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					                       Overview of
Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Project 7-02



AIRPORT CURBSIDE AND TERMINAL-AREA
       ROADWAY OPERATIONS

        2009 Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board
                              Session 761


                            Peter Mandle
                         Jacobs Consultancy

                            in association with
          Dowling Associates, Inc., JD Franz Research, inc., WILTEC

                             January 14, 2009
                                                                             TRB Conference Presentation




                                                                                                           TRB513
                                     0                   ACRP 07-02 (Airport Curbside and Terminal-Area
                                                               Roadway Operations) – January 14, 2009
RESEARCH OBJECTIVES


Develop a guide for the analysis of airport curbside and
terminal-area roadway operations
Document:
  1. Recommended and quantifiable performance measures
     reflecting the perception of airline passengers,
     commercial vehicle drivers, and airport staff
  2. Easily used and valid analytical tools and models that
     predict airport curbside and roadway operations
  3. Guidelines for evaluating curbside & roadway operations
  4. A “toolbox” of measures to improve airport curbside and
     roadway operations

                                                               TRB Conference Presentation




                                                                                             TRB513
                              1            ACRP 07-02 (Airport Curbside and Terminal-Area
                                                 Roadway Operations) – January 14, 2009
PRELIMINARY RESULTS—Field Data Collection


FOCUS GROUPS
 6 focus groups of airline passengers: 3 each in Washington,
  D.C., and San Francisco Bay areas
 6 focus groups of airport Ground Transportation staff (>34
  airports)
 9 focus groups of commercial vehicle drivers (IAD and OAK)

TRAFFIC SURVEYS
 Dulles, Oakland, and San Francisco International Airports
 Supplemented by data in the Research Team’s files


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                                                                                              TRB513
                               2            ACRP 07-02 (Airport Curbside and Terminal-Area
                                                  Roadway Operations) – January 14, 2009
PRELIMINARY RESULTS—Focus Groups


Users want:
 Organized versus chaotic conditions—clear separation of
  functions and operations
 Strict but not unreasonable enforcement
 Passengers felt that:
  – <30% double parking is “acceptable”
  – 50% to 70% was “borderline”, but “acceptable”
  – >70% was “awful”, “unacceptable,”
 Airport staff:
  – Rely upon feedback from customers and other staff
  – No consensus on amount of delay or length of queues

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                                                                                               TRB513
                                3            ACRP 07-02 (Airport Curbside and Terminal-Area
                                                   Roadway Operations) – January 14, 2009
Recommendation: Analytical Tools


 Should be useful to airport staff
 Should not require extensive input data
 Suggest a hierarchy of analytical models that:
  – Quick-estimating model, macroscopic, and microscopic
 Developed macroscopic models for curbside and
  low-speed weaving
  – Curbside model represents interaction between “through”
    traffic and traffic in curbside lanes
  – Weaving model represents low-speed weaving
    maneuvers for various weaving types

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                                                                                                TRB513
                                4             ACRP 07-02 (Airport Curbside and Terminal-Area
                                                    Roadway Operations) – January 14, 2009
    Curbside Levels of Service


A                                                                              B




C                                                                             E




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                                                                                   TRB513
                            5    ACRP 07-02 (Airport Curbside and Terminal-Area
                                       Roadway Operations) – January 14, 2009
Preliminary Draft Guide Submitted to Panel


1.   Purpose of the Guide
2.   Framework for Analysis of Airport Roadways and Curbsides
3.   Estimating Airport Roadway Traffic Volumes
4.   Evaluating Airport Terminal-Area Roadways
5.   Evaluating Airport Curbside Operations
6.   Improving Curbside and Terminal-Area Roadway Operations

Appendices
A. Glossary
B. Bibliography
C. Summary of roadway traffic data
D. Summary of curbside traffic data
E. Summary of focus group surveys

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                               6           ACRP 07-02 (Airport Curbside and Terminal-Area
                                                 Roadway Operations) – January 14, 2009
Preliminary Draft Guide Outline—Chapter 1


  A. Purpose of the Guide
  B. Methodology
  C. Report Organization




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                                                                                   TRB513
                            7    ACRP 07-02 (Airport Curbside and Terminal-Area
                                       Roadway Operations) – January 14, 2009
Preliminary Draft Guide—Chapter 2
Framework for Analysis of Airport Roadways and Curbsides


   A. Users of airport roadways
   B. Types of airport roadways
   C. Operating characteristics of airport terminal-area roadways
         What makes airport roadways operations unique
         What makes airport roadway weaving section operations unique
   D. Overview of analytical framework hierarchy
         Quick-estimation method
         Macroscopic models
         Microsimulation models
   E. Overview of capacity and LOS concepts




