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									TRANSFORMING AMERICA
         FINAL SCRIPT

     TITLE: Lesson 2: The American West

   WRITER: Ken Harrison

 PRODUCER: Julia Dyer

    DRAFT: FINAL

     DATE: March 7, 2005
Transforming America · TA102 – FINAL · The American West  03/07/05  1

             VISUAL                                              AUDIO

FADE IN:

Introduction (:42)                        Music Up


1. Open with images of the Buffalo        NARRATOR: The myth of the American West
   Bill show from 1880s & 90s
                                          brims with adventure, hope, freedom, and wide-

                                          open spaces. It stands apart from the rest of

                                          America, a sort of “Promised Land within the

                                          Promised Land”, a place where you can tell the

                                          good guys from the bad guys. But the reality of

                                          western history is far more complex, and intimately

                                          interwoven with that of the country as a whole.


Segment #1: The Promised Land
(6:31)
Learning Objectives: Analyze the
reasons for the relatively rapid
settlement of the Great Plains by non-
Indians between 1865 and 1900.
Examine the realities of life for those
who moved to the Great Plains.

2. Sarah Stage on camera                  Music Up
Super: Sarah Stage, Arizona State
University                                SARAH STAGE (02:11:48): I think it’s really

                                          important to talk about the West as an integral part
3. B-roll: western vistas                 of the American scene. Otherwise, you’d think the

                                          West was just out there from 1840 to 1910 and

                                          going completely on its own. The West is an
4. Pics/b-roll of gold mining
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            VISUAL                                             AUDIO

                                       essential part of “gilded age” America. I like to

                                       argue that the “gilded” in the Gilded Age came from

                                       the gold fields of California, because the speculative

                                       mania that really develops around the mining

                                       industry in the west is at the heart of what Mark

                                       Twain would see and call “The Gilded Age.”


5. Richard White                       RICHARD WHITE (05:28:14):         One of the things
Super: Richard White,                  we forget about this sort of romantic era in the late
Stanford University
                                       19th century West is that it’s very much tied in with

                                       the growth of the United States as an industrial
6. B-roll: railroad; cattle drive?
                                       nation. Take something like cowboys and cattle

                                       ranching. Those only can take place, first of all,

7. Pics: Cowboys during trail drive:   because you’ve got the railroad, which will allow
   cattle loading on railroad cars;
   slaughterhouse; refrigerated        cattle to be taken to market in the East in
   railroad cars
                                       refrigerated cars, which allow the great packers to

                                       really begin to take meat apart. And that’s literally

                                       what they’re doing. They’re dismantling cows in

                                       Chicago and sending it out in these refrigerated cars

                                       all over the nation, putting smaller butchers out of

                                       business. The people investing in these ranches are

8. Ranch owners (European              largely European capitalists. So when you begin to
   capitalists)
                                       look at ranching, what you’re not looking at so much
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             VISUAL                                                AUDIO

                                           is a hearty individualist, you’re looking at a
9. Single cowboy out on the plains
   with cattle (maybe use an effect        manifestation of what it really is – this world market
   in which he’s surrounded by
   railroads, etc.?)                       and this new industry which is transforming the

                                           United States.


10. B-roll: railroad                       NARRATOR: Unlike the East, where the

                                           government largely stayed out of business, the
11. GRAPHIC: Map delineating the
    Great Plains                           federal government had a central role to play in the

                                           development of the West. Nationally subsidized
12. Pics: Homestead Act/
                                           railroads carried settlers to the Great Plains, where
    Advertisements
                                           they staked a claim under the federal Homestead
13. B-ROLL: prairie
                                           Act, or bought land the government had granted to

                                           the railroads.


