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					                     France                         Spain                    England                Holland               Holy Roman Empire
Political     The political structure   Philip IV inherited the      Charles I of England The government of the           The HRE had a limited
              of France at this time    Spanish throne at only 16    was monarch during United Provinces was             elective monarchy while
                 was an absolute        years of age, and because of      this time. He      decentralized. Each       maintaining itself as a state
             monarchy. Louis XIV        his youth, he left the       initiated the English province controlled its      composed of many states.
            reigned from 1643-1715      effective powers of kingship Civil War, where he    own internal affairs.                   The
               and he absolved all      in the hands of his former    fought the forces of  Within each province        elected emperor (Kaiser),
             power from ministers,      gentleman of the chamber,        the English and     the towns were also       was the sole sovereign and
              princes, and nobility.    the Count Olivares.          Scottish Parliament. largely self-governing.    monarch. The exercise of his
                                        Olivares directed the        At this same time, he Only foreign policy,          power was considerably
                                        Spanish government and        used his position as    the army and some       limited, however, by a body
                                        presented to the king a       head of the English religious matters were        representing the member
                                        number of plans for a far-      Church to pursue       controlled by the         states, the Imperial Diet
                                        reaching reform of              religious policies     provinces jointly.    (Reichstag). It was a limited
                                        government and society. In   which generated the        Holland was the        monarchy as well because
                                        1639, riots and open                 antipathy         richest and most      any exercise of the Emperor's
                                        rebellion broke out in        of reformed groups    powerful province. It      powers that was not purely
                                        Catalonia. As a result, the  such as the Puritans. was ruled by the States   executive, required the assent
                                        liberties and privileges of        Charles was        of Holland, a body     of the States of the Empire—
                                        Catalonia were fully         defeated in the First     composed of the        a principle formulated at the
                                        restored in 1652. The revolt   Civil War (1642–     delegates of eighteen    peace of Westphalia in 1648.
                                        of Catalonia gave the         45), and Parliament towns; a delegation of
                                        Portuguese their opportunity expected him reform the nobility also had a
                                        to seize power in Lisbon and   to a constitutional  vote. The States met
                                        proclaimed the Duke de       monarchy; however, four times a year, but
                                        Bragança as King John IV     he instead remained there was a permanent
                                        of Portugal. In 1647,               defiant by         official known as
                                        popular revolutions broke     attempting to forge  the Pensionary. (Until
                                        out in Naples and Palermo        an alliance with  1618 he was known as
                                        (Sicily), and soon these two       Scotland and         the Advocate).
                                        cities were in the hands of   escaping to the Isle        Because the
                                        revolutionary governments.        of Wight. This   Pensionary formulated
                                        Philip IV came to terms with provoked the Second       and implemented
                                      the United Provinces,          Civil War (1648–49)        policies (as well as
                                      recognizing their full          and a second defeat        resolving disputes
                                      independence by the Treaty       for Charles, who         between the various
                                      of Münster in 1648. In          was then captured,       delegates) he became
                                      1668, Spain formally           tried, convicted, and     very influential. This
                                      recognized the                   executed for high        was especially true
                                      independence of Portugal.             treason.           because although the
                                                                                                   Pensionary was
                                                                                               theoretically elected
                                                                                                  for five years, in
                                                                                                   practice he was
                                                                                                   tenured for life.
Economic      Cost of Versailles,        Credit was a widespread      There was a large          Holland was at its        The Holy Roman Empire
             palaces, Louis’ court,    tool of Spanish business in   fiscal deficit for the       economic height         experienced great economic
            and wars put France in    the 17th century. In Antwerp    kingdom from the        during the 17th century     decline during this period as
              an economic crisis.          was where European       reigns of Elizabeth I     as a result of an influx       the Thirty Years’ war
           Jean-Baptiste controlled     commerce and its bankers    and James I. He was              of economic         resulted in the separation into
            general finances time.    financed most of Charles V's unable to wage wars        stimulation as well as       several states of Germany
           High tariffs were placed       and Philip II's wars on        overseas and                 industrial               and the HRE. This
           on exports bring foreign    credit. The use of "notes of   England was least             advancements.          breakdown contributed to
