VCU Open 2008—Round 8—Tossups
1. In the background of this painting, a man with a belt of bullets on top of his overalls hands a
shotgun to one of his compatriots in the doorway, underneath an orange banner reading "todos los
pesos divios.” A man with circular glasses and no middle to his mustache holds a cigar in one
hand and rebuffs a figure who is holding a white bag to his right, while a woman with no pupils
in her eyes is fed champagne by a smug man in a top hat to the left. It is the counterpart to a
painting in which most of the people are sleeping and a man is teaching others to read by lantern-
light. For 10 points, name this picture of a decadent banquet by Diego Rivera, which sometimes
has the word “orgy” put at the front of its title and is often shown side-by-side with Night of the
ANSWER: Orgy: Night of the Rich
2. One of his works features a novice monk beating a panther with a tree branch, while another
follows Prince Goudal’s daughter Tamara, who falls in love with the supernatural title character.
Another of his characters anticipates impressing Princess Mary with his officers’ uniform. While
staying in Taman, a man whose journal entries comprise a novel by this author admits that he is
unnerved by the lack of an icon and the blind, crippled boy who lives in the house he is lodging
in, and the boy eventually steals the protagonist’s sword and luggage. An attempt to trade the
bride Bela for Kazbich’s horse figures in that novel by this author, in which Grushnitski is killed
in a duel and Vulich plays Russian roulette. For 10 points, name this author who told the story of
Pechorin in A Hero of Our Time.
ANSWER: Mikhail Lermontov
3. Authorized in some cases as early as the 1235 Statute of Merton, this practice was regulated
via a Consolidation Act of 1801. Thomas Tresham was a notorious practitioner of this, and its
increasingly common occurrence sparked the Midland Revolt, the Newton Rebellion, and Kett's
Rebellion. Certain “acts” of this name consolidated disparate strips, while vigorous use of it on a
local scale led to the situation that inspired Oliver Goldsmith’s The Deserted Village. Leading to
up to ninety percent of the peasantry being evicted, for 10 points, identify this practice of late
medieval England in which formerly common land was fenced in and used for specific private
4. In one member of this series, a not fully fleshed-out man is reclining in the background under
one of several arches, with some drapery suspended from a shelf above, and a dog pokes around
on the ground to the left of a kneeling man. They are the counterpart to an earlier work of Andrea
Pisano, and they make use of the “relievo schiacciato” technique also employed by Donatello.
Including the stories of David and Goliath, Adam and Eve, and Jacob and Esau, the last one
chronologically shows events from the reign of Solomon.. The artist won the commission for this
project in a competition with Filippo Brunelleschi. For 10 points, name these bronze reliefs by
Lorenzo Ghiberti which adorn the Florence Baptistry.
ANSWER: The Gates of Paradise [or the bronze doors of the Florence Baptistry before it is
5. These people celebrated a vegetarian version of the Pyanepsia and performed human sacrifices
at Leucas. H.L. Ahrens identified this group with the Perpherees, and members of this group
sometimes wore garlands in order to jump into the sea. This group sent the maidens Opis and
Arge, as well as Laodice, to sacrifice at Delos, but when the envoys were killed, they started
making their sacrifices by wrapping items in wheat and asking neighboring countries to pass them
along one region at a time. Some say that this group was composed of those selected for virtue,
while others speak of them as a race, with a thousand-year lifespan. They are almost always
described as worshipping Apollo. For 10 points, name this people of Greek myth which lived in
an unspecified and inaccessible part of the far north.
6. A theory that involves what he calls “The Background” assigns three directions—null, world-
to-mind, and mind-to-world—to intentional states. After developing his theory of intentionalism,
he analyzed the philosophical significance of printing money in The Construction of Social
Reality, in which this disciple of John Austin claims that issuing currency is a type of speech act.
He may be better known for trying to debunk the equivalence of mental states and the appearance
of mental states with an idea similar to the Turing Test. For 10 points, name this man who said
that the syntactic manipulation of formal symbols is not the practice of semantics by postulating a
thought experiment involving a translation dictionary, the Chinese Room argument.