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                                                                                                    TRB513
                                    8             ACRP 07-02 (Airport Curbside and Terminal-Area
                                                        Roadway Operations) – January 14, 2009
Preliminary Draft Guide—Chapter 3
Estimating Airport Roadway Traffic Volumes


A. Estimating existing airport roadway traffic volumes
B. Estimating airport future roadway traffic volumes—
   traditional approach
      Airline passengers
      Visitors
      Employees
      Cargo
      Service and deliveries
      Other airport land uses
      Non-airport vehicles using airport roadways (cut-through traffic)
C. Estimating airport future roadway traffic volumes—
   alternative approach (growth factor)
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                                                                                                    TRB513
                                   9              ACRP 07-02 (Airport Curbside and Terminal-Area
                                                        Roadway Operations) – January 14, 2009
Preliminary Draft Guide—Chapter 4
Evaluating Airport Terminal-Area Roadways


A. LOS definitions for airport terminal-area roadways
B. Estimating capacity and level of service
C. Analytical framework
   A.   Quick-estimation method for uninterrputed flows
   B.   Quick-estimation method for signalized roadways
   C.   Quick-estimation method for weaving areas
   D.   Macroscopic methods for airport weaving segments
   E.   Use of microsimulation models
D. Other measures of performance




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                                                                                                 TRB513
                                 10            ACRP 07-02 (Airport Curbside and Terminal-Area
                                                     Roadway Operations) – January 14, 2009
LEVEL OF SERVICE FOR AIRPORT TERMINAL AREA
ACCESS AND CIRCULATION ROADWAYS



                                                                                 Level of Service
                        Criteria                                A            B             C              D              E

                                                                          Free-Flow Speed = 35 mph
Minimum speed (mph)                                                 35           35            34             31             26
Maximum volume/capacity ratio                                    0.24         0.37          0.57           0.78           1.00

Maximum service flow rate (passenger cars)                       330          570            910         1,300          1,700
Maximum flow (vehicles/hour/lane) (a)                            270          460            730         1,050          1,370


(a)   Flow rates adjusted to account for 0.95 heavy vehicle factor and 0.85 driver population factor due to occasional or
      unfamiliar users.

Source: Jacobs Consultancy, based on information presented in Exhibits 21-2 and 21-3, Transportation Research Board,
      National Research Council, Highway Capacity Manual, December 2000.



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                                                                                                                                   TRB513
                                                         11                      ACRP 07-02 (Airport Curbside and Terminal-Area
                                                                                       Roadway Operations) – January 14, 2009
EXAMPLE SERVICE VOLUMES FOR AIRPORT ROADWAY
WEAVING SEGMENTS



                                                       Type A weaving—Service volumes
      Number of lanes in                                     (vehicles/hour) for LOS
      weaving section                   A                   B             C                    D                   E
               3                       820             1,130            1,410               1,710               1,990
               4                      1,909            1,510            1,910               2,290               2,650
               5                      1,360            1,890            2,380               2,860               3,320


Source: Jacobs Consultancy, November 2008

Note: Assumes free flow speed of 35 mph or less, level terrain, weaving segment length = 500 feet or more, 5% heavy
      vehicles, and 20% of traffic weaving.




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                                                                                                                                  TRB513
                                                       12                       ACRP 07-02 (Airport Curbside and Terminal-Area
                                                                                      Roadway Operations) – January 14, 2009
Preliminary Draft Guide—Chapter 5
Evaluating Airport Curbside Operations


 A. Measures of performance
 B. LOS definitions for airport curbside roadways
 C. Estimating curbside traffic volumes
 D. Estimating curbside capacity and level of service
   •   Establishing curbside lane capacity
   •   Calculating curbside and through lane capacity
   •   Estimating CGT curbside requirements
 E. Analytical framework
   •   Quick-estimation method
   •   Macroscopic method—Quick Analysis Tool for Airport Roadways
   •   Use of microsimulation models



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                                                                                                  TRB513
                                  13            ACRP 07-02 (Airport Curbside and Terminal-Area
                                                      Roadway Operations) – January 14, 2009
CURBSIDE ROADWAY CAPCITY REDUCTION CURVES
                                                             Curbside Roadway Capacity Reduction Curves

                            4000

                                          5-4
                                    5-3
                            3500
                                           4-3

                            3000

                                          4-2                            OAK
   Roadway Capacity (vph)




