institutional restructuring and will impact directly on the
type of structure that should be developed to realise the vision of Amajuba DM.
Human Resource matters and development are dealt with in Chapter 7 of the
Systems Act. However structure follows strategy and unless a municipality knows
what it wants to achieve it cannot determine and finalise the institutional structure.
Amajuba DM’s mission, KPA’s, development objectives and KPI’s will largely indicate
what type of structure is required.

7.3.1. Principles of Institutional Restructuring
The following principles have been adopted in determining a possible structure for
Amajuba DM:
 Clear development objectives have been set in terms of the IDP, which will guide
   the restructuring process;
 Functions will be grouped according to homogeneity and logical cohesiveness;
 Responsibilities will not exceed the span of control of the specific management
   level in terms of the complexity, diversity and nature of the work;
 The number of management levels will be kept to a minimum to ensure that the
   chain of command is as short as possible;
 The restructuring process will focus to a large extent on delegating responsibility
   as well as authority to the lowest possible levels;
 Ensure that feedback and monitoring mechanisms are in place;
 There should be clear reporting lines in terms of establishing unity of command;
   and
 Resources and practical realities will be factored into the restructuring process.


7.3.2. Decentralisation versus Centralisation
The Amajuba District Municipality currently functions on the centralised basis. The
following functions are performed at the Head Office based in Madadeni:
       Administration and corporate affairs;
       Human resources;
       Financial Management and Information Management;
       Engineering Services; and
       Planning and Development.

The size of the organisation in terms of its 21 full time staff and 23 contract staff
members lends itself to this type of centralisation. Further to this, Amajuba DM’s
main function is the creation and enhancement of infrastructure and service delivery
throughout the Newcastle, Dannhauser and Utrecht regions. Therefore the functions
performed are more projects based and highly specialised. Therefore there is the
need for greater coordination and therefore the need for centralisation of functions,
skills and resources.

It is recommended that this situation should prevail based on the following reasons:
 This centralised would encourage quick decision making in terms project
      initiation, management and implementation;
 Communication channels would be compressed and thus enhanced;
 This centralised structure ensures that a regional focus is assumed rather than
      focussing on any one area;
 Coordination within the functions are enhanced; and
 There exists enhanced opportunities for human resources development.

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7.3.3. Restructuring Process
In order to realise its vision, the Amajuba DM needs to develop a new administrative
and political structure as well as systems. The key processes that will be followed
includes:
     Functional Analysis;
     Development of administrative structures; and
     Development of political structures.

7.3.3.1. Functional Analysis
A functional analysis conducted at Amajuba DM, indicates that the following functions
are currently being performed. In addition the functions as indicated in s84 of the
Structures Act, has been included in the functional analysis in terms of determining
capacity requirements.

                                          Table 46: Functional Analysis
         Section                                                Function
        84(1)(a)          Integrated development planning for the district municipality as a whole,
                          including a framework for integrated development plans of all municipalities
                          in the area of the district municipality.
        84(1)(b)          Potable water supply systems.
        84(1)(c)          Bulk supply of electricity which includes the transmission, distribution and
                          where applicable, the generation of electricity
        84(1)(d)          Domestic wastewater and sewage disposal system.
        84(1)(e)          Solid waste disposal in so far as it relates to:
                                The determination of a waste disposal strategy
                                The regulation of waste disposal
                                The establishment, operation and control of waste disposal sites,
                                   bulk water transfer facilities and waste disposal facilities for more
                                   than one municipality in the district.
        84(1)(f)          Municipal roads that form an integral part of a road transport system for the
                          area of the district municipality as a whole.
        84(1)(g)          Regulation of passenger transport services
        84(1)(h)          Municipal airports serving the area of the district municipality as a whole.
        84(1)(i)          Municipal health services
        84(1)(j)          Fire fighting services serving the district municipality as a whole, which
                          includes;
                                Planning, co ordination and regulation of fire services
                                Specialized fire fighting services such as mountain, veld and
                                    chemical fire services
                                Co-ordination of the standardization of infrastructure, vehicles,
                                    equipment and procedures
                                Training of fire officers
        84(1)(k)          The establishment, conduct and control of fresh produce markets and
                          abattoirs serving the area of the major proportion of the municipalities in the
                          district.
        84(1)(l)          The establishment, conduct and control of cemeteries and crematoria
                          serving the area of a major proportion of the municipalities in the district.
        84(1)(m)          Promotion of local tourism for the area of the district municipality.
        84(1)(n)          Municipal public works relating to any of the above functions or any other
                          functions assigned to the district municipality.

        84(1)(o)          The receipt, allocation and if applicable, the distribution of grants made to
                          the district municipality.
        84(1)(p)          The imposition and collection of taxes, levies and duties as related to the
                          above functions or as may be assigned to the district municipality in terms of
                          national legislation.
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7.3.3.2. Functional Grouping
Based on the functional analysis undertaken, the various functions can be grouped
according to the logical groupings.:

                                        Table 47: Functional Grouping

  Municipal               Corporate     Finance        Planning and       Community              Engineering
  Manager                 Services                     Development        Services                Services
Internal audit         Administration   Grants        IDP                 Passenger              Water
                                                                          Transport
Masakhane              Secretariat      Tax, Levies   Planning            Health                 Electricity
                                        etc
Public                 Legal            Income        Marketing           Fresh Produce          Sanitation
Participation
Affirmative            Council          Debtor        Communication       Abattoirs              Solid Waste
action                 support          Management                                               sites
Performance            Policies and     Expenditure   Public Relations    Cemeteries             Municipal
Management             Procedures                                                                roads
Business               Asset            Budget        Information         Crematoria             Municipal
Planning               Management                     Services                                   Airports
Customer               Facilities       Logistics     Environmental       Nature                 Communicati
Relationship           Management                     Management          Conservation           on
Management                                                                                       Infrastructure
                                                                                                 , Sport and
                                                                                                 Culture
                       Capacity         Payroll       Land Use            Parks and              Public Works
                       Building                       Management          Recreation
                       Human            Insurance     Local Economic      Fire Fighting          Housing and
                       Resources                      Development                                Land Affairs
                                                      incl. Amajuba
                                                      Business Centre
                                        Loans and     Local Tourism       Protection             Business
                                        Investments                       Services               Planning
                                        Cash Flows    Information         Safety and             Project
                                                      Technology          Security               Management
                                                      Project             Disaster               Programme
                                                      Management          Management             Management
                                                      Programme           Emergency              Contracts
                                                      Management          Services               Management
                                                      Contracts           Civil Defence          Sourcing
                                                      Management                                 Management
                                                      Sourcing            Project                Regulator
                                                      Management          Management             and
                                                                                                 Monitoring
                                                                          Programme              Implementing
                                                                          Management             Agent
                                                                          Contracts
                                                                          Management
                                                                          Sourcing
                                                                          Management

7.3.3.3. Proposed Structure

Based on the functional grouping detailed above, an administrative structure is
proposed below. The main features of the structure includes:
     The proposed structure supports the IDP in terms of ensuring objectives,
      priorities and projects set out in the IDP can be implemented;

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          The structure supports the powers and functions as set of in S84 of the
           Structures Act;
          The structure also fosters strong multi-functional relationships with the Local
           Municipalities;
          The structure ensures that Amajuba DM is client/community driven;
          The structure ensures that the organisation is totally integrated in terms of
           functions performed. This integration is assured through the reporting lines to
           the Directors and the Portfolio Committees that act as policy makers;
          Decision making is enhanced through a high degree of control being
           disseminated to Directors; and
          Human resource development is encouraged through succession planning.