ANSWER: John Rogers Searle
7. In studying this structure, Elizabeth Gould showed that dendrite spine density and estradiol
levels peaked together. A circuit of structures interconnecting this structure and the cortex was
proposed by James Papez, and axon collaterals named for Schaffer innervates neurons in the CA1
portion of this structure. Neurons that respond only when an animal is in a certain region of
space, known as place cells, are located in this structure. It consists of two sheets of neurons
called Ammon's horn and the dentate gyrus, the first of which sends axons into the fornix.
Connected ventrally and laterally to the olfactory cortex, this structure inhibits CRH release. For
10 points, name folded structure of the limbic system that plays a major role in learning and
8. In this novel, Charles tries to kick out a pregnant woman who is squatting in a house with her
sister, leading to a man dying of shock after being hit with the flat end of a sword. Jacky gets
drunk on the lawn and claims to have been the mistress of one of the central characters. The lost
umbrella of Leonard Bast partially drives the plot of this novel, as does an unofficial codicil to a
will which bequeaths the title object to Margaret. Helen and Paul fall in love, but it is Henry
Wilcox who marries Margaret Schlegel after the death of Ruth in this book. For 10 points, name
this novel in which various characters maneuver to inherit the title residence, a work of E.M.
ANSWER: Howards End
9. A statistical-mechanical expression for this property has been developed by Boudh-Hir and
Mansoori that is based on the Macleod formula. The dimensionless Weber number is equal to
density times velocity-squared times diameter, divided by this value. The Marangoni effect is
caused by variations in this property, and the Young–Laplace equation relates the difference in
pressure with it. Jaeger's method for calculating its value involves producing a small bubble, and
the recently developed drop collapse method uses a smaller volume of sample than the du Nouy
ring method. Often measured in Joules per meters squared, it is caused by unbalanced
intermolecular forces, and its value is decreased by rising temperatures, in addition to the
presence of soaps, detergents, and other surfactants. For 10 points, name this tendency of liquids
to reduce their exposed surface, a phenomenon that enables some insects to walk on water.
ANSWER: surface tension
10. One member of this dynasty acquired land in the Treaty of Torun following his victory at the
Battle of Puck, and another king of this dynasty patronized the Italian humanist Callimachus.
Elizabeth of Habsburg was known as the “mother” of this other dynasty, which held off an
eastern threat at the Battle of Orsha. This dynasty briefly ruled in Hungary until the Battle of
Mohacs led to the death of Louis II. It was established in one country as a result of a marriage to
Jadwiga, and it died with the end of Sigismund II Augustus’s reign, shortly after the country that
was this dynasty’s power base entered the Union of Lublin. For 10 points, name this dynasty
brought out of Lithuania by Wladyslaw II which ruled late medieval Poland.
ANSWER: Jagiellonian Dynasty
11. In addition to Voronoi's tessellation and Johnson-Mehl diagrams, these objects were used by
Kayser and Stute to study human lung carcinoma. Problems involving the k type of these objects
are NP-complete, and the Euclidean type involve Delaunay triangulation. The running time of
one of the fastest ways to find these objects is based on a soft heap and includes the functional
inverse of the Ackermann function. Another way to find these objects was first presented by
Karger, Klein, and Tarjan, and involves a randomized linear-time algorithm. Greedy algorithms
such as Kruskal's algorithm and Prim's algorithm can also be used to compute these objects,
which can be used to find a solution to the traveling salesman problem. For 10 points, name this
subgraph that contains all of a graph's vertices with the least possible edge weight.
ANSWER: minimum spanning trees
12. The continuo of its first movement is marked “con pompa” to satirize a man who is angry at
his daughter not obeying him and threatens to withhold her wedding breakfast and gold bonnet. It
begins with Lieschen and Herr Schlendrian arriving at a popular new hangout, where the lyrics
start with the phrase “Be still, stop chattering” directed at the patrons. The libretto was written by
“Picander,” a pen name of Christian Friedrich Henrici., though his original draft does not include
Lieschen’s insistence on a marriage contract that lets her make the title substance whenever she
pleases. For 10 points, name this satire of the newly popular drink in Leipzig, a miniature comic
opera by J.S. Bach.