                  retaliation.               exchange" became          taxed country in           Holland and the        why the economy did not and
             Manufacturing was a            commonplace while          Europe. He had          Netherlands together       was not able to flourish like
            major implementation         Antwerp's banks became         great difficulty           had agriculture,          neighboring countries.
               during this time.          increasingly powerful     acquiring funds from       manufacturing, and a
                                      leading to speculation which       treasury. He             great number of
                                         exaggerated price shifts.       reintroduced         exports with which to
                                       The total lack of regulation obsolete feudal taxes      increase the purse of
                                         and pervasive corruption         as well. A              the government.
                                      meant that small landowners significant amount
                                       could often lost everything,   of his money was
                                      at any time. Estates in Spain    gained from the
                                        steadily grew larger while     Scottish nobility.
                                           the economy became
                                     increasingly uncompetitive.
                                     Especially during the reigns
                                         of Philip III and IV,
                                       speculative crises shook
                                          Spain’s economy.
Social     The majority of social   In the 16th and 17th             England’s social        The Low Countries
             life revolved around   centuries, El Greco and          customs and cultures    witnessed a cultural
             Versailles where the   Diego Velázquez                  were mostly             development that stood
               nobility, officials, represented the pinnacle of      centered around the     out from neighboring
            aristocrats, king, and  Spanish painting. Spanish        higher society          countries. With some
                members of the      fashion consisted of a great     bourgeoisie. Tea        exceptions (notably
             government were all    use of black, making             engagements and         Dutch playwright Joost
             housed. At the high    Spanish fashion preeminent       male outings were       van den Vondel)
           social point of the 17th in Europe during the Golden      quite traditional       the Baroque movement
             century, King Louis    Age (the middle of the 16th      staple events for the   did not gain much
               most appreciated     century to the middle of the     English. Also,          influence. Its
               Classicism, a high   17th century). In literature     fanish had a major      exuberance did not fit
              regard for classical  it was a great period of the     impact on social        the austerity of the
              antiquity, as setting theatre with Lope de Vega        customs as the slip     largely
         standards for taste which (1562-1635), Tirso de             and “balloon” dress     Calvinistic population.
            the classicists seek to Molina (1570-1650) and           became popular for
               emulate. Classic     Calderón (1600-1681).            those of the upper
              painters of the 17th  Poetry and the novel were        class.
               century in France    immortalized by Góngora
               included Nicolas     (1561-1627) and Don
             Poussin and Claude     Quixote of Cervantes (1547-
           Lorrain who sought to 1616). In music the
             create baroque style   'zarzuelas', 'églogas' and the
           paintings. Salons and    'comedias harmónicas'
              academies, theatre,   belonged to musical drama
          prose, and poetry were for which contemporary
          also popular during this dramatists wrote.
                      time.
Religious       Louis did not want to       The country of Spain has       Arminian theology      Overall, in the 17th  The accepted religions of the
                 allow Protestants to     deeply rooted religious roots      was considered        century, levels of         HRE were Roman
                practice their faith in      in Roman Catholicism.        heretical during this      tolerance were            Catholicism and
              largely Catholic France.    Dating back to the 500s, the     time and put at risk  sufficiently high to     Lutheranism as a result of
              He revoked the Edict of        majority of the Spanish      the reintroduction of     attract religious   the Peace of Augsburg which
              Nantes which destroyed          population has greatly      Roman Catholicism.     refugees from other         was signed in 1555.
               Hugenots churches and       identified with the Roman           Charles was         countries, notably           Following this,
                  closed Protestant        Catholic faith and religion.   sympathetic towards      Jewish merchants     Calvinism was also officially
                       schools.                                              the teachings of     from Portugal who       recognized as a religion of
                                                                              Arminianism,      brought much wealth      the states due to the signing
                                                                             however, and he        with them. The      of the Peace of Westphalia in
                                                                           wanted to move the  revocation of the Edict    1648 following The Thirty
                                                                           Church of England   of Nantes in France in             Years’ War.
                                                                                away from        1685 resulted in the
                                                                               Calvinism.       immigration of many
                                                                                                 French Huguenots,
                                                                                                many of whom were
                                                                                                    shopkeepers or
                                                                                                     scientists. Still
                                                                                               tolerance had its limits
      A. The three states which declined in central Europe in the 17th and 18th centuries were Poland, Sweden, and the Ottoman Empire.