7.3.3.4. Governance Structure

Part of the organisation of the Amajuba DM is the committee system that the Council
must establish. The proposed committee system as indicated above and as
described below, is based on the following principles:

       The committee system will ensure that all Councillors are involved in decision
        making and policy making;
       All Councillors are afforded the opportunity to align their interests with a subject
        matter they feel comfortable with;
       The overall burden on Council is reduced to the level of specialisation of the
        committee system;
       The proposed committee system will also expedite decision making;
       All matters will be property considered and debated prior to decisions being
        taken; and
       The political supervision and accountability over the administration is
        enhanced.


The following Portfolio Committees are proposed:

       Finance;
       Corporate Services;
       Planning Services;
       Community Services; and
       Engineering Services




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      PROPOSED ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURE


                                                                           Council
               Political Parties                                                                            Community Structures



                                                                                             Mayor
                                                                                                                                         Speaker


                                                                                   Executive Committee                                   Whips
Municipal
Manager                                                                                                                                 Committee



         Director                             Corporate Services      Corporate Services                 Corporate Services


         Director                                    Finance                 Finance                            Finance


         Director                             Planning Services       Planning Services                  Planning Services


         Director                             Community Services      Community Services                 Community Services


         Director                             Engineering Services    Engineering Services               Engineering Services


                                                 Directorates        Executive Councilors                Portfolio Committees



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Executive Committee
The Executive Committee, in performing its duties, shall :-
(a)              Identify and develop criteria in terms of which progress in the
                 implementation of the strategies, programmes and services can be
                 evaluated, including Key Performance Indicators which are specific to the
                 municipality and common to local government in general;
(b)              Evaluate progress against the key performance indicators;
(c)              Review the performance of the municipality in order to improve:-
                     (i)      The economy, efficiency and effectiveness of the municipality;
                    (ii)      The efficiency of credit control and revenue and debt collection
                              services; and
                      (iii)   The implementation of the municipality’s by-laws

(d)              Monitor the management of the municipality’s administration in accordance
                 with the policy directions of the municipal council;
(e)              Oversee the provision of services to communities in the municipality in a
                 sustainable manner;
  (f)            Perform such duties and exercise such powers as the council may
                 delegate to it in terms of section 32;
  (g)            Annually report on the involvement of communities and community
                 organisations in the affairs of the municipality; and
  (h)            Ensure that regard is given to public views and report on the effect of
                 consultation on the decisions of the council.


Community Services
The terms of reference of the portfolio is to:
(a)          Exercise delegated authority after considering a report from the designated
             official for the portfolio;
(b)          Introduce to ExCo the recommendations from the portfolio standing
             committee on legislation and policies relating to the following functions:
                     Passenger Transport;
                     Health;
                     Fresh Produce;
                     Abattoirs;
                     Cemeteries;
                     Crematoria;
                     Nature Conservation;
                     Parks and Recreation;
                     Fire Fighting;
                     Protection Services;
                     Safety and Security;
                     Disaster Management;
                     Emergency Service;
                     Civil Defence;
                     Project Management;

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                     Programme Management;
                     Contracts Management; and,
                     Sourcing Management.

(c)          Introduce departmental reports on the functions mentioned in clause (b)
             above to the executive committee.

Planning and Development Services

The terms of reference of the portfolio is to

          (a)         Exercise delegated authority after considering a report from the
                     designated official for the portfolio;
          (b)         Introduce to ExCo the recommendations from the portfolio standing
                     committee on legislation and policies relating to the following functions:
                          Integrated Development Planning (IDP);
                          Planning;
                          Marketing;
                          Communication;
                          Public Relations;
                          Environmental Services;
                          Environmental Management;
                          Local Economic Development, including Amajuba Business
                           Centre;
                          Local Tourism;
                          Information Technology;
                          Project Management;
                          Programme Management;
                          Contracts Management; and
                          Sourcing Management.

          (c)         Introduce departmental reports on the functions mentioned in sub-
                     clause (b) above to the Executive Committee.

Corporate Services
The terms of reference of the portfolio is to:
           (a)        Exercise delegated authority after considering a report from the
                      designated official for the portfolio:
           (b)        Introduce to ExCo the recommendations from the portfolio standing
                      committee on legislation and policies relating to the following
                      functions: -

                          General administration function (including councillor affairs);
                          Secretariat Function;
                          Legal;
                          Council Support;
                          Policies and Procedures;
                          Asset Management;
                          Facilities Management;
                          Capacity Building; and
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                          Human Resources.
           (c)        Introduce departmental reports on the functions mentioned in sub-
                      clause (b) above to the Executive Committee.


Engineering Services
The terms of reference of the portfolio are to: -
           (a)        Exercise delegated authority after considering a report from the
                      designated official for the portfolio;
           (b)        Introduce to ExCo the recommendations from the portfolio standing
                      committee on legislation and policies relating to the following
                      functions: -
                          Water;
                          Electricity;
                          Sanitation;
                          Solid Waste Sites;
                          Municipal Roads;
                          Municipal Airports;
                          Communication Infrastructure, Sport and Culture;
                          Public Works;
                          Housing and Land Affairs
                          Business Planning;
                          Project Management;
                          Programme Management
                          Contracts Management
                          Sourcing Management
                          Regulator and Monitoring; and,
                          Implementation Agent.

           (c)        Introduce departmental reports on the functions mentioned in sub-
                      clause (b) above to the Executive Committee.

Finance
The terms of reference of the portfolio is to:
           (a)        Exercise delegated authority after considering a report from the
                      designated official for the portfolio;
           (b)        Introduce to ExCo the recommendations from the portfolio standing
                      committee on legislation and policies relating to the following
                      functions:
                          Grants;
                          Tax, levies etc;
                          Income;
                          Debtor management;
                          Expenditure;
                          Budgets;
                          Logistics;
                          Payroll;
                          Insurance;
                          Loans and Investments; and,

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                          Cash flows.
           (c)        Introduce departmental reports on the functions mentioned in sub-
                      clause (b) above to the Executive Committee.

7.3.4. Implementation Planning

The following processes must be complied with the ensure that the proposed
structure is implemented and to ensure that the strategies as highlighted in the IDP
can proceed successfully:

1.   The Labour Forum must debate and accept the proposed structure or to make
     amendments where required;

2.    The accepted structure must be costed to ensure that it is cost effective;

3. Business processes need to be developed and mapped out. Once this is
   completed, policies and procedures need to be developed to support these
   business processes.

4. Job descriptions must be drawn up for the various posts especially for the level
   1,2, and 3 posts;

5. A placement policy must be developed to ensure that all staff are deployed. A
   recruitment plan must be implemented if staff are to be sought from outside the
   organisation;

6. Performance contracts and agreements must be drawn up with all level 1,2 and 3
   staff. The performance agreements must be in terms of an accepted
   Performance Management System;

7. Each Director must develop business plans for the next five years. The business
   plans must be linked to the IDP and to the overall performance management
   system;

8. An Audit Committee must be constituted to ensure regular monitoring of the IDP
   and the KPI’s as encapsulated in the Performance Management System;

9. All information obtained, as part of the monitoring phase must be fed into the IDP
   for periodic revisions.


7.4 Performance Management System
The Amajuba District Municipality is currently in the process of formulating and
implementing a performance management system. The IDP will be linked into this
system, with the intention of measuring the performance of the various departments
within the municipality in implementing the plan. This will be done through
establishing performance indicators for each of the key performance areas and
assigning responsibility to the relevant department, as well as measuring
performance against the output indicators for each project.