14. Mock-up of ad:                         Actors as LAND PITCHMEN:
"Land! Land! HOMES For Everybody!"         Ten Years' Credit… 6% Interest…only the interest
Lands in Trego County, Kansas - and
for sale at prices ranging from $2.50 to   payment down.
$5.00. The 'Boss' City of Western
Kansas offers Unparalleled
Inducements to the Mechanic,               Better Terms Than Ever! Products will Pay for Land
Merchant and Laborer. It is admirably
located and is destined to become the      and Improvements. Large Discounts For Cash!
'Boss' Town on the Western Border of
Kansas."
                                           Buy train tickets to explore the land. Deductible from

                                           the final cost IF land is purchased…


15. Richard White on camera                RICHARD WHITE (06:00:56): The movement west

                                           of the Missouri is very much an artifact of railroad
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             VISUAL                                             AUDIO

                                        expansion, both because the railroads provide

                                        transportation and provide a way for farmers to get

                                        goods to market, but also the railroads sell as much
16. B-roll: railroads, prairie,
   farmland                             land as farmers acquire from the Homestead Act. In

                                        the initial stages they’re bringing them into some of

                                        the best agricultural lands in the world. Later on

                                        they’re bringing them into very marginal agricultural

                                        lands and they’re promising them that rain will follow
17. B-roll: Pioneer village, 19th
   century farming
                                        the plow.


18. Charlene McAden on camera           CHARLENE MCADEN (03:14:06): My great-
Super: Charlene McAden                  grandfather, Enoch Martin Lafferty, was a farmer in

                                        Missouri and he wanted to come when they opened
19. Pics: Oklahoma land-rush
                                        the territory of Oklahoma for homesteading.
20. B-ROLL: Lafferty family quilt
21. Family pics of Lafferty family in   My grandfather was not 18 yet, so he could not
    wagon
                                        claim any land. But his brother did. And his brother,

                                        whose name was Omer, claimed what is now the

                                        township of Garber.


22. B-ROLL: Oklahoma landscapes         CHARLENE MCADEN (03:06:59): There was not

                                        really anything there. There were no homes, of

                                        course no roads. The summer, August, does rival

                                        hell. It is hot. In the winter there’s nothing to stop
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            VISUAL                                              AUDIO

                                        the wind. They don’t have any trees! So the wind

                                        comes from the north pole and just comes right

                                        through there. They had to have been a strength

                                        somewhere that gave them the courage to fight the

                                        environment.


23. Richard White on camera             RICHARD WHITE (6:03:56): But they’re

                                        overwhelmed by the immensity of the place.
24. Pics of homestead farming on        They’re overwhelmed by the distance from
    forlorn prairies
                                        neighbors. They’re overwhelmed by the lack of

                                        rainfall. They’re overwhelmed by a whole series of

                                        things.


25. Patty Limerick on camera            PATTY LIMERICK (19:05:17): There’s nothing
Super: Patricia Limerick,               worse, really, than those descriptions of what it was
University of Colorado
                                        like to be in a grasshopper plague. It’s pretty awful,

                                        the devastation with which they can land and take

                                        out a crop.


26. Patty Limerick on camera            Actor as MARY LYON: They devoured every

                                        green thing but the prairie grass.
27. B-roll: Prairie, farmland, crops

                                        Actor as ADELHEIT VIETS: I was wearing a dress
28. Pics: crops devastated by hail or
   grasshoppers                         of white with a green stripe. The grasshoppers

                                        settled on me and ate up every bit of the green
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            VISUAL                                             AUDIO

                                       stripe in that dress before anything could be done

                                       about it.


29. B-roll: Pioneer village, 19th      NARRATOR: Despite the hardships, the farmers
    century farming
                                       of the Great Plains endured. One pioneer woman

                                       remembered…


30. B-ROLL: Kansas beauty shots        Actor as PIONEER WOMAN:             …the thrill of

                                       conquering a new country, the attraction of the

                                       prairie, which simply gets into your blood and makes

                                       you dissatisfied away from it, the low lying hills, the

                                       unobstructed view of the horizon.


31. Ads for large equipment in         NARRATOR: Farmers may have felt alone on the
    farmers’ magazines
                                       wide prairie, but they were not isolated from the
32. B-roll: Pioneer village hardware   march of progress. Agriculture, like every other
   store
                                       business in America, was transformed by

                                       industrialization.


