TRANSFORMING AMERICA FINAL SCRIPT TITLE: Lesson 2: The American West WRITER: Ken Harrison PRODUCER: Julia Dyer DRAFT: FINAL DATE: March 7, 2005 Transforming America · TA102 – FINAL · The American West 03/07/05 1 VISUAL AUDIO FADE IN: Introduction (:42) Music Up 1. Open with images of the Buffalo NARRATOR: The myth of the American West Bill show from 1880s & 90s brims with adventure, hope, freedom, and wide- open spaces. It stands apart from the rest of America, a sort of “Promised Land within the Promised Land”, a place where you can tell the good guys from the bad guys. But the reality of western history is far more complex, and intimately interwoven with that of the country as a whole. Segment #1: The Promised Land (6:31) Learning Objectives: Analyze the reasons for the relatively rapid settlement of the Great Plains by non- Indians between 1865 and 1900. Examine the realities of life for those who moved to the Great Plains. 2. Sarah Stage on camera Music Up Super: Sarah Stage, Arizona State University SARAH STAGE (02:11:48): I think it’s really important to talk about the West as an integral part 3. B-roll: western vistas of the American scene. Otherwise, you’d think the West was just out there from 1840 to 1910 and going completely on its own. The West is an 4. Pics/b-roll of gold mining Transforming America · TA102 – FINAL · The American West 03/07/05 2 VISUAL AUDIO essential part of “gilded age” America. I like to argue that the “gilded” in the Gilded Age came from the gold fields of California, because the speculative mania that really develops around the mining industry in the west is at the heart of what Mark Twain would see and call “The Gilded Age.” 5. Richard White RICHARD WHITE (05:28:14): One of the things Super: Richard White, we forget about this sort of romantic era in the late Stanford University 19th century West is that it’s very much tied in with the growth of the United States as an industrial 6. B-roll: railroad; cattle drive? nation. Take something like cowboys and cattle ranching. Those only can take place, first of all, 7. Pics: Cowboys during trail drive: because you’ve got the railroad, which will allow cattle loading on railroad cars; slaughterhouse; refrigerated cattle to be taken to market in the East in railroad cars refrigerated cars, which allow the great packers to really begin to take meat apart. And that’s literally what they’re doing. They’re dismantling cows in Chicago and sending it out in these refrigerated cars all over the nation, putting smaller butchers out of business. The people investing in these ranches are 8. Ranch owners (European largely European capitalists. So when you begin to capitalists) look at ranching, what you’re not looking at so much Transforming America · TA102 – FINAL · The American West 03/07/05 3 VISUAL AUDIO is a hearty individualist, you’re looking at a 9. Single cowboy out on the plains with cattle (maybe use an effect manifestation of what it really is – this world market in which he’s surrounded by railroads, etc.?) and this new industry which is transforming the United States. 10. B-roll: railroad NARRATOR: Unlike the East, where the government largely stayed out of business, the 11. GRAPHIC: Map delineating the Great Plains federal government had a central role to play in the development of the West. Nationally subsidized 12. Pics: Homestead Act/ railroads carried settlers to the Great Plains, where Advertisements they staked a claim under the federal Homestead 13. B-ROLL: prairie Act, or bought land the government had granted to the railroads. 14. Mock-up of ad: Actors as LAND PITCHMEN: "Land! Land! HOMES For Everybody!" Ten Years' Credit… 6% Interest…only the interest Lands in Trego County, Kansas - and for sale at prices ranging from $2.50 to payment down. $5.00. The 'Boss' City of Western Kansas offers Unparalleled Inducements to the Mechanic, Better Terms Than Ever! Products will Pay for Land Merchant and Laborer. It is admirably located and is destined to become the and Improvements. Large Discounts For Cash! 