The following framework is proposed for the implementation of a Performance
Management System at Amajuba District Municipality:


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                                                                                 Determine PM policy and
                                                                                 PMS


Information gathering
Validation
Identify priority areas                        Analysis      Determine    unit               Group      priority
                                                             cost of products                areas          into
                                                             and services                    KPAs




Vision                                                           Group objectives in KPAs
Objectives                                                       Determine input, outcome and output
Strategies                                    Strategies         KPIs for objectives, incorporating
                                                                 general KPIs
                                                                 Determine      desired    outcomes  for
                                                                 objectives
                                                                 Set targets for each KPI



Project task teams
Project proposals                               Projects
                                                                 Set KPIs for individual              projects,
KPIs for projects                                                incorporating general KPIs
Project budgets



Financial plan                                                   Set    KPIs    for   every   sub-plan,
Capex plan                                                       incorporating general KPIs and targets
Institutional plan                                               for every KPI
Spatial dev framework                       Integration
LED programme
Poverty reduction plan
Disaster management plan
KPIs                                                             Extract KPIs and targets for managers’
                                                                 performance agreements



                                            Approval
                                                                 Develop employee performance
                                                                 appraisal system (EPAS)
                                                                 Develop EPAS training and application
                                                                 manual
                                                                 Review workplace skills plan
     Generic
       IDP
     process
                                            Implementation
                                                                 Monitoring, measuring, evaluation and
                                                                 corrective action




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The following general key performance indicators25 are prescribed in terms of Section
43 of the Act26: Table 48 indicates how these indicators are linked to the identified
Key Performance areas and the responsible Department.




25
     Local Government: Municipal Planning and Performance Management Regulations, 2001
26
     Municipal Systems Act, Act No 32 of 2000

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                                                   Table 48: Key Performance Areas and Responsible Departments
    Key Performance Area                Strategy and Project                                 Responsibility        Indicator
    and Objective
    Institutional and
    Governance Matters                                                                                                 The percentage of a municipalities capital budget
                                        Finance                                                                         actually spent on capital projects identified for a
    To achieve sound                       To ensure that the financial reserves            Director: Financial        particular financial year in terms of the municipality’s
    management, administration              (uncommitted) of the Municipality equate to at   Services                   integrated development plan;
    and development in the                  least the annual operating budget of the
    District.                               Council.                                                                     Financial viability as expressed by the ratios:
                                                                                             Director: Financial                   B-C
                                           To ensure that the Municipality has adequate     Services                    (I) A = ----------
                                            financial resources to meet the objectives and                                          D
                                            development needs of the District                                            Where:
                                                                                             Director: Financial         A represents debt cover
                                           To adopt the approach of ‘rain-maker’ to         Services                    B represents total operating revenue received
                                            source funding for project implementation                                    C represents operating grants
                                                                                                                         D represents debt service payments (i.e. interest +
                                                                                                                         redemption) due within the financial year;
                                                                                                                                    B
                                                                                                                       (II) A = --------
                                                                                                                                    C
                                                                                                                         Where:
                                                                                                                         A represents outstanding service debtors to revenue
                                                                                                                         B represents total outstanding service debtors
                                                                                                                         C represents annual revenue actually received for
                                                                                                                         services

                                                                                                                                     B+C
                                                                                                                        (III)     A = ----------
                                                                                                                                       D
                                                                                                                        Where;
                                                                                                                        A represents cost coverage
                                                                                                                        B represents all available cash at a particular time
                                                                                                                        C represents investments
                                                                                                                        D represents monthly fixed operating expenditure.




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                                        Human Resources
                                          To finalise the staff structure of the Council   Director: Corporate      The number of people from employment equity target
                                           and ensure that it meets the business of the     Services                  groups employed in the three highest levels of
                                           Council.                                                                   management in compliance with a municipality’s
                                                                                                                      approached employment equity plan;

                                           To ensure that the staff structure of the       Director: Corporate      The percentage of a municipality’s budget actually spent
                                            municipality is representative of the           Services                  in implementing its workplace skills plan.
                                            demographics of the District.

                                           To ensure that skills, capacity building and    Director: Corporate
                                            change management issues that affect the        Services
                                            development and functioning of the
                                            Municipality are brought to the fore and
                                            addressed

                                           To ensure that the personnel currently posted
                                            to other entities but performing Council        Director: Corporate
                                            responsibilities are transferred to Amajuba     Services
                                            District Council, with the corresponding
                                            funding




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                                        Customer Care and Relationship Management
                                          To develop strong relations between the
                                           District and Local Councils by establishing an    Municipal Manager
                                           appropriate Forum and meeting regularly.

                                           To develop strong relations between the
                                            District and Service Providers by establishing
                                            a “Service Providers” Forum and meeting bi-      Municipal Manager
                                            monthly.

                                           To ensure there is regular, clear and relevant
                                            communication between all stakeholders in
                                            the District, using the established              Municipal Manager
                                            Representative Forum as the forum for this
                                            communication

                                           To ensure that there is good co-operation and
                                            understanding between and amongst all
                                            Councillors, Staff and Customers                 Municipal Manager

                                           To regularly measure levels of customer
                                            satisfaction

                                                                                             Director: Corporate
                                                                                             Services
                                        Business Planning
                                          To undertake departmental business planning       Municipal Manager
                                           and to streamline the business processes
                                           according to the needs of the Council and
                                           Communities.

                                        Information Technology
                                           To ensure that the information technology        Director: Finance
                                            requirements meet the business needs of the
                                            Municipality.




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    Shared and Integrated
    Service Delivery                       To identify and agree the most effective,         Municipal Manager
                                            efficient, affordable and sustainable manner
    To ensure that municipal                to render these services
    services are provided to all
    communities within the                 To determine and agree on the functions to        Municipal Manager
    Amajuba District in the most            be performed by the various municipalities
    efficient, effective,                   and service providers.
    affordable and sustainable
    manner.                                To meet a minimum of RDP level in the             Director: Engineering      The percentage of households with access to basic level
                                            provision of municipal services across the        Services                    of water, sanitation, electricity and solid waste removal;
                                            district through the upgrading of existing
                                            services or the provision of new services                                    The percentage of households warning less than R1100
                                            where required.                                                               per month with access to free basic services;

                                        Water and Sanitation
                                          To provide all households with water at the        Director: Engineering      The percentage of households with access to basic level
                                           minimum RDP level through the upgrading of         Services                    of water, sanitation, electricity and solid waste removal;
                                           existing services or the provision of new
                                           services where required.

                                           To provide sanitation to all households at the
                                            minimum of RDP level through the upgrading
                                            of existing services or the provision of new
                                            services where required.

                                           To make raw water available for agricultural
                                            use.

                                           To make water available to support industrial
                                            activity.

                                           To facilitate the provision of higher levels of
                                            service in areas where this is affordable and
                                            sustainable.
    Shared and Integrated               Electricity
    Service Delivery (cont)                To provide electricity in rural areas.            Director: Engineering      The percentage of households with access to basic level
                                           To upgrade the existing electricity network.      Services                    of water, sanitation, electricity and solid waste removal;




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                                        Roads and Transport
                                           To upgrade roads and stormwater drainage in       Director: Engineering
                                            the district                                      Services
                                           Upgrade and provide community access
                                            roads to ensure greater accessibility and
                                            mobility
                                           To provide public transport facilities (bus and
                                            taxi stops and ranks)
                                        Solid Waste
                                           To establish an integrated district-wide solid    Director: Engineering      The percentage of households with access to basic level
                                            waste management system                           Services                    of water, sanitation, electricity and solid waste removal;
                                           To promote and implement a recycling
                                            programme in the district
                                           To upgrade existing waste disposal facilities




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    Economic Development
                                           To facilitate inward investment into the       Director: Planning and      The number of jobs created through the municipality’s
    To facilitate, encourage and            Amajuba District.                              Development Services         local economic development initiatives including capital
    support the development of                                                                                          projects;
    the local economy and job              To promote networking opportunities and
    creation.                               support for economic development in the
                                            district.

                                           To retain existing businesses and the jobs
                                            they provide in the district.

                                           To support agricultural development in the
                                            district.