33. Farmers on dug-out farm            RICHARD WHITE (06:07:45):          Farmers are going

                                       into the plains in order to create what’s an icon – a
34. Possibly use headlines from
                                       family farm. But the problem is they are competing
    business sections of period
    papers re: crops
                                       with farmers all over the world and the basic

                                       commodities they’re producing, wheat, are being
35. B-roll: Fields of wheat
                                       produced far more than anybody can consume. So
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             VISUAL                                                AUDIO

                                           this is one of the things that makes it a very, very

                                           hard row to hoe for these farmers in the late 19th
36. Pics: farmers giving up, wagons
                                           century and what happens to many of them is they
    going back east, farms for sale
    (sign: In God We Trusted, In
                                           leave farming.
    Kansas We Busted)

37. Charlene McAden on camera              CHARLENE MCADEN (03:02:10): Omer tried to

                                           stay there but he said it was the most godforsaken

                                           piece of the world he could imagine. It has to rival

                                           hell. So he traded his 160 acres for a mule and a

                                           wagon and he went back to Missouri and drove a
38. Pic of Uncle Omer on the trolley
   car                                     trolley car the rest of his life and I guess was very,

                                           very happy.




Segment #2: Conquest and
Survival (8:16)
Learning Objective: Examine the American
Indian responses to the encroachments on
Western lands.




39. Pic: Sarah Winnemucca (?)              Music Up
Super: Frederick Hoxie,
University of Illinois                     FREDERICK HOXIE (12:01:36): I always think of

                                           Sarah Winnemucca, who was a Paiute woman, who

                                           said at the beginning of her autobiography, “I was

                                           here. I remember when the white people came.
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             VISUAL                                              AUDIO

                                       They came like a lion.”


40. Fred Hoxie on camera               For the hunting peoples the resources went away,

                                       the buffalo and other game. Land was fenced and
41. Images of Plains Indian life
                                       people were restricted from moving in ways that
    around 1876: village life,
    landscapes, faces
                                       they had never been before. Many of them were

                                       separated from their children…tremendous health

42. B-roll: prairie, buffalo           issues…problems of disease and malnutrition. And

                                       so their lives changed in almost every respect

                                       through that time period.


43. Images of encroachment by          NARRATOR: As the trickle of immigrants into the
    whites into Indian lands by
    settlers, buffalo hunters, wagon   West became a flood, American Indians were left
    trains, miners, etc.
                                       with few alternatives.


44. Fred Hoxie on camera               FREDERICK HOXIE (12:05:52): Indians did have

                                       choices to make. Some people tried to resist the

                                       Americans and tried to stop the expansion. And still
45. Pics: Indians in council
                                       others allied themselves with the Americans

                                       because they felt the Americans were the lesser of

                                       the evils that they faced. They faced other tribes

                                       who they thought were more threatening at that

                                       particular moment than whites were.


46. Pics: treaty-making at Fort        NARRATOR: The 1868 Treaty of Fort Laramie had
    Laramie, 1868
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            VISUAL                                              AUDIO

                                         designated the Black Hills of South Dakota as part
47. GRAPHIC: Map showing
    boundaries of Great Sioux            of the Great Sioux Reservation. However, as the
    reservation
                                         westward construction of the railroad approached
48. B-ROLL: period trains, Black Hills
                                         and gold was discovered in the Black Hills, the
49. The Black Hills in 1876 –
    prospectors rush in due to rumors    terms of the treaty gave way under the pressure of
    of gold
                                         white expansion.


50. Fred Hoxie on camera                 FREDERICK HOXIE (12:13:19): There were

                                         several bands of Sioux, all of whom opposed the

                                         invasion of the Black Hills. They all considered the

                                         Black Hills a sacred place. The government
51. Portraits of Crazy Horse and
    Sitting Bull                         announced that all of the Sioux were to report to

                                         their agencies and were no longer allowed to hunt,

                                         as the treaty had guaranteed that they could. Sitting

                                         Bull and Crazy Horse in particular rejected that.


52. Lt. Col. George Armstrong Custer     NARRATOR: In June of 1876, Lt. Col. George
    posing in the Black Hills
                                         Armstrong Custer led the two hundred men of the
53. B-ROLL: Little Big Horn              Seventh Cavalry, along with Crow and Ricara
    landscapes
                                         scouts, to force the Sioux back to their agency. The
54. Rendering of the gathered tribes
                                         Sioux and other tribes, numbering 4,000 strong,

                                         were camped along the Little Big Horn River.