'Boss' Town on the Western Border of Kansas." Buy train tickets to explore the land. Deductible from the final cost IF land is purchased… 15. Richard White on camera RICHARD WHITE (06:00:56): The movement west of the Missouri is very much an artifact of railroad Transforming America · TA102 – FINAL · The American West 03/07/05 4 VISUAL AUDIO expansion, both because the railroads provide transportation and provide a way for farmers to get goods to market, but also the railroads sell as much 16. B-roll: railroads, prairie, farmland land as farmers acquire from the Homestead Act. In the initial stages they’re bringing them into some of the best agricultural lands in the world. Later on they’re bringing them into very marginal agricultural lands and they’re promising them that rain will follow 17. B-roll: Pioneer village, 19th century farming the plow. 18. Charlene McAden on camera CHARLENE MCADEN (03:14:06): My great- Super: Charlene McAden grandfather, Enoch Martin Lafferty, was a farmer in Missouri and he wanted to come when they opened 19. Pics: Oklahoma land-rush the territory of Oklahoma for homesteading. 20. B-ROLL: Lafferty family quilt 21. Family pics of Lafferty family in My grandfather was not 18 yet, so he could not wagon claim any land. But his brother did. And his brother, whose name was Omer, claimed what is now the township of Garber. 22. B-ROLL: Oklahoma landscapes CHARLENE MCADEN (03:06:59): There was not really anything there. There were no homes, of course no roads. The summer, August, does rival hell. It is hot. In the winter there’s nothing to stop Transforming America · TA102 – FINAL · The American West 03/07/05 5 VISUAL AUDIO the wind. They don’t have any trees! So the wind comes from the north pole and just comes right through there. They had to have been a strength somewhere that gave them the courage to fight the environment. 23. Richard White on camera RICHARD WHITE (6:03:56): But they’re overwhelmed by the immensity of the place. 24. Pics of homestead farming on They’re overwhelmed by the distance from forlorn prairies neighbors. They’re overwhelmed by the lack of rainfall. They’re overwhelmed by a whole series of things. 25. Patty Limerick on camera PATTY LIMERICK (19:05:17): There’s nothing Super: Patricia Limerick, worse, really, than those descriptions of what it was University of Colorado like to be in a grasshopper plague. It’s pretty awful, the devastation with which they can land and take out a crop. 26. Patty Limerick on camera Actor as MARY LYON: They devoured every green thing but the prairie grass. 27. B-roll: Prairie, farmland, crops Actor as ADELHEIT VIETS: I was wearing a dress 28. Pics: crops devastated by hail or grasshoppers of white with a green stripe. The grasshoppers settled on me and ate up every bit of the green Transforming America · TA102 – FINAL · The American West 03/07/05 6 VISUAL AUDIO stripe in that dress before anything could be done about it. 29. B-roll: Pioneer village, 19th NARRATOR: Despite the hardships, the farmers century farming of the Great Plains endured. One pioneer woman remembered… 30. B-ROLL: Kansas beauty shots Actor as PIONEER WOMAN: …the thrill of conquering a new country, the attraction of the prairie, which simply gets into your blood and makes you dissatisfied away from it, the low lying hills, the unobstructed view of the horizon. 31. Ads for large equipment in NARRATOR: Farmers may have felt alone on the farmers’ magazines wide prairie, but they were not isolated from the 32. B-roll: Pioneer village hardware march of progress. Agriculture, like every other store business in America, was transformed by industrialization. 33. Farmers on dug-out farm RICHARD WHITE (06:07:45): Farmers are going into the plains in order to create what’s an icon – a 34. Possibly use headlines from family farm. But the problem is they are competing business sections of period papers re: crops with farmers all over the world and the basic commodities they’re producing, wheat, are being 35. B-roll: Fields of wheat produced far more than anybody can consume. So Transforming America · TA102 – FINAL · The American West 03/07/05 7 VISUAL AUDIO this is one of the things that makes it a very, very hard row to hoe for these farmers in the late 19th 36. Pics: farmers giving up, wagons century and what happens to many of them is they going back east, farms for sale (sign: In God We Trusted, In leave farming. Kansas We Busted) 37. Charlene McAden on camera CHARLENE MCADEN (03:02:10): Omer tried to stay there but he said it was the most godforsaken piece of the world he could imagine. It has to rival hell. So he traded his 160 acres for a mule and a wagon and he went back to Missouri and drove a 38. Pic of Uncle Omer on the trolley car trolley car the rest of his life and I guess was very, very happy. Segment #2: Conquest and Survival (8:16) Learning Objective: Examine the American Indian responses to the encroachments on Western lands. 