                                           To stimulate and support SMMEs.
                                                                                           Director: Community
                                           To develop and promote the district as a       Services
                                            tourist destination.
                                                                                           Director: Engineering
                                           To support local business through a            Services
                                            preferential procurement policy for locally
                                            based contractors and service providers and
                                            the adoption of labour based construction
                                            methods.

                                           To increase opportunities for the previously
                                            disadvantaged




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    Social Facilitation and
    Development                            To determine and agree on the functions to           Municipal Manager
                                            be performed by the various municipalities
    To ensure that social                   and service providers.
    services are provided to all                                                                 Municipal Manager
    communities within the                 To identify and agree the most effective,
    Amajuba District in the most            efficient, affordable and sustainable manner
    efficient, effective,                   to render these services.
    affordable and sustainable
    manner.                                To respond to identified needs in a proactive        Director: Community
                                            and sustainable manner in the provision of           Services
                                            new social services and facilities in areas
                                            which are currently unserviced or the
                                            upgrading of existing services in areas which
                                            are underserviced.

                                           To improve the accessibility of social services
                                            through the concentration of service provision       Director: Community
                                            at central points, and the utilisation of existing   Services
                                            facilities e.g. multi-purpose centres.

                                        Health
                                           To establish an HIV/AIDS programme which             Director: Community
                                            supports national and provincial initiatives         Services

                                           Upgrade facilities, access, staffing and
                                            equipment at existing clinics

                                           Provide additional clinic services in areas
                                            which are currently under-and unserviced

    Social Facilitation and             Education
    Development (cont)                    Upgrade facilities, access, staffing and              Director: Community
                                           equipment at existing schools.                        Services

                                           Provide additional schools in areas which are
                                            currently under-and unserviced.




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                                        Sports and Recreation/ Community Facilities
                                           Provide additional sports and recreational
                                            facilities at the identified hubs and satellites.   Director: Community
                                           Provide multi-purpose facilities at the             Services
                                            identified hubs and satellites.
                                        Welfare
                                           Improve access to social welfare services.          Director: Community
                                                                                                Services

                                        Safety and Security
                                           To ensure access to police services through         Director: Community
                                            additional police stations in the identified        Services
                                            hubs and satellites.

                                        Cemeteries and Crematoria
                                          To establish an integrated district-wide             Director: Community
                                           cemeteries system.                                   Services

                                           To ensure the upgrading and maintenance of
                                            existing cemeteries
    Environmental
    Management                             To establish an integrated environmental            Director: Planning and
                                            management system.                                  Development Services
    To rehabilitate and improve
    the environment.                       To conserve areas of environmental,
                                            conservation and tourist significance.

                                           To undertake soil rehabilitation in areas of
                                            high erosion.

                                           To eradicate alien vegetation.

                                           To address the pollution of water catchments
                                            by mining and industrial activity.

                                           To address environmental issues relating to
                                            waste disposal.

                                           To promote environmental awareness.




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    Municipal Planning                     To provide guidance in the location of future   Director: Planning and
                                            development.                                    Development Services
    To facilitate sound
    development in the District.           To develop the rural service system to
                                            provide co-ordinated service delivery.

                                           To co-ordinate the implementation of projects
                                            with the provision of infrastructure and
                                            delivery of services.

                                           To monitor the implementation and review of
                                            the IDP.
                                                                                            Director: Community
                                           To facilitate access to and information         Services
                                            regarding support programmes and funding
                                            (e.g. ISRDP, PGDS) for developmental
                                            activities and projects.

                                           To facilitate the provision of rural housing

                                           To facilitate integrated planning and
                                            implementation of land reform projects in the
                                            district.

                                           Mitigate the risk of disaster.




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8.       Specific Plans

8.1.       Water Services Development Plan

8.1.1. Introduction
The purpose of an integrated water service plan is to ensure that there is fulfillment of
sectoral planning requirements and compliance with sectoral principles, strategies
and programmes in the provision of water.


8.1.2. Strategy Guidelines
The National Water Act and, The Water Services Act provide specific strategic
guidelines for water use and provision, in South Africa. These acts are summarised
below for reference for water provision in the municipal area.

It is important to bear in mind that the national standard for per capita consumption is
25 litres per day (lcd), for basic water needs.

8.1.2.1.        The National Water Act, Act 36 of 1998
The National Water Act (NWA) calls for the protection of water resources as well as
the prevention and remedying of the effects of pollution. This Act governs all water
use in South Africa and imposes a catchment charge and a resource conservation
charge where there are competing beneficial uses or where such use significantly
affects other users.

The Water Act also introduces key proposals such as:
 All water in the cycle, whether on land, underground or in surface channels,
   falling on, flowing through or filtrating between such systems, will be treated as
   part of the common resource and to the extent required to meet the broad
   objectives of water resource management
 Water use allocations will no longer be permanent, but will be given for a
   reasonable period of time and provision will be made to enable the transfer or
   trade of these rights between users with Ministerial consent.

8.1.2.2.        Water Quality Management
South Africa’s Constitution identifies water resource management as a national
competency, but environmental protection and pollution management as Provincial,
Local Government, or joint competencies. Simultaneously, the Constitution allows
for the development and implementation of national approaches, where these are
necessary to protect the environment or where national uniformity is required. This
therefore allows for a National Strategy to deal with water issues at national level.

DWAF adopts a precautionary approach when dealing with water quality
management issues. This includes:
1.   Preventing / minimizing waste through reduction at source
2.   Reducing the amount of waste, which reaches the water resource by
     establishing effluent standards, or management practices that trap and
     remove the waste before it reaches the water environment
3.   Exemptions from effluent standards or management practice only where it
     can be shown that the receiving water’s fitness for use will not be significantly
     reduced.


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Water quality problems in dense settlements are common. All settlements have
some impact on the receiving water resource. The most important water quality
problems include:
 Microbiological contamination
 Nutrients
 Solid Waste
 Sediment
 Habitat Destruction

Appropriate planning of settlements in terms of their positioning relative to sensitive
water resources, their size and density, as well as services planned, is required to
mitigate impacts on water quality.

8.1.2.3.        Water Services Act, Act 108 of 1997
Four principles underlying the water strategy framework in South Africa are:
1.     Equity
2.     Optimal use
3.     Sustainable Use
4.     Responsibility and Accountability

This Act sets out the framework to ensure the provision of basic water supply and
sanitation and a regulatory framework for water service institutions:
 All water institutions are required to develop conditions for the provision of water
   services.
 The Act makes provision for the Minster to prescribe compulsory national
   standards, relating to, inter alia:
    The effective and sustainable use of water resources for water services
    The nature, operation, sustainability operational efficiency and economic
        viability of water services.
 The Act also makes provision for the Minister to prescribe norms and standards
   in respect of tariffs and may include for tariffs to be used to promote or achieve
   water conservation.
 The Act makes provision for the Minister to prescribe measures to be taken by
   water services institutions to conserve water.
 The Act makes provision for the prosecution of anyone who continues to make
   wasteful use of water after being called upon to stop by the Minister, a Province
   or any water services authority to be prosecuted.


8.1.3. Sectoral Setting
In terms of water provision:
 19.8% of households within the Amajuba district use public taps.
 13.9% of households use boreholes

The majority of households with taps are found within the Newcastle Local
Municipality (KZ252). A large percentage of households (30.7%) in the Dannhauser
sub-region (KZ254) use public taps. 44.5% Of the total households in KZ 253
(Utrecht Local Municipality) use natural water sources.


8.1.4. Sector Vision and Applicable Objectives
8.1.4.1.        Vision
“ Amajuba will be a fully developed District, with a vibrant and sustainable economy,
a better quality of life, preserved within its own culture and traditional values.”

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8.1.4.2.        Objectives
    To ensure that municipal services are provided to all communities within the
     Amajuba District in the most efficient, effective, affordable and sustainable
     manner.