ANSWER: the Coffee Cantata or Kaffeekantate
13. Just before a sham degree is received from Abernathy College in this novel, a man loses one
of his eyes while being beaten for “heresy.” In addition to Frank Shallard, it includes a character
who is revealed to be a worshipper of Astarte and dies in a fire, as well as Bishop Toomis, who
sends the title character to Banjo Crossing. While attending Terwillinger College, that title
character is referred to as “Hell-cat” and captains the football team. Moved at a speech by Judson
Roberts, he subsequently attends the Mizpah Seminary. He schemes to make Floyd Naylor take
the fall for his own disinterest in Lulu Bains, meets Sharon Falconer, and finally becomes the
head of a church in Zenith. For 10 points, name this novel about a hypocritical preacher, by
ANSWER: Elmer Gantry
14. One song by this group suggests that “It won't take you long/To learn the new smile/You'll
have to adapt/Or you'll be out of style.” Another of their songs recalls a "vanilla smile and a
gorgeous strawberry kiss" and promises "it will always be like this forever and ever and ever.” In
addition to "Jumping Someone Else's Train" and "Mint Car," this band sang about a person who
has been "living so long" with the title objects that he can "almost believe that they're real,” and
about plans to "watch the walls instead." Different songs by this band became the titles of a 2005
saga of a dead doctor played by Reese Witherspoon falling in love with Mark Ruffalo, and a 1999
film starring Hilary Swank as a transgendered murder victim. The former recalls trying to "laugh
about it" and "cover it all up with lies," while one of their most liked songs begins "show me
show me show me how you do that trick." For 10 points, name this band which record “Boys
Don’t Cry,” "Pictures of You," "Friday I'm in Love," and "Just Like Heaven," an English group
led by the large-haired Robert Smith.
ANSWER: The Cure
15. A scheme to use eminent domain to mine the Mangue Seco dunes is a subplot of this novel,
which ends with the only paved street in town being renamed. A man who is initially suspected of
being a Martian turns out to be a speculator in titanium dioxide who calls himself Mirko the
Magnificent, and arrives just after Ascanio gets help in his project to replace the single electric
generator in town with power lines. The title character of this book arrives in tight jeans and a
low-cut blouse instead of the expected clothes of mourning, after Ricardo prays following the
delay of his mother’s allowance check. Perpetua wants the title figure to adopt one of her sons,
but she seduces him instead, in, for 10 points, what novel about a woman with satyr-like sexual
appetites, written by Jorge Amado?
ANSWER: Tieta, The Goat Girl [or Tieta do Agreste]
16. Those who signed this document pledged to look forward to the “triumph of the right and
true.” Part of this document discuss someone who has been made “morally, an irresponsible
being.” It also complains about a group that has “monopolized nearly all the profitable
employments” and “closes” “all the avenues to wealth and distinction.” For 10 points, name this
document stating “We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men and women are created
equal,” a twist on the Declaration of Independence that was issued by Elizabeth Cady Stanton at
the Seneca Falls women’s rights convention.
ANSWER: The Declaration of Sentiments
17. Farm plots on this feature were given away for nineteen dollars during the Fourth Land
Lottery, and it was named by the founder of Mercer College, Adiel Sherwood. William Simmons
and Samuel Venable climbed it in 1915 to burn a cross, signifying the rebirth of the Ku Klux
Klan, which is why it is mentioned in the “I Have a Dream” speech. This landmark’s most
notable use was the idea of Helen Plane and Scott Candler, and was executed by such figures as
Walker Hancock and Augustus Lukeman after Gutzon Borglum quit. For 10 points, name this
protrusion in DeKalb County, Georgia, where monuments to such figures as Robert E. Lee
comprise the “Confederate Mount Rushmore.”
ANSWER: Stone Mountain
18. The most successful instance of a certain type of this was designed by R. Orin Cornett, and
William Stokoe wrote some important books on one of these. One of these was used by disparate
groups of Plains Indians in the nineteenth century, and a noted example of the emergence of one
of these involves the Villa Libertad vocational center and a school in San Judas. In addition to
that Nicaraguan one, an artificial one was created by the Abbot of l'Epée and exported to
Hartford, Connecticut in 1816 by Laurent Clerc. There, the French type was transmuted into an
American type by Thomas Gallaudet. For 10 points, name these systems of sound-free
communication, often used by the deaf.