39. Pic: Sarah Winnemucca (?) Music Up Super: Frederick Hoxie, University of Illinois FREDERICK HOXIE (12:01:36): I always think of Sarah Winnemucca, who was a Paiute woman, who said at the beginning of her autobiography, “I was here. I remember when the white people came. Transforming America · TA102 – FINAL · The American West 03/07/05 8 VISUAL AUDIO They came like a lion.” 40. Fred Hoxie on camera For the hunting peoples the resources went away, the buffalo and other game. Land was fenced and 41. Images of Plains Indian life people were restricted from moving in ways that around 1876: village life, landscapes, faces they had never been before. Many of them were separated from their children…tremendous health 42. B-roll: prairie, buffalo issues…problems of disease and malnutrition. And so their lives changed in almost every respect through that time period. 43. Images of encroachment by NARRATOR: As the trickle of immigrants into the whites into Indian lands by settlers, buffalo hunters, wagon West became a flood, American Indians were left trains, miners, etc. with few alternatives. 44. Fred Hoxie on camera FREDERICK HOXIE (12:05:52): Indians did have choices to make. Some people tried to resist the Americans and tried to stop the expansion. And still 45. Pics: Indians in council others allied themselves with the Americans because they felt the Americans were the lesser of the evils that they faced. They faced other tribes who they thought were more threatening at that particular moment than whites were. 46. Pics: treaty-making at Fort NARRATOR: The 1868 Treaty of Fort Laramie had Laramie, 1868 Transforming America · TA102 – FINAL · The American West 03/07/05 9 VISUAL AUDIO designated the Black Hills of South Dakota as part 47. GRAPHIC: Map showing boundaries of Great Sioux of the Great Sioux Reservation. However, as the reservation westward construction of the railroad approached 48. B-ROLL: period trains, Black Hills and gold was discovered in the Black Hills, the 49. The Black Hills in 1876 – prospectors rush in due to rumors terms of the treaty gave way under the pressure of of gold white expansion. 50. Fred Hoxie on camera FREDERICK HOXIE (12:13:19): There were several bands of Sioux, all of whom opposed the invasion of the Black Hills. They all considered the Black Hills a sacred place. The government 51. Portraits of Crazy Horse and Sitting Bull announced that all of the Sioux were to report to their agencies and were no longer allowed to hunt, as the treaty had guaranteed that they could. Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse in particular rejected that. 52. Lt. Col. George Armstrong Custer NARRATOR: In June of 1876, Lt. Col. George posing in the Black Hills Armstrong Custer led the two hundred men of the 53. B-ROLL: Little Big Horn Seventh Cavalry, along with Crow and Ricara landscapes scouts, to force the Sioux back to their agency. The 54. Rendering of the gathered tribes Sioux and other tribes, numbering 4,000 strong, were camped along the Little Big Horn River. 55. Fred Hoxie on camera FREDERICK HOXIE (12:17:15): The Americans 56. Battle of the Little Big Horn as Transforming America · TA102 – FINAL · The American West 03/07/05 10 VISUAL AUDIO portrayed by both Indian and attacked them, rode directly into their village. They non-Indian artists were turned back. They retreated up the hillside. They were surrounded by warriors and they were all 57. The aftermath of Custer’s Last killed. Stand, headlines, etc. 58. Gerard Baker on camera GERARD BAKER (02:10:42): It’s a bittersweet Super: Gerard Baker, experience even today when you go to Little Big Superintendent of Mt. Rushmore Horn, from an Indian perspective, because it 59. B-ROLL: Indian monument at represents the last stronghold that we had, if you Little Big Horn. will. Even though we won that particular battle, as the owl would say, we lost the war. 60. Pics of U.S. army fighting Indians NARRATOR: The Battle of Little Big Horn was a great military victory for the Plains Indians, but it 61. STOCK: Union army drilling, proved to be one of their last. The U.S. Army was fighting (Shaping America/Civil War reenactments?) relentless in its pursuit of those who tried to remain free. 62. Gerard Baker GERARD BAKER (02:04:42): We had two choices. You either go with the government or you 63. Stark images of life on the became a hostile and be killed. And that seems a reservation little harsh but that was reality. We had borders, we had boundaries that we had to remain within. I think the old-timers that first came on the reservation in Transforming America · TA102 – FINAL · The American West 03/07/05 11 VISUAL AUDIO that time period never did adjust and that’s what killed them, I believe. 