55. Fred Hoxie on camera                 FREDERICK HOXIE (12:17:15): The Americans
56. Battle of the Little Big Horn as
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            VISUAL                                                AUDIO

   portrayed by both Indian and          attacked them, rode directly into their village. They
   non-Indian artists
                                         were turned back. They retreated up the hillside.

                                         They were surrounded by warriors and they were all

57. The aftermath of Custer’s Last       killed.
    Stand, headlines, etc.
58. Gerard Baker on camera               GERARD BAKER (02:10:42): It’s a bittersweet
Super: Gerard Baker,                     experience even today when you go to Little Big
Superintendent of Mt. Rushmore
                                         Horn, from an Indian perspective, because it

59. B-ROLL: Indian monument at           represents the last stronghold that we had, if you
    Little Big Horn.
                                         will. Even though we won that particular battle, as

                                         the owl would say, we lost the war.


60. Pics of U.S. army fighting Indians   NARRATOR: The Battle of Little Big Horn was a

                                         great military victory for the Plains Indians, but it
61. STOCK: Union army drilling,          proved to be one of their last. The U.S. Army was
    fighting (Shaping America/Civil
    War reenactments?)                   relentless in its pursuit of those who tried to remain

                                         free.


62. Gerard Baker                         GERARD BAKER (02:04:42): We had two

                                         choices. You either go with the government or you
63. Stark images of life on the
                                         became a hostile and be killed. And that seems a
    reservation
                                         little harsh but that was reality. We had borders, we

                                         had boundaries that we had to remain within. I think

                                         the old-timers that first came on the reservation in
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            VISUAL                                           AUDIO

                                   that time period never did adjust and that’s what

                                   killed them, I believe.


64. Actor silhouette               Actor as CHIEF JOSEPH: You might as well

                                   expect the rivers to run backward as that any man
65. Pic of Chief Joseph
                                   who was born a free man should be contented when

                                   penned up and denied liberty to go where he

                                   pleases.


66. Fred Hoxie                     FREDERICK HOXIE (12:27:24): In 1889 a man

                                   named Wovoka, who was a Paiute in Nevada, had a
67. Pic of Wovoka?
                                   vision which said that if people would dance and

                                   follow his teachings that there would be peace and
68. Ghost Dance
                                   perhaps there would be some restoration of their

                                   earlier life, their pre-reservation life.


                                   Indian Chanting


                                   It was called the ghost dance and it brought people

                                   together to dance, to sing, to celebrate, as a source

                                   of unity but also with some hope as well.


69. Gerard Baker on camera         GERARD BAKER (2:28:01): They would dance

                                   and go in these trances. They would see these

                                   things. They would see their loved ones coming
70. Ghost Dance
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               VISUAL                                                       AUDIO

                                                   back. They would see maybe visions of bison

                                                   coming back. That scared the government. That

                                                   scared white people actually. They could see them

                                                   gaining strength with this. And that’s why they

                                                   stopped it, basically.


71. Fred Hoxie on camera                           FREDERICK HOXIE (13:00:48): You had a new
72. Headlines:                                     religious movement that was expanding across the
Chicago Daily Tribune
                                                   reservation. Unfortunately, at Pine Ridge you had a
IN A STATE OF TERROR
Great Excitement at the Pine Ridge Agency-
Indians Dancing with Guns-Fighting Expected at     newly appointed agent who was very fearful of an
Any Moment
                                                   uprising, who had all sorts of wild ideas about
New York Times

The Messiah Expected to Arrive At the Pine Ridge   Indians, and who essentially panicked and called for
Agency To-Day, When the Savages Will Fight

Omaha Daily Bee                                    the army to come.
WITH RIFLE ON BACK
The Red Skins Are Dancing The Dreaded
Ghost Dance

73. Actor silhouette                               Actor as DR. DANIEL ROYER: Indians are

                                                   dancing and are wild and crazy. We need protection
74. STOCK: Telegraph machine
   (Shaping America)                               and we need it now. Nothing short of a thousand

                                                   troops will stop this…dancing.