ANSWER: sign languages
19. This ruler overran Mato Grosso during his successful first war, after his father had allied with
Mariano Roque Alonso to seize power. His demand for his army to have access to Corrientes
province led to another conflict, in which his country lost the Humaitá fortress and the Battle of
Tuyutí. Following this man’s rule, his country de facto legalized polygamy because there were so
few males left, nearly all of them having been killed by Brazil, Argentina, or Uruguay. For 10
points, name this man who sparked the War of the Triple Alliance while ruling Paraguay in the
ANSWER: Francisco Solano López
20. Athanasios Papoulis introduced an extension of this theorem involving linear shift-invariant
systems, and the Raabe condition associated with it concerns the criterion for unambiguous
representation. This theorem gives a value that is necessary in order to recover all Fourier
components of a periodic waveform, or else distortion known as aliasing can occur. Its proof
often uses the Dirac comb, and it can be used to reconstruct a signal via a sinc interpolation
function. For 10 points, name this theorem, sometimes named for Whittaker and Kotelnikov, that
states a band-limited signal may be fully reconstructed if it is sampled at a frequency at least
twice the signal bandwidth.
ANSWER: Nyquist–Shannon sampling theorem
21. Souhaun and Avril are seduced away from Basil Stoke and Cyril Poges in one play by this
author, while in another of his works, Lorna takes the side of the peat drivers against her husband,
the stingy Michael Marthraun. Sheila Morneen’s commitment is doubted by Mrs. Breydon in
another play by this author, and the kindhearted drunk Fluther Good appears in his play about the
descent into madness of Nora Clitheroe. Minnie Powell is attracted to a false image of Donal
Davoren, but Donal is not so tough when the British authorities hear the rumors too, in a play by
this man. Joxer Daley helps one of his title characters waste time, and Johnny is shot for being an
informer in that same play. For 10 points, name this writer of Purple Dust, Cock A Doodle
Dandy, Red Roses For Me, The Plough and the Stars, The Shadow of a Gunman, The Silver
Tassie, and the tale of the strutting Jack Boyle, Juno and the Paycock.
ANSWER: Sean O'Casey
VCU Open 2008—Round 8—Bonuses
1. The mayor of Gullen tries to keep the central events of this play under wraps by encouraging
one character to kill himself. For 10 points each:
 Name this play by Friedrich Durenmatt, in which Claire Zachanassian puts a public bounty
on the head of her treacherous former lover Alfred Ill.
ANSWER: The Visit or Der Besuch der alten Dame
 This other Durenmatt play features Mathilde von Zahnd’s sanatorium, where patients think
they are Newton and Einstein among others.
ANSWER: The Physicists
 Odoacer overthrows his fellow breeder of chickens in this ironically titled Durenmatt play
about the last Emperor of Rome.
ANSWER: Romulus the Great or Romulus der Grosser
2. This son of Europa had a falling-out with his brother Midas. For 10 points each:
 Name this man who became the king of the Lycians and shares his name with a guy killed by
Patroclus in the Trojan War.
 Pretty much the same story about Midas kicking out his brother played out with this guy,
who went to Boeotia and married Amphitryon's widow Alcmene. He later became a judge of the
 Minos and Rhadamanthus were the sons of this Cretan king, himself an offspring of Chloris.
3. His later works include A Plan for Escape and Diary of the War of the Pig. For 10 points each:
 Name this author who described a device that can record all of a person’s experiences for
two weeks in The Invention of Morel.
ANSWER: Adolfo Bioy Casares
 Bioy Casares collaborated with this man on the Isidro Parodi detective novels.
ANSWER: Jorge Luis Borges
 A German shepherd occupies the body of Lucio's wife in this novel by Bioy Casares.
ANSWER: Asleep in the Sun
4. It was based on the author’s articles railing against Standard Oil in the Atlantic Monthly. For
10 points each:
 Name this muckraking book, the chief work of Henry Demarest Lloyd.
ANSWER: Wealth Against Commonwealth
 Born Elizabeth Jane Cochran, this other reporter was renamed for a Stephen Foster song and
wrote Six Months in Mexico before going undercover at Bellevue to write Ten Days in a
ANSWER: Nellie Bly
 This man’s muckraking volumes include The Struggle for Self-Government and The Shame
of the Cities.