64. Actor silhouette Actor as CHIEF JOSEPH: You might as well expect the rivers to run backward as that any man 65. Pic of Chief Joseph who was born a free man should be contented when penned up and denied liberty to go where he pleases. 66. Fred Hoxie FREDERICK HOXIE (12:27:24): In 1889 a man named Wovoka, who was a Paiute in Nevada, had a 67. Pic of Wovoka? vision which said that if people would dance and follow his teachings that there would be peace and 68. Ghost Dance perhaps there would be some restoration of their earlier life, their pre-reservation life. Indian Chanting It was called the ghost dance and it brought people together to dance, to sing, to celebrate, as a source of unity but also with some hope as well. 69. Gerard Baker on camera GERARD BAKER (2:28:01): They would dance and go in these trances. They would see these things. They would see their loved ones coming 70. Ghost Dance Transforming America · TA102 – FINAL · The American West 03/07/05 12 VISUAL AUDIO back. They would see maybe visions of bison coming back. That scared the government. That scared white people actually. They could see them gaining strength with this. And that’s why they stopped it, basically. 71. Fred Hoxie on camera FREDERICK HOXIE (13:00:48): You had a new 72. Headlines: religious movement that was expanding across the Chicago Daily Tribune reservation. Unfortunately, at Pine Ridge you had a IN A STATE OF TERROR Great Excitement at the Pine Ridge Agency- Indians Dancing with Guns-Fighting Expected at newly appointed agent who was very fearful of an Any Moment uprising, who had all sorts of wild ideas about New York Times The Messiah Expected to Arrive At the Pine Ridge Indians, and who essentially panicked and called for Agency To-Day, When the Savages Will Fight Omaha Daily Bee the army to come. WITH RIFLE ON BACK The Red Skins Are Dancing The Dreaded Ghost Dance 73. Actor silhouette Actor as DR. DANIEL ROYER: Indians are dancing and are wild and crazy. We need protection 74. STOCK: Telegraph machine (Shaping America) and we need it now. Nothing short of a thousand troops will stop this…dancing. 75. Fred Hoxie on camera FREDERICK HOXIE (13:01:28): Within a few days, an army unit arrived and, of course, this just raised the tension level. The agent at the Standing Rock Sioux reservation, which was the home of Sitting Transforming America · TA102 – FINAL · The American West 03/07/05 13 VISUAL AUDIO Bull, was afraid that Sitting Bull might lead some 76. Pic/painting: Death of Sitting Bull? kind of an uprising and so he dispatched policemen to arrest Sitting Bull. They tried to come and take him before dawn in his cabin. He stood up, pulled away, and he was killed, shot down. This then set off even more panic among other leaders of other reservation communities in this area. Bigfoot feared 77. B-roll: snowy landscape with that he too would be arrested and so he led his band creek? (New Mexico, from Shaping America) from Cheyenne River south to Pine Ridge where he thought he’d be safe. On the night of December 28, 1890, they met a troop of soldiers who told them that if they would camp at Wounded Knee Creek, they would be safe. 78. Fred Hoxie In the course of the evening, the U.S. Army troops took up positions on the hills surrounding this 79. B-roll of Wounded Knee battlefield depression, this low area along the creek bed, and the next morning announced that they would all be required to give up their weapons. In the course of 80. Army patrolling Western disarming this troop, one man resisted. A shot was landscape 81. Wounded Knee campsite fired and before anyone could say anything, rendering pandemonium broke out. Within a few minutes the battlefield essentially was filled with bodies of Sioux Transforming America · TA102 – FINAL · The American West 03/07/05 14 VISUAL AUDIO people. 82. Gerard Baker GERARD BAKER (03:02:42): And it was devastating to understand that the women and children were killed and old people that were sick 83. Images of the aftermath of the Massacre at Wounded Knee were killed with no concern over their humanism. It’s a very bitter story. 84. B-roll of Wounded Knee FREDERICK HOXIE (13:05:54): Charles Eastman memorial was an educated Sioux physician and he said in his autobiography, “The events of Wounded Knee were deeply disappointing to someone who had put his trust in civilization.” I think Wounded Knee broke his heart and I think for many Indian people this was such a crime and such a terrible act of violence that it was something that they really never forgot. 