75. Fred Hoxie on camera                           FREDERICK HOXIE (13:01:28): Within a few days,

                                                   an army unit arrived and, of course, this just raised

                                                   the tension level. The agent at the Standing Rock

                                                   Sioux reservation, which was the home of Sitting
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            VISUAL                                           AUDIO

                                     Bull, was afraid that Sitting Bull might lead some
76. Pic/painting: Death of Sitting
   Bull?                             kind of an uprising and so he dispatched policemen

                                     to arrest Sitting Bull. They tried to come and take

                                     him before dawn in his cabin. He stood up, pulled

                                     away, and he was killed, shot down. This then set

                                     off even more panic among other leaders of other

                                     reservation communities in this area. Bigfoot feared
77. B-roll: snowy landscape with
                                     that he too would be arrested and so he led his band
   creek? (New Mexico, from
   Shaping America)
                                     from Cheyenne River south to Pine Ridge where he

                                     thought he’d be safe. On the night of December 28,

                                     1890, they met a troop of soldiers who told them that

                                     if they would camp at Wounded Knee Creek, they

                                     would be safe.


78. Fred Hoxie                       In the course of the evening, the U.S. Army troops

                                     took up positions on the hills surrounding this
79. B-roll of Wounded Knee
   battlefield                       depression, this low area along the creek bed, and

                                     the next morning announced that they would all be

                                     required to give up their weapons. In the course of
80. Army patrolling Western
                                     disarming this troop, one man resisted. A shot was
    landscape
81. Wounded Knee campsite            fired and before anyone could say anything,
    rendering
                                     pandemonium broke out. Within a few minutes the

                                     battlefield essentially was filled with bodies of Sioux
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              VISUAL                                                 AUDIO

                                              people.


82. Gerard Baker                              GERARD BAKER (03:02:42): And it was

                                              devastating to understand that the women and

                                              children were killed and old people that were sick
83. Images of the aftermath of the
    Massacre at Wounded Knee                  were killed with no concern over their humanism. It’s

                                              a very bitter story.


84. B-roll of Wounded Knee                    FREDERICK HOXIE (13:05:54): Charles Eastman
    memorial
                                              was an educated Sioux physician and he said in his

                                              autobiography, “The events of Wounded Knee were

                                              deeply disappointing to someone who had put his

                                              trust in civilization.” I think Wounded Knee broke his

                                              heart and I think for many Indian people this was

                                              such a crime and such a terrible act of violence that

                                              it was something that they really never forgot.


85. Actor silhouette                          Actor as BLACK ELK: The nation’s hoop is

                                              broken and scattered. There is no center any longer,
86. Portrait of Black Elk
                                              and the sacred tree is dead.




Segment #3: A Sense of Place
(9:24)
Learning Objectives: Analyze the causes
and effects of the federal government’s
policies dealing with the American Indians.
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              VISUAL                                           AUDIO
Discuss the experience of Mexican
Americans during this era and their
responses to discrimination.



87. Photos: Indians on reservations     Music Up


                                        NARRATOR: The age-old U.S. campaign of
88. Archival pics of reformers from
    “Friends of the Indian”             conquest and removal was complete. Now various
    conventions at Lake Mohonk,
    New York, 1883                      factions in the United States sought to influence a

                                        new American Indian policy of assimilation.


89. Actor silhouette                    Actor as RICHARD HENRY PRATT: The sooner

                                        all tribal relations are broken up, the sooner the
90. Portrait of Richard Henry Pratt
                                        Indian loses all his Indian ways, even his language,

                                        the better it will be for him and for the government

                                        and greater will be the economy for both.


91. Fred Hoxie on camera                FREDERICK HOXIE (13:08:26): From the Indian
Super: Frederick Hoxie,                 perspective, most of this sounded crazy. Why not
University of Illinois
                                        live the way you had always lived? But they also

92. Images or photos of Bureau of       understood very clearly that this was a time of
   Indian Affairs agents, facilities,
   etc.                                 intense change. So there was also a Native

                                        American interest, not necessarily in assimilation,
93. Indians on reservation              but in figuring out what they could use from this new

                                        culture. New skills – farming made sense to a lot of

                                        people. We couldn’t hunt anymore, why not farm?
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            VISUAL                                           AUDIO

                                     Having your children learn to speak English,

                                     Christianity made some sense to people.