ANSWER: Lincoln Steffens
5. Name these early English records, for 10 points each.
 William I ordered a general census of estates in 1086, resulting in this book
ANSWER: the Domesday Book
 Named for the shape they formed, these parchments, from 1130 on, recorded the annual
incomes and outflows of the monarchy.
ANSWER: the pipe rolls
 This 1166 compilation by Henry II was the result of ordering every baron to report on how
many knights he commanded and what the origin of their fiefs was.
ANSWER: the Cartae Baronum
6. The Cathedral of Santa Cecilia and Basilica of San Saturnino are located in this city. For 10
 Name this city, the largest on a landmass that also includes the conurbations of Olbia,
Sassari, and Quartu Sant'Elena.
 Cagliari is the capital of this island, whose native people built Nuraghe.
 Sardinia is located across this body of water from Corsica.
ANSWER: Strait of Bonifacio
7. Name these cell organelles, for 10 points each.
 Formed at its namesake organizer region and disassembled by FRGY2a, this organelle has a
pars fibrosa component that contains fibrillar material.
 The site of fatty acid synthesis, this organelle is abundant in hepatocytes, where it is involved
in the detoxification of drugs. It is also found in muscle cells, where it releases calcium to trigger
ANSWER: smooth endoplasmic reticulum [or smooth ER; prompt on "endoplasmic reticulum"
 This type of microbody is found in the fat tissue of germinating seedlings and is where
stored fatty acids are converted into sugars.
8. He coined the term “heterophenomenology” to describe his philosophy. For 10 points each:
 Name this large-bearded writer on the subject of cognition, whose books include Darwin’s
ANSWER: Daniel Dennett
 A leading critic of Dennett, this “anti-holist” advocates a mind model made up of “modules,”
and has written Psychosemantics and The Elm and the Expert.
ANSWER: Jerry Fodor
 This guy likes to explain his philosophy of mind with crazy thought experiments, such as the
“brain in a vat” and the “Twin Earth.”
ANSWER: Hilary Putnam
9. Answer the following about the band theory of solids, for 10 points each.
 An energy gap between the valence band and the empty conductor band of at least 2
electron-volts is characteristic of this type of material that also has a completely filled valence
 The first one of these is defined as the volume encompassed around a lattice point without
crossing any Bragg planes. The namesake of these zones was also partly responsible for the WKB
ANSWER: Brillouin zone(s)
 This doubly-eponymous one-dimension model allows potential energy of an electron in a
crystal to be written as the sum of an infinite number of thin barriers, each proportional to the
Dirac delta function.
ANSWER: Kronig-Penney model
10. Now led by Shaik Hasina, this political party originated as an independence movement that
achieved its goal in 1971. For 10 points each:
 Name this group which was formed in an area then called East Pakistan.
ANSWER: the Awami League
 The Awami League won independence for this country.
 The father of Shaik Hasina, this man led the Awami League during the granting of
independence and was the first president of Bangladesh.
ANSWER: Mujibur Rahman
11. UV light can catalyze the photo type of this reaction. For 10 points each:
 Name this rearrangement of an aryl ester to a ring-acylated derivate of phenol.
ANSWER: Fries rearrangement
 The enolization of a cyclohexadienone intermediate and a six-electron reorganization is
involved in the mechanism for this other rearrangement that converts an allyl phenyl ether into an
ANSWER: Claisen rearrangement
 The Claisen rearrangement is an example of this type of rearrangement, in which a
substituent migrates from one end of a conjugated pi electron system to the other.
ANSWER: sigmatropic rearrangement
12. Name these white people who wrote about black people, for 10 points each.
 This man engaged in some hardcore stereotyping in his Ol' Man Adam An' His Chillun, John
Henry, and This Side of Jordan.
ANSWER: Roark Bradford
 This author of Daddy Jake the Runaway created the character of Uncle Remus.
ANSWER: Joel Chandler Harris
 He described Comfort Servosse’s attempt to settle in the South after the Civil War in A
Fool’s Errand and also wrote Bricks Without Straw.
ANSWER: Albion Winegar Tourgee
13. It calls the title subject the “first light-giver to ignorance.” For 10 points each:
 Name this 1595 essay, which says that Romans and Hebrews alike valued a certain type of
writer, thus English moralists should not seek to restrict literature.