8.1.5. Strategies and Projects
A Water Service Development Plan is currently being to be prepared by the uThukela
Water Partnership for the Amajuba District. This will provide guidance on the
provision of water and sanitation for the municipal area.

It should incorporate or give effect to the following strategies identified by the
Municipality:

                  Table 49: Water and Sanitation Objectives and Strategies
                  Objectives                                            Strategies
To ensure that municipal services are provided      To provide all households with water at the
to all communities within the Amajuba District      minimum RDP level through the upgrading of
in the most efficient, effective, affordable and    existing services or the provision of new
sustainable manner.                                 services where required.
                                                    To provide all households with sanitation at the
                                                    minimum RDP level through the upgrading of
                                                    existing services or the provision of new
                                                    services where required.
                                                    To make raw water available for agricultural
                                                    use.
                                                    To make raw water available to support
                                                    industrial activity
                                                    To facilitate the provision of higher levels of
                                                    service in areas where this is affordable and
                                                    sustainable

The following prioritised list indicates projects that have been identified by the
Amajuba District Municipality for the provision of water and sanitation within its area
of jurisdiction:
Water:                                             Starter Water KZ252
                                                   Starter Water KZ2532
                                                   Starter Water KZ254
                                                   Water Tanker Amajuba
                                                   Starter Water - 20 projects
                                                   Water Supply - Ngagane 1 & 2
                                                   Water Supply – Annandale
                                                   Water Supply – Witteklip
                                                   Water Supply - Majorisu
                                                   Water Supply - Ngagane 3
                                                   Water Supply - Ngagane 4
                                                   ISWIP
                                                   Rudimentary Water
                                                   WSDP
                                                   Amantungwa Bulk
                                                   Kilbarchan Rural Water Supply
                                                   Ekalethu Village
                                                   Water at Imphophoma
                                                   Water at Umfolozi
                                                   Water at Kingsley
                                                   Water Reticulation to cluster


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Sanitation:                                                School Sanitation KZ252
                                                           School Sanitation KZ253
                                                           School Sanitation KZ254
                                                           Household Sanitation – Amajuba
                                                           Household Sanitation – Majorisu
                                                           Household Sanitation – Witteklip
                                                           Household Sanitation – Jakkalspan
                                                           (Manzana)




8.2.       Integrated Transport Plan

8.2.1. Introduction
The National Land Transport Transition Act (Act No.22 of 2000) guides the
development of Transport Plans and tasks every transport authority, municipality and
core city to prepare an integrated transport plan of which a public transport plan
forms a component27.

The Integrated Transport Plan for District should aim, inter alia, to:
  Provide an integrated public transport system which is efficient and effective in
   moving passengers from their origin to destination
  Provide guidance to the development of public transport services and
   infrastructure e.g. location of bus and taxi ranks, construction of facilities at these
   stops
  Integrate the modes of transport utilised in the municipality
  Ensure the provision of transport infrastructure, so as to improve the safety of
   pedestrians and vehicular traffic
  Support the proposed land use planning contained in the IDP and to be detailed
   in the Land Use Management System, in particular in reinforcing the development
   of identified nodes, activity corridors and mixed use areas
  Ensure that there are linkages between the identified PRAC of Newcastle-
   Madadeni-Osizweni, the hubs of Utrecht and Dannhauser, and, the satellites of
   Charlestown, Ingogo, Leokop, Ananthungwa Trust, Mbaso, Groenvlei, Blue
   Mountain, Kingsley, Nzima, Hattingspruit, Naasfarm, Flint, Thirst and Kilkeel.
  Improve accessibility of rural settlements within the municipality
  Support the development of the tourism sector, by ensuring the provision of
   public transport services to key attractions
  Minimise the adverse impacts on the environment.


8.2.2. Strategy Guidelines
The Act sets out principles and policy to guide transport and development planning.
The key elements of this are:
 Public transport is aimed at providing affordable transport to the public and
   should focus on the most effective and economic way of moving from one point to
   another in the system
 All roleplayers must strive to achieve an efficient land transport system through
   integrated planning, provision and regulation of infrastructure and services and
   diligent and effective law enforcement


27
  The Act indicates that in the case of a district municipality, as defined by Local Government Municipal Structures
Act (117 of 98), it and its relevant local municipalities must agree on which of them must prepare the plans.

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    Public transport services facilities and infrastructure must be provided and
     developed so as to integrate the different modes of land transport.
    Public transport must be given higher priority than private transport.
    Investment in infrastructure and operations must promote economic, financial,
     technical and environmental sustainability.
    Promote co-ordination of institutional functions
    Land use transport functions must be integrated with related functions such as
     land use and economic planning and development through, amongst others,
     development of corridors, and densification and infilling, and transport planning
     must guide land use and development planning.
    Must consider special needs categories
    Participation of all interested and affected parties must be promoted, people must
     have the opportunity to develop the understanding, skills and capacity necessary
     for effective participation.

The Act specifies the requirements of transport plans as:
 Enhance the effective functioning of cities, towns and rural areas through
   integrated planning of transport infrastructure and facilities, transport operations
   including freight movement, bulk services and public transport services within the
   context of those integrated development plans and the land development
   objectives set in terms of section 27 of the Development Facilitation Act (67 0f
   1995) or where applicable, land development objectives of that nature set in
   terms of relevant provincial law
 Direct employment opportunities and activities mixed land uses and high-density
   residential development into high utilisation public transportation corridors
   interconnected through development nodes within the corridors, and discourage
   urban sprawl where public transport services are inadequate.
 Give priority to infilling and densification along public transport corridors;
 Give higher priority to public transport than private transport by ensuring the
   provision of adequate public transport services and applying travel demand
   management measures to discourage private transport,
 Enhance accessibility to public transport services and facilities, and transport
   functionality in the case of persons with disabilities
 Minimise adverse impacts on the environment.
 Continuous process of transport planning
 Must try ensure so-ordination between land transport modes (where practical) to
   optimise accessibility and utilisation


8.2.3. Sectoral Setting
The primary corridor in the district road is the National Road (N11). The N11
traverses the district municipality in a north-south direction. The secondary
movement corridor follows the road from Newcastle to Hattingspruit. The R33 and
R34 form a tertiary corridor in the district.


8.2.4. Sector Vision and Applicable Objectives

8.2.4.1.        Vision
“ Amajuba will be a fully developed District, with a vibrant and sustainable economy,
a better quality of life, preserved within its own culture and traditional values.”




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8.2.4.2.        Objectives
    To ensure that municipal services are provided to all communities within the
     Amajuba District in the most efficient, effective, affordable and sustainable
     manner.


8.2.5. Strategies and Projects
The preparation of a transport plan for the district should ensure that the plan gives
effect to the strategies relating to roads, which were identified, namely:

                   Table 50: Road Infrastructure Objectives and Strategies
                  Objectives                                          Strategies
To ensure that municipal services are provided      To upgrade roads and stormwater drainage in
to all communities within the Amajuba District      the district.
in the most efficient, effective, affordable and    Upgrade and provide community access roads
sustainable manner.                                 to ensure greater accessibility and mobility
                                                    To provide public transport facilities (bus and
                                                    taxi stops and ranks)

The following prioritised projects are contained in the IDP for implementation:

Roads and Stormwater:                              Roads and Stormwater KZ252
                                                   Roads and Stormwater KZ253
                                                   Roads and Stormwater KZ254
                                                   Access roads to cluster




8.3.       Integrated Waste Management Plan

8.3.1. Introduction
Integrated Waste Management Plans ensure that waste management complies with
sectoral principles and strategies. Further, it provides the basis for operational
planning and budgeting.

The formulation of a Waste Management Plan should comply with the requirements
set out in the White Paper on Integrated Pollution and Waste Management for South
Africa.