            Poland had been in decline since the middle of the 17th century. Much of the decline was internal, lack of reforms, political

            instability and too much power of the local nobility when rest of Europe was moving toward absolutist model. The biggest

            problem came from series of war with Sweden called in Poland a great Swedish flood (1655). Majority of the polish cities and

            countryside was devastated. The country lacked skilled leadership and was unable to save nation from outsiders. The Ottoman

            Empire declined when it faced series of defeats at the hand of Austria. The siege of Vienna was very costly and within the next 20
years, Ottoman Empire not only lost much of the Hungary, but also prestige. Hapsburg were clearly decided to push Ottoman out

as far they can from Hungarian plains to the Balkan Mountains. At the same time, Russia was becoming stronger and started to

conquering areas around Black Sea that were vassals of Ottoman Empire. Sweden declined due having overextended possession

around Baltic sea and was defeated by coalition of states in Great Northern War. In this war, it had lost almost all its conquests

from the 30 year war. It eliminated Sweden as European power and Sweden could not recover quickly. Sweden lacked manpower

to maintain colonial empire and underestimated the strength and size of Russia and Poland. The army was worn out as it marched

through much of the Northern/Central Europe and Ukraine and it could not be replaced quickly. While Swedish army was far

better equipped and had gained several decisive battles in Poland and Ukraine, it could not match the coalition forces that were

determined to get Sweden out of Baltic coast. The defeat of the Great Northern War sealed fate of Sweden as a European

superpower.

B. The three states which rose in central Europe in the 17th and 18th centuries were Poland, Prussia, and the Austro-Hungarian

   Empire.

C. The causes and effects of the English Civil War are as follows:

                                        Causes                                                      Effects
    Political       -   Lack of money                                         -   Britain became a republic/commonwealth
                    -   Parliament’s unwillingness to provide to the          -   The new model army was created
                        King                                                  -   Charles I is beheaded
                    -   Foreign affairs of the 30 Years’ war caused           -   Interregnum
                        fear for the English people                           -   Dismissed the Long Parliament
                    -   Charles’ combative and egotistical personality        -   Oliver Cromwell took over as leader
                    -   Calling off and on Parliament caused
                        resentment for Charles and his Parliament
     Religious      -   Charles’ marriage to a French woman caused          -   The Protestant Church developed religious
                        anger and skepticism over if he was a                   toleration
                        Catholic                                            -   Puritanism became stronger in England
                    -   William Laud, Archbishop of Caterbury,              -   The Puritans closed theatres, banned dancing,
                        made church reforms out of line with the                denied the playing of music, and other pastimes
                        beliefs of the people                               -   The strictest religious observances were demanded
                    -   The English Prayer Book gained great                    of the entire population, especially on Sundays
                        scrutiny                                            -   All graven images which could possibly be
                                                                                associated with Catholicism were destroyed



D.

        1. Stuarts: A prestigious British family that was greatly involved in politics and had great opposition to the Whig party.

           The party was formed

        2. Whigs: The party was formed in opposition to the policies of President Andrew Jackson and his Democratic Party.

           The Whigs supported the supremacy of Congress over the presidency and favored a program

           of modernization and economic protectionism. This party was named after the American Whigs of 1776, who fought

           for independence and because "Whig" was then a widely recognized label of choice for people who saw themselves as

           opposing tyranny.

        3. Tories: The first Tories emerged in 1678 in the Kingdom of England due to their opposition of the Whig-

           supported Exclusion Bill which set out to disinherit the heir presumptive and future king to be James, Duke of York.
        This party ceased to exist as an organized political entity in the early 1760s, although it was used as a term of self-

        description by some political writers. A few decades later, a new Tory party would rise to establish a hold on

        government between 1783 and 1830, with William Pitt the Younger followed by Robert Jenkinson, 2nd Earl of

        Liverpool.

E.

     1. Politique is a ruler who governs without letting his or her personal feelings get in the way of doing what was best for

        his/her country. This aided in establishing a modern state in France because now rulers had the country’s best interest

        in mind allowing them to rule void of bias, selfish wants, and self benefit, in order to allow the economy to flourish,

        freedoms to the enjoyed by its people, and a balanced and efficiently run government.

     2. Henry IV played a major role in establishing the basis for a modern state in France because he regularized state finance,

        promoted agriculture, drained swamps to create productive crop lands, undertook many public works, and education,

        even establishing a university. He also protected forests from further devastation, built a new system of tree-lined

        highways, and constructed new bridges and canals. There was a 1200 m canal built in the park at the royal Château at

        Fontainebleau. In addition, the king renewed Paris as a great city, with the Pont Neuf, which still stands today,

        constructed over the Seine River in order to connect the Right and Left Banks of the city. Henry IV also had the Place

        Royale built and added the Louvre to it. King Henry's vision also extended beyond France, and he financed several

        expeditions of Pierre Dugua, Sieur de Monts and Samuel de Champlainto North America that saw France lay claim to
   Canada. All of these policies, reform, and changes ultimately led to an increase in employment, better education,

   increased construction, and environmental protection, all contributing to a modernized state.