94. Vine Deloria on camera           VINE DELORIA, JR. (12:01:26): My great-
Super: Vine Deloria, Jr.             grandfather insisted that my grandfather consider

                                     Christianity and this was kind of a radical switch
95. Pics of Saswe & Tipi Sapa
    (Philip) after conversion        because he was one of the primary medicine men.

                                     My grandfather, according to the story, went…kept

                                     going to this mission church to hear the music and

                                     that seems to have been the motivation for a lot of

                                     Indians to at least consider Christianity, if not be

                                     converted. They loved the hymns.


96. Pics: Mission church             HYMN: All to Jesus, I surrender, Lord I give….


97. Fred Hoxie                       FREDERICK HOXIE (13:11:19): The Bureau of

                                     Indian Affairs was not shy about joining forces with
98. Christian missionaries at work
    with Indians                     missionaries, even though there is this division of

                                     church and state in the American tradition. They

                                     quite easily and freely used government money to

                                     subsidize missionaries.


99. Pics: Indian boarding schools    NARRATOR: In addition to suppressing Indian

                                     religion, assimilation policy also sought to re-
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            VISUAL                                             AUDIO

                                       educate Indian youth.


100.   Fred Hoxie on camera            FREDERICK HOXIE (13:13:07):          Boarding school

                                       policy really can be summarized by the slogan, “Kill
101. Montage of stills of activities
                                       the Indian, save the man.” The idea was that if they
   at Indian schools.
                                       would all be forced through a very rigid schedule

                                       every day, that they would absorb this schedule and

                                       that they would become civilized people.


102.   Vine Deloria on camera          VINE DELORIA, JR (12:24:27): My grandfather

                                       lived a pretty free life and young men used to almost

                                       always be bare from the waist up. And when they
103. Pic of grandfather in school
   uniform?                            weren’t out doing things, they were walking around

                                       barefoot. He goes to Minnesota and they put him in

                                       a woolen uniform with shoes and the whole thing.

                                       And he lasted, I think, close to two years, but his

                                       health broke down because he wasn’t used to that
104. Photo of father at boarding       kind of life. These kids would all be packed off to
   school
                                       Carlisle. A lot of them would die out of sheer fright
105. Pics of Indian children at
   Carlisle or Hampton                 and loneliness.


106.   Reformers, Congress             NARRATOR: The cornerstone of assimilation policy

                                       focused on land ownership. The reformers who

                                       influenced Indian policy believed that private
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            VISUAL                                           AUDIO

                                     property and individualism formed the heart of

                                     civilization. They argued that reservations should be

                                     split up and the tribal lands allotted to individuals.

                                     And in 1887 the government moved ahead with the
107.   Pics: Dawes Act document
                                     new policy outlined by the Dawes Act.


108.   Fred Hoxie on camera          FREDERICK HOXIE (13:18:22): The reservations

                                     were systematically surveyed. People were
109.   Surveying Indian land
                                     assigned to individual plots of land. The so-called

                                     surplus was sold or opened to white homesteaders
110. If possible, close-ups of
   allotments                        and Indians tried to make a living on this small piece

                                     of land. In the process of this allotment effort,
111.   B-ROLL: western landscapes    Indians collectively lost about 90 million acres worth

                                     of land.


112.   Fred Hoxie on camera          FREDERICK HOXIE (13:18:59): Any possibility of

                                     them being economically viable went out the

                                     window, because you couldn’t manage this land

                                     collectively. You couldn’t run it efficiently with these
113.   Poverty-bitten Indian farms
                                     tiny plots of land.