ANSWER: “A Defence of Poesie”
 This author of Arcadia and Astrophel and Stella wrote “A Defence of Poesie.”
ANSWER: Philip Sidney
 A shepherd and a forester compete for the title character in this Philip Sidney masque, until
Queen Elizabeth arrives to arbitrate.
ANSWER: The Lady of the May
14. Also known as Orchestral Set Number One, this 1914 piece focuses on St. Gaudens, Putnam's
Camp, and the Housatonic at Stockbridge. For 10 points each:
 Those are the title entities of what American musical work?
ANSWER: Three Places in New England
 Three Places in New England was composed by this creator of The Unanswered Question
and the Camp Meeting symphony.
ANSWER: Charles Ives
 Though this poem begins that it is to be “sung to the tune of The Blood of the Lamb without
any instrument,” Ives composed his own music for it in 1914.
ANSWER: “General William Booth Enters Into Heaven”
15. Answer the following about your favorite zeta function, the Riemann zeta function, for 10
 The non-trivial zeroes of the Riemann zeta function are symmetric about the critical line
with this value.
ANSWER: 1/2 [read: "one-half"]
 The reciprocal of the Riemann zeta function can be stated as this man's namesake series over
the Mobius function. In addition, all the analytic properties of the Riemann zeta function are
shared by this man's namesake L function.
ANSWER: Johann Peter Gustav Lejeune Dirichlet
 This less awesome, albeit doubly-eponymous zeta function is associated with polynomials
defined over finite fields. In the case of elliptical curves with complex multiplication, it is
expressed in terms of a Hecke L-function.
ANSWER: Hasse-Weil zeta function
16. They do not believe that the line of imams stopped at Musa ibn Jafar. For 10 points each:
 Name this Shiite branch, which counts more total adherents than the rival Ismailis.
ANSWER: the Twelvers
 The Twelvers subscribe to the Furu al-Din, a basic code of belief that contains this many so-
called “practices of the religion.”
 Twelvers give unique reverence to this group, whose Arabic name means “People of the
House.” They are the direct descendants of the household of Muhammad.
ANSWER: Ahl al Bayt
17. These people believe that every man has male heirs, so men who die childless are ritually
considered the father of one of their relatives' children in the practice called "ghost marriage." For
10 points each:
 Name this ethnic group of the Sudan which has some crossover with the nearby Dinka and
organizes its society around cattle.
 This man, who also founded the field of comparative government with his collaboration with
Meyer Fortes on the book African Political Systems, notably did an ethnography called The Nuer.
ANSWER: Edward Evan Evans-Pritchard
 Evans-Pritchard had earlier studied "witchcraft, oracles, and magic among" this other
ANSWER: the Azande
18. It was erected at Hyde Park originally, and destroyed at its second home by a 1936 fire. For
10 points each:
 Name this home to the Great Exhibition of 1851.
ANSWER: the Crystal Palace
 This gardener designed the Crystal Palace.
ANSWER: Joseph Paxton
 This home in Buckinghamshire was designed for Baron Rothschild by Paxton. It later
became the British headquarters of the Transcendental Meditation movement.
ANSWER: Mentmore Towers
19. It ends with Medea rescuing the central characters from an assault by Talos. For 10 points
 Name this Hellenistic epic, the only extant work in that genre.
ANSWER: the Argonautica
 This librarian at Alexandria wrote the Argonautica.
ANSWER: Appolonius of Rhodes
 A less important work called the Argonautica was written in the first century CE by this
poet, who was patronized by the Flavians and dedicated the work to Vespasian.
ANSWER: Valerius Flaccus
20. The title character holds a white dove and is attended by three cherubs. For 10 points each:
 Name this Rococo painting of a goddess’s daily preparations.
ANSWER: The Toilet of Venus
 This creator of The Setting of the Sun and Adoration of the Shepherds painted The Toilet of
ANSWER: Francois Boucher
 Lots of naked people, including two cherubs spilling something out of a huge goblet, appear
for some reason in this Boucher scene, which depicts an episode from Vergil where a sword is
being handed over to a warrior’s mother.
ANSWER: Vulcan Presenting Venus with Arms for Aeneas