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Teaching Reading & Writing Teaching Reading and Writing to Struggling Middle and High School Students The Case For Reciprocal Teaching Wayne H. Slater and Franklin Horstman Teaching Reading & Writing Observations Authors reviewed results presented in the NAEP 1998 Reading Report Card. In grades 8 -12 only 27% performed at or above the Proficient level. 1% performed at the highest achievement level. (Advanced) Teaching Reading & Writing Objectives Achieve high literacy in reading and writing for all students Bridge the reading performance gap between potential and actual. Middle & High school students perform at or above the Basic Level of 66% in Reading and 73% in Writing. Teaching Reading & Writing Learning Dynamics Methodology stresses the importance of cognitive strategy instruction. Teachers use learning strategies to facilitate instruction. Reciprocal Teaching causes students to ask questions, clarify meanings, summarize text, and predict future content. Teaching Reading & Writing Reciprocal Teaching Improves student understanding of the text Delivers a positive result Shortens timeline to independent reading Driven by four selected supporting strategies Teacher facilitated Teaching Reading & Writing Reciprocal Teaching… a four part system Predicting: Gives students some understanding of what the section is about. Clarifying: Requires student to be actively engaged while reading. Questioning: Focuses student attention on main ideas & provides a check on their understanding. Summarizing: Helps students understand what’s important and what’s not. Teaching Reading & Writing Reciprocal Teaching… the methodology Teacher baselines, then monitors student progress to ensure continuity while tracking and facilitating the discussion. Instructional sessions begin with the student reading a paragraph or two of the text aloud for evaluation. Four strategies of reciprocal teaching come next. Teaching Reading & Writing Moving Forward… Reciprocal Teaching Students’ learn to use the strategies independently. Teacher facilitates the learning process, then monitors student progress. Reciprocal Teaching framework causes students to ask thought provoking questions. Teaching Reading & Writing Questioning… Examples What do you think would happen if . . .? What do you think causes . . . ? Do you agree or disagree with this statement? Why or why not? What is the main idea of . . . How are (blank) and (blank) similar? How does (blank) affect (blank)? Teaching Reading & Writing Summary We believe large numbers of struggling middle school and high school readers and writers are not receiving the effective instruction they need to reach objectives of high literacy for all students. We’re convinced students can reach this goal with the quality and consistent instruction reciprocal teaching provides. The incredible cost of not doing this is already apparent in our schools and society.
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