114.   Vine Deloria on camera        VINE DELORIA, JR (13:07:18): Starvation, loss of

                                     community, loss of land, loss of religion. It’s amazing

                                     that as many survived into the 20th century as did.
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           VISUAL                                               AUDIO

115.   Pics: Mexican-Americans          Transition music

                                        NARRATOR: Like American Indians, Mexican-

                                        Americans also found themselves in the path of the
116. GRAPHIC: Map showing
   territory acquired in U.S.-Mexican   stampede of Anglos intent on settling in the west.
   war
                                        The southwestern United States had, until recently,

                                        been part of Mexico.


117.   Patty Limerick on camera         PATTY LIMERICK (19:07:51): As of 1848, people
Super: Patricia Limerick,               who were before that Mexican citizens are rendered
University of Colorado
                                        into American citizens. And there are guarantees

                                        offered about their retention of their land and their

                                        full rights to citizenship. Those guarantees take a

                                        beating in the years after that.


118. B-ROLL: Southwestern               NARRATOR: Throughout the Southwest, the late
   landscapes
                                        19th century witnessed a huge transfer of land from

                                        Mexican-American to Anglo-American ownership.


119.   Yolanda Romero on camera         YOLANDA ROMERO (1:09:36): What happens is
Super: Yolanda Romero,                  that many of the Mexican descent individuals had
North Lake College
                                        grants that had been given to them by the Spanish.

                                        And so, when the Americans come in, many of them

                                        basically said, well this was Spanish and, you know,

                                        it doesn’t matter to us what the Spanish government
Transforming America · TA102 – FINAL · The American West  03/07/05  20

            VISUAL                                          AUDIO

                                    did for you.


120.   Edward Archuleta on camera   EDWARD ARCHULETA (01:00:50): My family’s
Super: Edward Archuleta             been in New Mexico since 1598. Because my

                                    family’s been in the state for so long, they were able
121.   Archuleta family pics
                                    to acquire quite a bit of land over the centuries.

                                    Some of the land grants were recognized by the

                                    U.S. Government, but some of them weren’t. But
122.   Spanish land grants
                                    when the American government came in, they

                                    wanted to see it on paper. They said, “Well, where

                                    are the documents? We want to see them.” They

                                    didn’t have them anymore. They had lost them over

                                    hundreds of years, so the American government

                                    said, “Well, if you can’t prove that on paper, then it’s

                                    no longer yours. You’re gonna have to leave.”


123. B-ROLL: Southwestern           NARRATOR: Land constituted the basis of wealth
   landscapes, herds of cattle
   and/or sheep                     and position, and the vast losses sustained by the

                                    Hispanic population permanently altered the class

                                    structure of southwestern society. In 1850, the rural

                                    Mexican population in Texas was roughly equally

                                    distributed among ranch or farm owners, skilled
124. Pics of Mexican landowners,
   skilled laborers & manual        laborers, and manual laborers. Fifty years later, the
   laborers
                                    manual laboring class had ballooned to more than
Transforming America · TA102 – FINAL · The American West  03/07/05  21

            VISUAL                                            AUDIO

   Pics of Anglo ranchers and         two-thirds of the Texas Mexican population.
   farmers (e.g., King Ranch)
125.   Deena Gonzalez                 DEENA GONZALEZ (01:17:32):           What the
Super: Deena Gonzalez,                resulting decline in land ownership did was, it really
Loyola Marymount University
                                      made people of Mexican origin dependent on

126. Pics of Mexican wage             wages. The number of people who go to work for the
   workers (men and women):
   railroad, mining, ranching,        railroad, for the large farming concerns, for the cattle
   farming, seamstress, maid, etc.
                                      ranches, for the small businesses in metropolitan

                                      areas of the southwest, grows. But we also know

                                      that land is critical to a sense of place and so that

                                      when people lose the base they identified as their

                                      home or their place of origin, they become more
127. B-roll: southwestern             readily available as a migrating labor force. So that
   landscapes
                                      people can move to Chicago, to Pennsylvania to

                                      work the steel mines, for example. They can follow

                                      the routes of the crops. They’re more easily
128.   Pics: migratory farm workers
                                      displaced. They’re more easily used by the

                                      economic system.


129. Pics: Mexican workers, Anglo     NARRATOR: To strengthen this economic
   bosses
                                      hierarchy, Anglos invoked a mythology similar to that

                                      which had been used to justify slavery.