85. Actor silhouette Actor as BLACK ELK: The nation’s hoop is broken and scattered. There is no center any longer, 86. Portrait of Black Elk and the sacred tree is dead. Segment #3: A Sense of Place (9:24) Learning Objectives: Analyze the causes and effects of the federal government’s policies dealing with the American Indians. Transforming America · TA102 – FINAL · The American West 03/07/05 15 VISUAL AUDIO Discuss the experience of Mexican Americans during this era and their responses to discrimination. 87. Photos: Indians on reservations Music Up NARRATOR: The age-old U.S. campaign of 88. Archival pics of reformers from “Friends of the Indian” conquest and removal was complete. Now various conventions at Lake Mohonk, New York, 1883 factions in the United States sought to influence a new American Indian policy of assimilation. 89. Actor silhouette Actor as RICHARD HENRY PRATT: The sooner all tribal relations are broken up, the sooner the 90. Portrait of Richard Henry Pratt Indian loses all his Indian ways, even his language, the better it will be for him and for the government and greater will be the economy for both. 91. Fred Hoxie on camera FREDERICK HOXIE (13:08:26): From the Indian Super: Frederick Hoxie, perspective, most of this sounded crazy. Why not University of Illinois live the way you had always lived? But they also 92. Images or photos of Bureau of understood very clearly that this was a time of Indian Affairs agents, facilities, etc. intense change. So there was also a Native American interest, not necessarily in assimilation, 93. Indians on reservation but in figuring out what they could use from this new culture. New skills – farming made sense to a lot of people. We couldn’t hunt anymore, why not farm? Transforming America · TA102 – FINAL · The American West 03/07/05 16 VISUAL AUDIO Having your children learn to speak English, Christianity made some sense to people. 94. Vine Deloria on camera VINE DELORIA, JR. (12:01:26): My great- Super: Vine Deloria, Jr. grandfather insisted that my grandfather consider Christianity and this was kind of a radical switch 95. Pics of Saswe & Tipi Sapa (Philip) after conversion because he was one of the primary medicine men. My grandfather, according to the story, went…kept going to this mission church to hear the music and that seems to have been the motivation for a lot of Indians to at least consider Christianity, if not be converted. They loved the hymns. 96. Pics: Mission church HYMN: All to Jesus, I surrender, Lord I give…. 97. Fred Hoxie FREDERICK HOXIE (13:11:19): The Bureau of Indian Affairs was not shy about joining forces with 98. Christian missionaries at work with Indians missionaries, even though there is this division of church and state in the American tradition. They quite easily and freely used government money to subsidize missionaries. 99. Pics: Indian boarding schools NARRATOR: In addition to suppressing Indian religion, assimilation policy also sought to re- Transforming America · TA102 – FINAL · The American West 03/07/05 17 VISUAL AUDIO educate Indian youth. 100. Fred Hoxie on camera FREDERICK HOXIE (13:13:07): Boarding school policy really can be summarized by the slogan, “Kill 101. Montage of stills of activities the Indian, save the man.” The idea was that if they at Indian schools. would all be forced through a very rigid schedule every day, that they would absorb this schedule and that they would become civilized people. 102. Vine Deloria on camera VINE DELORIA, JR (12:24:27): My grandfather lived a pretty free life and young men used to almost always be bare from the waist up. And when they 103. Pic of grandfather in school uniform? weren’t out doing things, they were walking around barefoot. He goes to Minnesota and they put him in a woolen uniform with shoes and the whole thing. And he lasted, I think, close to two years, but his health broke down because he wasn’t used to that 104. Photo of father at boarding kind of life. These kids would all be packed off to school Carlisle. A lot of them would die out of sheer fright 105. Pics of Indian children at Carlisle or Hampton and loneliness. 