Teaching Reading and Writing to Struggling Middle School and High by H9ogoZc


									Teaching Reading & Writing

                          Teaching Reading and Writing
                          to Struggling Middle and High
                                 School Students

                          The Case For Reciprocal

            Wayne H. Slater and Franklin Horstman
Teaching Reading & Writing


                             Authors reviewed
                             results presented in
                             the NAEP 1998
                             Reading Report Card.
                             In grades 8 -12 only
                             27% performed at or
                             above the Proficient
                             1% performed at the
                             highest achievement
                             level. (Advanced)
Teaching Reading & Writing


                             Achieve high literacy in
                             reading and writing for all
                             Bridge the reading
                             performance gap between
                             potential and actual.
                             Middle & High school
                             students perform at or
                             above the Basic Level of
                             66% in Reading and 73%
                             in Writing.
Teaching Reading & Writing

            Learning Dynamics
                             Methodology stresses
                             the importance of
                             cognitive strategy
                             Teachers use learning
                             strategies to facilitate
                             Reciprocal Teaching
                             causes students to ask
                             questions, clarify
                             meanings, summarize
                             text, and predict future
Teaching Reading & Writing

           Reciprocal Teaching

                                 Improves student
                                 understanding of the
                                 Delivers a positive
                                 Shortens timeline to
                                 independent reading
                                 Driven by four selected
                                 supporting strategies
                                 Teacher facilitated
Teaching Reading & Writing

Reciprocal Teaching… a four part system
                               Predicting: Gives
                               students some
                               understanding of what
                               the section is about.
                               Clarifying: Requires
                               student to be actively
                               engaged while reading.
                               Questioning: Focuses
                               student attention on
                               main ideas & provides a
                               check on their
                               Summarizing: Helps
                               students understand
                               what’s important and
                               what’s not.
Teaching Reading & Writing

 Reciprocal Teaching… the methodology

                             Teacher baselines, then
                             monitors student progress
                             to ensure continuity while
                             tracking and facilitating
                             the discussion.
                             Instructional sessions
                             begin with the student
                             reading a paragraph or
                             two of the text aloud for
                             Four strategies of
                             reciprocal teaching come
Teaching Reading & Writing

 Moving Forward… Reciprocal Teaching
                             Students’ learn to
                             use the strategies
                             Teacher facilitates
                             the learning process,
                             then monitors
                             student progress.
                             Reciprocal Teaching
                             framework causes
                             students to ask
                             thought provoking
Teaching Reading & Writing

                     Questioning… Examples

                        What do you think would happen if . . .?
                        What do you think causes . . . ?
                        Do you agree or disagree with this
                        statement? Why or why not?
                        What is the main idea of . . .
                        How are (blank) and (blank) similar?
                        How does (blank) affect (blank)?
Teaching Reading & Writing


                             We believe large numbers of
                             struggling middle school and
                             high school readers and writers
                             are not receiving the effective
                             instruction they need to reach
                             objectives of high literacy for all
                             students. We’re convinced
                             students can reach this goal
                             with the quality and consistent
                             instruction reciprocal teaching
                             provides. The incredible cost of
                             not doing this is already
                             apparent in our schools and

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