130.   Actor silhouette               Actor as mine owner SYLVESTER MOWRY:
Transforming America · TA102 – FINAL · The American West  03/07/05  22

           VISUAL                                            AUDIO

                                    The lower class of Mexicans are docile, faithful,

                                    good servants, capable of strong attachments

                                    when firmly and kindly treated. They’ve been

                                    ‘peons’ for generations. They will always remain

                                    so, as it is their natural condition.


131.   Mexican workers on strike,   NARRATOR: But people of Mexican origin defied

                                    these stereotypes of docility and submissiveness.

                                    Mine workers, farm workers and construction

                                    workers repeatedly went out on strike, demanding

                                    better wages and working conditions. Across the
132.   Mutualistas
                                    southwest benevolent societies arose to help one

                                    another with community needs. They served to

                                    reinforce cultural ties to the mother country, while at

                                    the same time providing support and infrastructure

                                    for an emerging, uniquely Mexican-American

                                    identity.


133.   Deena Gonzalez on camera     DEENA GONZALEZ (02:08:39): So people began

   B-ROLL: Mexican border area,     to think of themselves as belonging in two worlds –
   Rio Grande
                                    in their own world, but then either in the world of the

                                    U.S. or in the world of Mexico. And people seem
134. Mexican-Americans around
   the border
                                    actually pretty comfortable in that coexistence.
Transforming America · TA102 – FINAL · The American West  03/07/05  23

            VISUAL                                               AUDIO

135.   Edward Archuleta on camera        EDWARD ARCHULETA (01:09:19):             But they

                                         adapted. They had to adapt, to survive, to the new
136.   Archuleta family pics
                                         culture. Then they became urbanized and

                                         Americanized like most everybody else just to

                                         survive.




Summary: The Western Myth
(2:20)

Learning Objective: Assess the
results of the settlement of the “last
frontier.”

137.   Patty Limerick                    PATRICIA LIMERICK (19:15:31): I used to puzzle

                                         over why it is that the western myth really came into
Super: Patricia Limerick,
University of Colorado                   full being and got glued into the American mind in a

                                         period where it seems so irrelevant to what was

138.   Reprise scenes                    going on in most of America. This is the era, late

                                         19th century, of industrialization and urbanization.

                                         So, first you think – well, why in heaven’s name,

                                         would you then have a cultural myth involving single

                                         white guys on horses and open spaces? The

                                         explanation and the answer – that the imagination

                                         wants to go someplace quite different from the

                                         factory and the city street.
Transforming America · TA102 – FINAL · The American West  03/07/05  24

          VISUAL                                             AUDIO

                                   GUNSLINGER in scene from HIGH NOON: Alright

                                   Kane, c’mon out!




                                   PATRICIA LIMERICK: What a great thing to do, to

                                   have a place where you can put your imagination,

                                   where life would be completely different and you

                                   would not be in a factory and you would not have a

                                   boss and when someone made you angry, you

                                   would shoot them.


139.   Richard White on camera     RICHARD WHITE (6:12:09): The hard part was, of
Super: Richard White,              course there were other people there before and
Stanford University
                                   those are Indian peoples. And one of the things that

                                   Americans have had a hard time with is seeing

                                   themselves as an imperial nation, as a conquering

                                   nation. If you ask most Americans to list a battle or a

                                   conflict, they’ll tell you – the Little Big Horn or they’ll

                                   tell you the Alamo. These are astonishing things to

                                   remember because they are defeats. But for the

                                   myth they work wonderfully, because they allow you

                                   to say we did nothing. It looks like conquest but we

                                   were just defending ourselves. And so you have
Transforming America · TA102 – FINAL · The American West  03/07/05  25

          VISUAL                                           AUDIO

                                   this inversion of actual history where it makes it

                                   appear that Americans somehow were attacked the

                                   first moment they set foot on the Atlantic coast and

                                   when they got finished defending themselves, they

                                   somehow spread all the way across into the Pacific.

                                   But it serves its purpose because it can show to

                                   Americans – we’re not conquerors. We’re not

                                   imperialists. We’re just people who defend

                                   ourselves against aggression.

								
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