106. Reformers, Congress NARRATOR: The cornerstone of assimilation policy focused on land ownership. The reformers who influenced Indian policy believed that private Transforming America · TA102 – FINAL · The American West 03/07/05 18 VISUAL AUDIO property and individualism formed the heart of civilization. They argued that reservations should be split up and the tribal lands allotted to individuals. And in 1887 the government moved ahead with the 107. Pics: Dawes Act document new policy outlined by the Dawes Act. 108. Fred Hoxie on camera FREDERICK HOXIE (13:18:22): The reservations were systematically surveyed. People were 109. Surveying Indian land assigned to individual plots of land. The so-called surplus was sold or opened to white homesteaders 110. If possible, close-ups of allotments and Indians tried to make a living on this small piece of land. In the process of this allotment effort, 111. B-ROLL: western landscapes Indians collectively lost about 90 million acres worth of land. 112. Fred Hoxie on camera FREDERICK HOXIE (13:18:59): Any possibility of them being economically viable went out the window, because you couldn’t manage this land collectively. You couldn’t run it efficiently with these 113. Poverty-bitten Indian farms tiny plots of land. 114. Vine Deloria on camera VINE DELORIA, JR (13:07:18): Starvation, loss of community, loss of land, loss of religion. It’s amazing that as many survived into the 20th century as did. Transforming America · TA102 – FINAL · The American West 03/07/05 19 VISUAL AUDIO 115. Pics: Mexican-Americans Transition music NARRATOR: Like American Indians, Mexican- Americans also found themselves in the path of the 116. GRAPHIC: Map showing territory acquired in U.S.-Mexican stampede of Anglos intent on settling in the west. war The southwestern United States had, until recently, been part of Mexico. 117. Patty Limerick on camera PATTY LIMERICK (19:07:51): As of 1848, people Super: Patricia Limerick, who were before that Mexican citizens are rendered University of Colorado into American citizens. And there are guarantees offered about their retention of their land and their full rights to citizenship. Those guarantees take a beating in the years after that. 118. B-ROLL: Southwestern NARRATOR: Throughout the Southwest, the late landscapes 19th century witnessed a huge transfer of land from Mexican-American to Anglo-American ownership. 119. Yolanda Romero on camera YOLANDA ROMERO (1:09:36): What happens is Super: Yolanda Romero, that many of the Mexican descent individuals had North Lake College grants that had been given to them by the Spanish. And so, when the Americans come in, many of them basically said, well this was Spanish and, you know, it doesn’t matter to us what the Spanish government Transforming America · TA102 – FINAL · The American West 03/07/05 20 VISUAL AUDIO did for you. 120. Edward Archuleta on camera EDWARD ARCHULETA (01:00:50): My family’s Super: Edward Archuleta been in New Mexico since 1598. Because my family’s been in the state for so long, they were able 121. Archuleta family pics to acquire quite a bit of land over the centuries. Some of the land grants were recognized by the U.S. Government, but some of them weren’t. But 122. Spanish land grants when the American government came in, they wanted to see it on paper. They said, “Well, where are the documents? We want to see them.” They didn’t have them anymore. They had lost them over hundreds of years, so the American government said, “Well, if you can’t prove that on paper, then it’s no longer yours. You’re gonna have to leave.” 123. B-ROLL: Southwestern NARRATOR: Land constituted the basis of wealth landscapes, herds of cattle and/or sheep and position, and the vast losses sustained by the Hispanic population permanently altered the class structure of southwestern society. In 1850, the rural Mexican population in Texas was roughly equally distributed among ranch or farm owners, skilled 124. Pics of Mexican landowners, skilled laborers & manual laborers, and manual laborers. Fifty years later, the laborers manual laboring class had ballooned to more than Transforming America · TA102 – FINAL · The American West 03/07/05 21 VISUAL AUDIO Pics of Anglo ranchers and two-thirds of the Texas Mexican population. farmers (e.g., King Ranch) 125. Deena Gonzalez DEENA GONZALEZ (01:17:32): What the Super: Deena Gonzalez, resulting decline in land ownership did was, it really Loyola Marymount University made people of Mexican origin dependent on 126. Pics of Mexican wage wages. The number of people who go to work for the workers (men and women): railroad, mining, ranching, railroad, for the large farming concerns, for the cattle farming, seamstress, maid, etc. ranches, for the small businesses in metropolitan areas of the southwest, grows. But we also know that land is critical to a sense of place and so that when people lose the base they identified as their home or their place of origin, they become more 127. B-roll: southwestern readily available as a migrating labor force. So that landscapes people can move to Chicago, to Pennsylvania to work the steel mines, for example. They can follow the routes of the crops. They’re more easily 128. Pics: migratory farm workers displaced. They’re more easily used by the economic system. 