3. Cardinal Richelieu was integral in establishing the basis for a modern state in France because of

   the authoritarian measures he employed to maintain power. He censored the press, established a large network of

   internal spies, forbade the discussion of political matters in public assemblies, and had those who dared to conspire

   against him prosecuted and executed. He has even been referred to as the "father of the modern nation-state, modern

   centralised power [and] the modern secret service." His stubborn refusal to let courtly intrigues and foreign interests

   dominate the government combined with his ideas of a strong nation-state and aggressive foreign policy helped create

   the modern system of international politics. The notions of national sovereignty and international law can majorly be

   traced, at least in part, to Richelieu's policies and theories, especially as enunciated in the Treaty of Westphalia that

   ended the Thirty Years' War. Richelieu helped states and governments recognize the importance of control in his

   modern-day, as well as how to best keep such an order while not too greatly infringing upon peoples’ rights.

4. The Fronde contributed to the modern state in France because of its result in the alteration of aristocratic governments

   into absolute monarchial governments. The Fronde was divided into two campaigns, the Fronde of the parlements and

   the Fronde of the nobles. The Fronde des parlements broke out directly after the Peace of Westphalia, and the nuclei

   of armed bands under aristocratic leaders that had terrorized parts of France had been hardened in a generation of war

   in Germany where troops still tended to operate autonomously. Louis XIV realized that he must reorganize French
   fighting forces under a stricter hierarchy because leaders ultimately could be made or unmade by the King. Fronde,

   therefore, resulted in the disempowerment of the territorial aristocracy and the emergence of an absolute monarchy.

5. Louis XIV was a major player in establishing the basis for a modern state in France because

6. Jean Baptiste Colbert In January 1664 Colbert became the Superintendent of buildings; in 1665 he became Controller-

   General of Finances; in 1669, he became Secretary of State of the Navy; he also gained appointments as minister

   of commerce, of the colonies and of the palace. In short, Colbert acquired power in every department except that of

   war. The state, through Colbert's dirigiste policies, fostered manufacturing enterprises in a wide variety of fields. The

   authorities established new industries, protected inventors, invited in workmen from foreign countries, and prohibited

   French workmen from emigrating. To maintain the character of French goods in foreign markets, as well as to afford a

   guarantee to the home consumer, Colbert had the quality and measure of each article fixed by law, punishing breaches

   of the regulations by public exposure of the delinquent and by destruction of the goods concerned, and, on the third

   offense, by the pillory. When he had severely punished guilty officials, he turned his attention to the fraudulent

   creditors of the government. Colbert had a simple method of operation. He repudiated some of the public loans, and cut

   off from others a percentage, which varied, at first according to his own decision, and afterwards according to that of

   the council which he established to examine all claims against the state. Much more serious difficulties met his

   attempts to introduce equality in the pressure of the taxes on the various classes. To diminish the number of the

   privileged proved impossible, but Colbert firmly resisted false claims for exemption, and lightened the unjust direct
        taxation by increasing the indirect taxes, from which the privileged could not escape. At the same time he immensely

        improved the mode of collection on his own.

F.

     1. Peace of Augsburg - was

             a. Political: A treaty between Charles V and the forces of the Schmalkaldic League, an alliance of Lutheran

               princes, on September 25, 1555, at the imperial city of Augsburg, now in present-day Bavaria, Germany.

             b. Economic: This had minor effects on the economic situations of countries involved, but the princes won

               meaning economic growth was to them.

             c. Religious: It officially ended the religious struggle between the two groups and made the legal division of

               Christendom permanent within the Holy Roman Empire. The Peace established the principle Cuius regio, eius

               religio, which allowed German princes to select either Lutheranism or Catholicism within the domains they

               controlled, ultimately reaffirming the independence they had over their states. Subjects, citizens, or residents

               who did not wish to conform to the prince's choice were given a period in which they were free to migrate to

               different regions in which their desired religion had been accepted.

     2. Treaty of Utrecht

             a. Political: This treaty was a result of the dispute in order to determine who would succeed Charles II of Spain

               after his death.

				
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