                            2500
                                                3-2                                                                         3 Lane - 3 lane approach
                                                                                                                            4 Lane - 2 lane approach
                                                                                       OAK                                  4 Lane - 3 lane approach
                            2000
                                                                                                                            5 lane - 4 lane approach
                                                                                                                            5-lane - 3 lane approach
                                                                                                                            Calibration Data Points
                            1500



                            1000

                                                                SFO         EWR
                             500



                               0
                                   0%           50%   100%   150%         200%         250%   300%   350%      400%

                                                                    Curbside Utilization
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                                                                                                                                                        TRB513
                                                                                  14                  ACRP 07-02 (Airport Curbside and Terminal-Area
                                                                                                            Roadway Operations) – January 14, 2009
LEVEL OF SERVICE CRITERIA FOR AIRPORT CURBSIDE
ROADWAYS

                                                             Airport Curbside Level of Service (LOS)
                    Criteria                           A            B            C              D               E
 Maximum curbside lane demand/capacity ratio
   for a curbside roadway with 4 or more lanes
   (a)                                                0.50         0.55        0.65           0.85             1.0
 Maximum service flow rate—5 lane curbside
   roadway (vehicles per hour)                        3,350       3,280       3,100          2,710           2,400
 Maximum service flow rate—4 lane curbside
   roadway (vehicles per hour)                        2,830       2,790       2,680          2,220           1,800


 Maximum curbside lane demand/capacity ratio
   for a curbside roadway with 3 or fewer
   lanes                                               1.0          1.1         1.3            1.7             2.0
 Maximum service flow rate—3 lane curbside
   roadway (vehicles per hour)                        2,100       1,950       1,580            860            750
 Maximum volume/capacity ratio                        00.25       00.40       00.60          00.80           11.00

 Source: Jacobs Consultancy, November 2008.

                                                                                              TRB Conference Presentation




                                                                                                                            TRB513
                                                 15                       ACRP 07-02 (Airport Curbside and Terminal-Area
                                                                                Roadway Operations) – January 14, 2009
SCREENSHOT FROM QATAR MODEL




                                             TRB Conference Presentation




                                                                           TRB513
                  16     ACRP 07-02 (Airport Curbside and Terminal-Area
                               Roadway Operations) – January 14, 2009
Preliminary Draft Guide—Chapter 6
Improving Curbside and Roadway Operations


 A. Typical terminal-area roadway problems
 B. Potential terminal-area roadway improvement measures
   – Physical improvements
   – Operational measures
   – Potential airport policies
 C. Typical curbside roadway problems
 D. Potential curbside roadway improvement measures
   – Physical improvements
   – Operational measures
   – Potential airport policies


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                                                                                          TRB513
                                  17    ACRP 07-02 (Airport Curbside and Terminal-Area
                                              Roadway Operations) – January 14, 2009
PROJECT PANEL


Panel:      Craig Leiner, Owen Curtis, Nathalie
            Martel, Scott Washburn, Dan Wong

Liaisons:   Pat Sullivan (FAA)
            Richard Cunard (TRB)

ACRP Staff: B. Ray Derr




                                                         TRB Conference Presentation




                                                                                       TRB513
                          18         ACRP 07-02 (Airport Curbside and Terminal-Area
                                           Roadway Operations) – January 14, 2009
Recommended Performance Measures


 Primary terminal-area roadway performance measures:
   – Average speed, which determines travel time
   – Traffic density
                                                                                      Quick       Macroscopic   Microsimulation
                                                     Performance Measure             Estimating    Analysis         Analysis


                                                           P   P
                                            1. Demand/Capacity Ratio

   – Maximum volume-to-capacity ratio                      P
                                            2. Level of ServiceP

   – Duration and length of queues*
                                            3. Number of Vehicles Parked in Second
                                               and Third Lanes                                                        P
                                            4. Queue Length
                                                                                                                      P
 Primary curbside performance measures:    5. Duration of Queuing                                                    P
   – Demand-capacity ratio                  6. Average Speed                                                          P
                                            7. Average Delay                                                          P
   – Level of service
   – Number of vehicles parked in second and third lanes
   – Queue length and durations
   – Average speed and delays
 Require analyses of both curbside and through lanes, with the
  capacity of the roadway defined as the smaller of the two



                                                                                TRB Conference Presentation




                                                                                                                                  TRB513
                                  19                        ACRP 07-02 (Airport Curbside and Terminal-Area
                                                                  Roadway Operations) – January 14, 2009

				
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