129. Pics: Mexican workers, Anglo NARRATOR: To strengthen this economic bosses hierarchy, Anglos invoked a mythology similar to that which had been used to justify slavery. 130. Actor silhouette Actor as mine owner SYLVESTER MOWRY: Transforming America · TA102 – FINAL · The American West 03/07/05 22 VISUAL AUDIO The lower class of Mexicans are docile, faithful, good servants, capable of strong attachments when firmly and kindly treated. They’ve been ‘peons’ for generations. They will always remain so, as it is their natural condition. 131. Mexican workers on strike, NARRATOR: But people of Mexican origin defied these stereotypes of docility and submissiveness. Mine workers, farm workers and construction workers repeatedly went out on strike, demanding better wages and working conditions. Across the 132. Mutualistas southwest benevolent societies arose to help one another with community needs. They served to reinforce cultural ties to the mother country, while at the same time providing support and infrastructure for an emerging, uniquely Mexican-American identity. 133. Deena Gonzalez on camera DEENA GONZALEZ (02:08:39): So people began B-ROLL: Mexican border area, to think of themselves as belonging in two worlds – Rio Grande in their own world, but then either in the world of the U.S. or in the world of Mexico. And people seem 134. Mexican-Americans around the border actually pretty comfortable in that coexistence. Transforming America · TA102 – FINAL · The American West 03/07/05 23 VISUAL AUDIO 135. Edward Archuleta on camera EDWARD ARCHULETA (01:09:19): But they adapted. They had to adapt, to survive, to the new 136. Archuleta family pics culture. Then they became urbanized and Americanized like most everybody else just to survive. Summary: The Western Myth (2:20) Learning Objective: Assess the results of the settlement of the “last frontier.” 137. Patty Limerick PATRICIA LIMERICK (19:15:31): I used to puzzle over why it is that the western myth really came into Super: Patricia Limerick, University of Colorado full being and got glued into the American mind in a period where it seems so irrelevant to what was 138. Reprise scenes going on in most of America. This is the era, late 19th century, of industrialization and urbanization. So, first you think – well, why in heaven’s name, would you then have a cultural myth involving single white guys on horses and open spaces? The explanation and the answer – that the imagination wants to go someplace quite different from the factory and the city street. Transforming America · TA102 – FINAL · The American West 03/07/05 24 VISUAL AUDIO GUNSLINGER in scene from HIGH NOON: Alright Kane, c’mon out! PATRICIA LIMERICK: What a great thing to do, to have a place where you can put your imagination, where life would be completely different and you would not be in a factory and you would not have a boss and when someone made you angry, you would shoot them. 139. Richard White on camera RICHARD WHITE (6:12:09): The hard part was, of Super: Richard White, course there were other people there before and Stanford University those are Indian peoples. And one of the things that Americans have had a hard time with is seeing themselves as an imperial nation, as a conquering nation. If you ask most Americans to list a battle or a conflict, they’ll tell you – the Little Big Horn or they’ll tell you the Alamo. These are astonishing things to remember because they are defeats. But for the myth they work wonderfully, because they allow you to say we did nothing. It looks like conquest but we were just defending ourselves. And so you have Transforming America · TA102 – FINAL · The American West 03/07/05 25 VISUAL AUDIO this inversion of actual history where it makes it appear that Americans somehow were attacked the first moment they set foot on the Atlantic coast and when they got finished defending themselves, they somehow spread all the way across into the Pacific. But it serves its purpose because it can show to Americans – we’re not conquerors. We’re not imperialists. We’re just people who defend ourselves against aggression.
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