Although Integrated Waste Management Plans are the responsibility of each local
authority, the district should play a co-ordinating role at district level. The plan should
include, inter alia:
 background information
 strategic objectives
 community and public participation programme
   Establish the most appropriate arrangements for waste collection and
    management throughout the municipality
   Co-ordinate waste collection in the municipality
   Ensure the development of a co-ordinated system of landfill sites
   programmes for implementation
   Co-ordinate the management of waste disposal
   Reduce the possible adverse environmental impacts of landfill sites in the
    municipality
   Enhance the effectiveness of litter collection and street cleansing programmes
    through co-ordination of activities and focus areas.

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8.3.2. Sectoral Setting
In terms of the overall refuse removal arrangements:
 57% of households have weekly refuse collection by the local authority. The
    local authority with the highest level of service within the district is the Newcastle
    Local Municipality.
 34% of households have their own refuse dump. These households are largely
    located within the Utrecht and Dannhauser Municipal areas.
 4.5% of households have no refuse collection arrangement. These households
    are largely located within the Utrecht Local Municipality area.


8.3.3. Sector Vision and Applicable Objectives
8.3.3.1.        Vision
“ Amajuba will be a fully developed District, with a vibrant and sustainable economy,
a better quality of life, preserved within its own culture and traditional values.”

8.3.3.2. Objectives
    To ensure that municipal services are provided to all communities within the
     Amajuba District in the most efficient, effective, affordable and sustainable
     manner.
    To rehabilitate and improve the environment.

8.3.4. Strategies and Projects
The Amajuba District Council does not have an Integrated Waste Management Plan.
When formulating a Plan, the plan should give effect to the following objectives and
strategies.

                        Table 51: Waste related Objectives and Strategies
                   Objective                                          Strategies
To ensure that municipal services are provided      To establish an integrated district-wide solid
to all communities within the Amajuba District      waste management system
in the most efficient, effective, affordable and    To promote and implement a recycling
sustainable manner.                                 programme in the district
                                                    To upgrade existing waste disposal facilities.

The following prioritised projects are contained in the IDP for implementation:

Solid Waste:                                       Solid Waste



8.4.       Integrated Poverty Reduction and Gender equality Programme

8.4.1. Introduction
The purpose of an integrated poverty reduction and gender equality programme is to
ensure that there are measures directed towards alleviating poverty and gender
inequalities in the municipality.

The Integrated Poverty Reduction and Gender Equality Programme for the District
should aim to, inter alia:
  Identify those projects identified in the IDP which will have a positive impact on
   poverty reduction and gender equality and integrate these in a manner which will
   maximise these impacts
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    Identify those activities that require additional support to ensure their contribution
     to poverty reduction and/or gender equality
    Develop the institutional support and policies required to ensure that poverty
     reduction and gender equality are fundamental considerations in the design and
     implementation of projects
    Establish a monitoring system to identify the impacts of municipal policies and
     projects on poverty reduction and gender equality.

8.4.2. Strategy Guidelines
Guidelines on gender equality and poverty alleviation are inherent in legislation and
policy documents such as the Reconstruction and Development Programme (RDP),
The White Paper on Local Government and SALGA handbook on gender and
development.

The principles of gender equality and poverty alleviation are also foremost in the
Constitution of South Africa. Section 9 of the Bill of Rights endorses equality, while
Sections 26 and 27 of the Bill of Rights deals with basic needs, stating that everyone
has the right to have access to housing, health care services, food and water, and,
social security.


8.4.3. Sectoral Setting
In terms of gender distribution within the district, 52% of the population are women.
Women play an important role in the economy.

The district is characterised by low levels of income. A large percentage of earnings
are less than R500 per month. 64% of the population earn no income and 5.5% earn
a minimum wage of between R1 and R2400. The majority of households, which earn
no income, are located within Dannhauser Local Municipality (KZ254).

Incomes, unemployment, access to water and dependency indices have determined
the poverty indicator for the district. The highest levels of poverty are found within
the Dannhauser Local Municipality which, is characterised by low levels of income
and high unemployment rates. The second highest levels of poverty are found within
the Utrecht Local Municipality.


8.4.4. Sector Vision and Applicable Objectives
8.4.4.1.        Vision
“ Amajuba will be a fully developed District, with a vibrant and sustainable economy,
a better quality of life, preserved within its own culture and traditional values.”

8.4.4.2.        Objectives
    To facilitate, encourage and support the development of the local economy and
     job creation.


8.4.5. Strategies and Objectives
The District Council does not have a formal Poverty Reduction and Gender Equality
Programme in place. However, by the very nature of the contents of such a
programme, and, that of the proposed strategies and projects contained in the IDP, a
Poverty Reduction and Gender Equality Programme may be derived. Additional
activities required to complete this exercise would require alignment with the
activities of Service Providers active in project implementation in the area.

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A further element of the poverty reduction component of this programme is the
Indigent Policy of the municipality. This policy grants relief to the poorer sections of
the community of the municipality in the payment of service charges for services
provided. The implementation of the free basic water policy will afford further relief to
the poor in the municipality.

A further element of this programme is the approach adopted to the implementation
of projects. Where possible, infrastructure projects should be implemented using
labour based construction methods, which also afford opportunities to women.



8.5.       Integrated Environmental Programme

8.5.1. Introduction
An integrated Environmental Programme contributes to a healthy environment by
ensuring that environmental issues are adequately addressed and, future projects
and development have no negative impact on the natural environment.

The Integrated Environmental Programme for the District should aim to, inter alia:
  Co-ordinate the proposals in the Environmental Implementation Plans and
   Environmental Management Plans prepared by various national and provincial
   departments to the activities of the different municipal departments
  Define the limits of acceptable change within the district municipality
  Identify additional environmental opportunities which can be further enhanced
  Prepare mitigation strategies to address the identified areas of environmental
   concern


8.5.2. Strategy Guidelines
Policy documents, which provide strategic environmental guidelines, include:
 National Environmental Management Act
 Local Agenda 21
 National Environmental Management Plans, and
 Provincial Environmental Implementation Plans.

A summary of relevant legislation is provided below.

National Environment Management Act, Act 107 of 1998 (NEMA)
This Act aims to prevent / minimize damage to the environment, and to rehabilitate
already degraded environments. Chapter 1 of NEMA sets out the principles of the
Act and highlights further sustainable development. Of particular interest is 4 (a)
which outlines some key factors pertaining to sustainable development, some of
these include:

    That the disturbance of eco-systems and loss of biological diversity are avoided,
     or where they cannot be altogether avoided, are minimised and remedied.
    That pollution and degradation of the environment are avoided, or where they
     cannot be altogether avoided/remedied, are minimised and remedied;
    That the disturbance of landscapes and sites that constitute the nation’s cultural
     heritage is avoided, or where it cannot be altogether avoided, is minimised and
     remedied


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    That waste is avoided, or where it cannot altogether be avoided, is minimised and
     re-used or re-cycled where possible and otherwise disposed of in a responsible
     manner
    That the use and exploitation of non-renewable natural resources is responsible
     and equitable, and takes into account the consequences of the depletion of the
     resource
    That the development, use and exploitation of renewable resources and the eco-
     systems of which they are part do not exceed the level beyond which their
     integrity is jeopardized

The “polluter pays” principle arising out of the Rio Summit in 1992, is also uplifted by
NEMA.       The costs of remedying pollution, environmental degradation and
consequent adverse health effects and preventing, controlling or minimising further
pollution. Environmental damage or adverse health effects must be paid for by those
responsible for harming the environment.

Subsection ( r ) clearly indicates that “ Sensitive, vulnerable, highly        dynamic or
stressed ecosystems, such as coastal shores, estuaries, wetlands,              and similar
systems require specific attention in management and planning                  procedures,
especially where they are subject to significant human resources               usage and
development pressure.


8.5.3. Sectoral Setting
The Amajuba District is characterised by high lying western and northern areas. The
Buffalo River is the major system in the Amajuba District, draining in to the Tugela
River.

There are relatively few formal conservation areas in the District.            The formal
conservation areas are:
 Chelmsford Resort Game Park
 Ncandu Nature Reserve / Incandu Forest Reserve
 National Monuments.

The are many environmentally sensitive areas throughout the district.                     The
environmentally sensitive wetlands are:
 Blood River Vlei
 Boschoffsvlei
 Groenvlei
 Paddavlei

There are several registered conservancies in the Amajuba District. Some of these
areas have been developed with tourism in mind, while others are purely for
conservation purposes.


8.5.4. Sector Vision and Applicable Objectives
8.5.4.1.        Vision
“ Amajuba will be a fully developed District, with a vibrant and sustainable economy,
a better quality of life, preserved within its own culture and traditional values.”

8.5.4.2.        Objectives
    To rehabilitate and improve the environment


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8.5.5. Strategies and Projects
The Amajuba District Council does not have an environmental programme in place.
However, given the importance of some of the areas within the municipality for
environmental and conservation purposes and the need for specific activities to
address areas of concern, an environmental management plan is an important
requirement for the municipality.

This plan would need to address the following areas identified within the Spatial
Development Framework, as well as any specific issues raised during the formulation
of such a Plan:
   Recreation and Tourism Areas
   Land reform projects
   Rural-residential areas
   Special Environmental Management Areas
   Mine rehabilitation
   Conservation areas

A key element of this plan would also need to be the preparation of management
guidelines, and obtaining the ‘buy-in’ of the agricultural community for the application
of these guidelines, as they may pertain to sites of environmental importance e.g.
nesting sites for key bird species, habitat management for endemic species etc.

The environmental management should give effect to the following objective and
strategies:

                       Table 52: Environmental Objectives and Strategies
                   Objective                                         Strategies
To rehabilitate and improve the environment       To establish an integrated environmental
                                                  management system
                                                  To conserve areas of environmental,
                                                  conservation and tourist significance
                                                  To undertake soil rehabilitation in areas of high
                                                  erosion
                                                  To eradicate alien vegetation
                                                  To address the pollution of water catchments
                                                  by mining and industrial activity
                                                  To address environmental issues relating to
                                                  waste disposal
                                                  To promote environmental awareness.

The following prioritised projects are contained in the IDP for implementation:

Environmental Management:                       Environmental Management Plan
                                                Alien vegetation program
                                                Environmental awareness campaign
                                                Erosion Control Program
                                                Emission control & monitoring




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8.6.       Integrated Local Economic Development (LED) Programme

8.6.1. Introduction
The purpose of an integrated LED programme is to ensure a consistent and
conducive set of measures to promote a viable local economic activities and
employment generation.

The Integrated LED Programme for District should aim to, inter alia:
  Collect and interpret economic information and maintain an economic database
  Co-ordinate government’s economic development and related programmes with
   the activities of the municipality
  Identify the extent, type and location of economic infrastructure required,
   particularly for SMME activity in the previously disadvantaged areas
  Identify and facilitate linkages between the economic activities in the rural areas
   and the opportunities in the urban core
  Facilitate sustainable community projects and support SMMEs by facilitating
   access to funding and training
  Identify and facilitate complementarity between large and small projects in the
   municipality
  Focus on the development of lead sectors e.g. tourism
  Improve the operational efficiency of the municipality to support economic
   development e.g. speeding up the processing of licensing applications, rendering
   of better services, information dissemination


8.6.2. Strategy Guidelines
Policies, which provide strategic guidelines for LED, include:
 White Paper on Local Government, which encourages municipalities to address
    unemployment and to promote LED.
 Growth, Employment and Redistribution programme (GEAR) aims at achieving
    employment through economic growth and competitiveness.
 The Constitution of South Africa includes a constitutional mandate for
    municipalities to promote social and economic development.


8.6.3. Sectoral Setting
The economy of Amajuba has historically been focussed in mining, manufacturing
and commodity services. However, the decline of the mining sector and variable
performance of the manufacturing sector, together with limited diversification has
contributed to a slow economy.

The district is characterised by low levels of income. Only 27% of the population were
employed in the formal sector in 1996. A large percentage of the earning power is
less than R500 per month.

8.6.4. Sector Vision and Applicable Objectives
8.6.4.1.        Vision
“ Amajuba will be a fully developed District, with a vibrant and sustainable economy,
a better quality of life, preserved within its own culture and traditional values.”

8.6.4.2.        Objectives
    To facilitate, encourage and support the development of the local economy and
     job creation.
    To facilitate sound development in the district.
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8.6.5. Strategies and Projects
Although the District Municipality does not have a formalised LED programme,
strategies forming the core of the LED programme namely:

                               Table 53: LED Strategies and Objectives
                    Objective                                            Strategies
To facilitate, encourage and support the             To facilitate inward investment into the
development of the local economy and job             Amajuba District.
creation                                             To promote networking opportunities and
                                                     support for economic development in the
                                                     district.
                                                     To retain existing businesses and the jobs they
                                                     provide in the district.
                                                     To support agricultural development in the
                                                     district.
                                                     To develop and promote the district as a tourist
                                                     destination.
                                                     To stimulate and support SMMEs
                                                     To support local business through a
                                                     preferential procurement policy for locally
                                                     based contractors and service providers and
                                                     the adoption of labour based construction
                                                     methods.
                                                     To increase opportunities for the previously
                                                     disadvantaged.

The projects and activities, which give effect to the implementation of this
programme, have been identified as:

Amajuba Business Centre:                           Customer Care & Satellites
                                                   Sewing Clubs
                                                   Poultry Farms
                                                   Community Gardens
                                                   SMME Clusters
                                                   LED Study
                                                   Amajuba Agricultural Co-operative
                                                   Amajuba Business Centre Implementation
Tourism:                                            Battlefields upgrade
                                                    Oribi Environmental Centre
                                                    Arts & Crafts Meander
                                                    Amajuba Re-enactments
                                                    Amajuba Birding Meander
                                                    Coal Mining Experience
                                                    Tourism Awareness Campaign
                                                    CTO Support
                                                    Tourism Signage
                                                    Shelters for Arts & Craft Traders
                                                    Tourism Plan
                                                    Provincial Travel Guide
                                                    Berg, Bush & Battlefields Book
                                                    Tourism Shows & Exhibitions
                                                    Tourism Product Development
Education:                                         Crèche implementation
                                                   Youth care facilities
                                                   Technicon Facilitation

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                                            A.B.E.T Study
                                            Crime Education Programme




8.7.       Disaster Management Plan

8.7.1. Introduction
The purpose of a Disaster Management Plan is to enhance the municipality to
prevent, and to deal with, disasters and to avoid development that is subject to high
risk in terms of disasters.

8.7.2. Strategy Guidelines
The Green paper on Disaster Management considers principles that should inform
the design of risk-reduction and disaster-management strategies. The Green Paper
states the following principles that need to be considered when shaping a vision and
guiding strategy to deal with disasters:
 It must focus on key areas
 Take care of the most vulnerable first.
 Foster a culture of prevention
 Integration into development
 Equity
 Ensure community involvement
 Driven in all spheres of government
 Transparent and inclusive
 Accommodate local conditions
 Have legitimacy
 Flexible and adaptable
 Efficient and effective
 Affordable and sustainable
 Needs orientated and prioritised
 Multi-disciplinary and integrated approach.


8.7.3. Sector Vision and Applicable Objectives
8.7.3.1.        Vision
“ Amajuba will be a fully developed District, with a vibrant and sustainable economy,
a better quality of life, preserved within its own culture and traditional values.”

8.7.3.2.        Objectives
    To achieve sound management, administration and development in the District.

8.7.4. Strategies and Projects
The District Municipality does not have a disaster management plan in place. The
Newcastle Municipality currently has a disaster management plan that focuses on the
Newcastle-Madadeni-Osizweni areas. There is a need for the district municipality to
formulate a plan for the entire district.

The following disasters/incidents have been identified for which an action plan should
be formulated:

    Flooding, cyclones, earthquakes
    Train, bus and major road collision
    Aircraft incident

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    Fire incidents
    Toxic gasses and hazardous chemicals
    Terrorism, sabotage, bomb threats and explosions
    Strikes and civil unrest
    Influx
    Total electrical failure
    Radioactive material incidents
    anthrax

No specific communities have been earmarked as being at risk of the above.
However, communities which may have settled within the flood lines are more at risk
to flooding, while informal settlements, by the nature of their living environments and
material of their dwellings, are at a higher risk to fire incidents.

When the district municipality prepares a disaster management plan, the plan should
include the following:
 likely types of disasters and specific locations/communities at risk
 prevention and mitigation strategies for each of the likely types of disaster
 contingency plans and emergency procedures which ensure maximum
    emergency preparedness, considering available capacities
 roles and responsibilities.

The following prioritised projects will give effect to a disaster management plan:

Disaster Management:                           Disaster Management Plan
                                               Centralised Emergency Centre
                                               Fire Station Equipment KZ 252-254
                                               Rural Fire fighting Units




8.8.       Integrated HIV/AIDS Programme

8.8.1. Introduction
The purpose of an integrated HIV/AIDS programme is to ensure that there is a
systematic and conclusive set of measures in place, by a broad range of role-players,
to prevent the spread of HIV/AIDS and to deal with its consequences.


8.8.2. Strategic Guidelines
Guiding principles for HIV/AIDS strategies are contained within the HIV/AIDS and
STD Strategic Plan for south Africa 2000-2005, and, The KwaZulu-Natal provincial
AIDS Strategic Plan.

8.9.2.1. The KwaZulu-Natal Provincial AIDS Strategic Plan
The KwaZulu-Natal Provincial Aids Strategy has the vision of an AIDS free KwaZulu-
Natal by 2020. It is evident through the Mission statement that the key to achieving
an AIDS free province is through the implementation of programmes and
dissemination of information thereby positively changing people’s lifestyle.

Focus areas to achieve an AIDS free KZN by 2020 are:
 Extensive awareness campaign
 Strengthen partnerships between Departments
 Provide Life Skills Education to vulnerable groups

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    Strengthen partnerships with sectors outside of government
    Provide effective care, counseling and support
    Provide effective management of Sexually Transmitted Diseases both in the
     public and private sector.

The challenges to overcome are listed as:
 Lack of resources – financial, material, human
 Typography of KwaZulu-Natal
 Poverty
 Migrant labour system
 Illiteracy
 Patriarchal society
 Poor infrastructure – roads and communication
 Traditional values – cultural and religious beliefs
 Politics.

In addition to focus areas and challenges, the strategic plan listed strategic objectives
for 2000/2001.

It is evident that inherent in implementing the strategic plan, local municipalities can
play an important role. Local Government can contribute to AIDS awareness
campaigns and life skills programmes at schools. Further, they can implement
community/home based care programmes and provide effective care, counseling and
support. Currently, the municipal clinics in Newcastle offer HIV testing and
counseling. The municipality can also work towards overcoming challenges such as
poverty, illiteracy, the migrant labour system and poor infrastructure.               By
implementing job creating projects, the municipality is seeking to create employment
within its area thereby decreasing poverty and migrant labour as people will not have
to seek work away from their homes in Newcastle. Further, the municipality can
facilitate in the delivery of social and municipal infrastructure.

8.9.2.2. HIV/AIDS and STD Strategic Plan for South Africa 2000-2005
Guiding principles for HIV/AIDS and STD prevention, treatment and care in South
Africa, were adopted in the National AIDS Plan for South Africa 1994-1995, and, the
Department of Health’s White Paper for the Transformation of the Health System in
South Africa, 1997. These principles were re-affirmed in the 2000-2005 strategy.

The primary goals of the strategic plan are to:
 Reduce the number of new HIV infections (especially amongst the youth)
 Reduce the impact of HIV/AIDS on individuals, families and communities.

The strategic plan is structured according to the following areas:
 Prevention (priority area 1)
 Treatment, care and support (priority area 2)
 Research, monitoring and evaluation (priority area 3)
 Human and legal rights (priority area 4)
 The youth will be broadly targeted as a priority population group, especially for
   prevention efforts.

8.9.2.3. Provincial AIDS Action Unit
In addition to the above strategies, the Province has a Provincial AIDS Action Unit
which was set up in March 2000. The role if the unit is to, inter alia:
 Facilitate planning, implementation and evaluation of HIV/AIDS activities in the
    province.


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    Co-ordinate the HIV/AIDS activities directed at the prevention of HIV infection and
     care for those infected and affected.
    Facilitate intersectoral collaboration.
    Mobilise for partnership against HIV/AIDS
    Provide support for non-governmental organisations /community based
     organisations and other government departments in relation to HIV/AIDS.
    Provide support for the private sector, corporate headquarters and subsidiaries in
     relation to HIV/AIDS.
    Working closely with people living with AIDS, assisting them to remain as healthy
     as possible.
    Facilitate programmes to empower HIV negative people to remain negative.
    To ensure the provision of programmes to enhance the A, B, C of AIDS.

The unit recognises the important role the following can play in the fight against
AIDS, whether it be by educating the community about AIDS, providing care or
counseling or, by providing support:
 Government departments
 Traditional leaders
 Local government councilors
 Traditional healers
 Religious leaders and community leaders
 Business, and
 Community members.


8.8.3. Sector Plan
AIDS/HIV will have demographic, economic, social and developmental impacts. Aids
impacts on mortality rates, life expectancy, fertility, population size and growth, as
well as, the dependency ratio, and, the number of orphans. These, in turn, affect the
population profile of the region. A high level of mortality results in an increase in the
number of orphans. A high mortality rate in the working aged population also leads
to high dependency rates. A result of this epidemic is an increased demand for
health facilities and social services. Further, the AIDS issue must be factored into to
infrastructure planning considerations as it impacts on the demographic structure,
dependency ratios, and, it impacts on the level, and type, of demand for services.
Expected impacts on the demand for services include social and welfare facilities due
to the deaths of household breadwinners; a need for cemeteries as the increase in
mortality rates and an increase demand in health services.


8.8.4. Sector Vision and Applicable Objectives
8.8.4.1.        Vision
“ Amajuba will be a fully developed District, with a vibrant and sustainable economy,
a better quality of life, preserved within its own culture and traditional values.”

8.8.4.2.        Objectives
    To ensure that social services are provided to all communities within the Amajuba
     District in the most efficient, effective, affordable and sustainable manner.


8.8.5. Strategies and Projects
Although the District Municipality does not have a formalised AIDS/HIV programme,
strategies forming the core of the programme include:


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                                                                        Amajuba District Municipality
                                                                       Integrated Development Plan
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                           Table 54: HIV/AIDS Objectives and Strategies
                    Objective                                          Strategies
To ensure that social services are provided to     To establish and HIV/AIDS programme which
all communities within the Amajuba District in     supports national and provincial initiatives.
the most efficient, effective, affordable and      Upgrade facilities, access, staffing and
sustainable manner.                                equipment at existing clinics.
                                                   Provide additional clinic services in areas
                                                   which are currently under- and unserviced

The following project has been identified in the IDP to give effect to this programme:

Health:                                           HIV/AIDS Awareness
                                                  HIV/AIDS Self Help Project




SiVEST/Deloitte and Touche Consortium

								
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