International-Trafficking-in-Persons-Lederer-and-Mattar

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					                          International Trafficking In Persons
                     Professor Laura Lederer and Professor Mohamed Mattar
                               Georgetown University Law Center
                                          Spring 2012
                                    Thursdays: 5:45-7:45 pm



Course Description

Trafficking in women and children is a global human rights violation that constitutes a
contemporary form of slavery. This course is designed to examine the various issues related to
trafficking in women and children from an international and comparative perspective. While the
course primarily focuses on commercial sexual exploitation and trafficking for the purpose of
prostitution, trafficking for other slave-like practices will also be fully addressed. Such practices
include forced labor, the exploitation of immigrants for domestic service, the sale of children for
irregular inter-country adoption, involvement of children in sex tourism and armed conflict, and
the sale of wives legalized by transnational marriages.

The course will study the international trafficking prohibitions of various international
conventions including the UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress, and Punish Trafficking in Persons,
Especially Women and Children; the Convention of Suppression of the Traffic in Persons and
the Exploitation of the Prostitution of Others; the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of
Discrimination Against Women; the Convention on the Rights of the Child; the Convention to
Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor; the Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of
Slavery, the Slave Trade and Institutions and Practices Similar to Slavery; the Hague Convention
on the Protection of Children and Cooperation in Respect to Intercountry Adoption; the
Convention on Consent to Marriage, Minimum Age for Marriage and Registration of Marriages;
and the International Labor Organization conventions concerning abolition of forced labor. The
course will also study the Council of Europe Convention on Action against Trafficking in
Human Beings and European Union Framework Decisions and Directives.

The course will analyze the U.S. statutes prohibiting trafficking in human beings, including those
related to alien smuggling, the establishment of commercial enterprises for the purpose of
evading immigration, and the transportation of a person in interstate or foreign commerce for the
purpose of prostitution under the Mann Act, and the 2000 Trafficking Victims Protection Act, as
amended in 2003, 2005 and 2008. The course will also cover the 2003 Protect Act, especially
Section 105 that provides penalties in cases of child sex tourism, as well as the 2005
International Marriage Broker Regulation Act. The course will specifically address combating
trafficking in persons as a foreign policy objective of the U.S. and sanctions imposed on foreign
countries that do not comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking in
persons.




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The course will emphasize the human rights based approach to trafficking in persons and the
recognition of the trafficked person as a victim of a crime. The course will also inquire into the
role of government corruption in facilitating the crime of trafficking.

A United Nations Model Law will form the basis of discussion on drafting a comprehensive anti-
trafficking legislation that covers prevention of the act of trafficking, protection of the trafficking
victim, and prosecution of the trafficker.

Students may elect to take a written examination or write a research paper in lieu of the exam.


1. INTRODUCTION TO THE CONCEPT OF TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS; THE SCOPE
   OF THE PROBLEM AND APPROPRIATE GOVERNMENT RESPONSES (Jan. 19)

Assigned Materials

       a. Mohamed Y. Mattar, Trafficking in Persons, an Annotated Bibliography Delineating
          Five Years of Development 2005-2009, 2 PROTECTION PROJECT J. HUM. RTS. & CIV.
          SOC’Y 153-209 (2009).
       b. Mohamed Y. Mattar, Trafficking in Persons, an Annotated Bibliography, 96 LAW
          LIB. J. 669 (2004).
       c. Mohamed Y. Mattar, Comprehensive Legal Approaches to Combating Trafficking in
          Persons: an International and Comparative Perspective. The Protection Project at The
          Johns Hopkins University School of Advanced International Studies
          http://www.protectionproject.org/wp-
          content/uploads/2010/09/PP_Chartbook_English.pdf (Pages 8-19).


2. THE U.S. LEGAL APPROACH: FROM THE MANN ACT TO THE TRAFFICKING
   VICTIMS PROTECTION ACT (Jan. 26)

Assigned Materials

       a. The White Slave Traffic Act of 1910 [The Mann Act] and amendments thereto, 18
          U.S.C. §§ 2421-2424.
       b. Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of 2000 [TVPA], Pub. L. No.
          106-386 (2000).
       c. Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act of 2003, Pub. L. No. 108-193.
       d. Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act of 2005, Pub. L. No. 109-164
          (2005).
       e. William Wilberforce Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act of 2008,
          Pub. L. No. 110-457 (2008).
       f. Mohamed Y. Mattar, Interpreting Judicial Interpretations of the Criminal Statutes of
          the Trafficking Victims Protection Act: Ten Years Later, 19 AM. U. J. GENDER SOC.
          POL'Y & L. 1247 (2011).



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      g. United States v. Marcus, 487 F. Supp. 2d 289 (2007) (Defining a “commercial sex
         act” under the TVPA).
      h. United States v. Paris, U.S Dist. LEXIS 78418 (2007) (Interstate commerce nexus for
         sex trafficking).
      i. United States v. Veerapol, 312 F.3d 1128 (2002) (Conviction of holding another to
         involuntary servitude, mail fraud, and harboring aliens).
      j. United States v. Castaneda, 239 F. 3d 978 (Court of Appeals for the 9th Circuit 2001)
         (Filipino women were recruited to work in a night club where they performed sexual
         services).
      k. Laura Lederer, Sold for Sex: The Link between Street Gangs and Trafficking in
         Persons, 4 THE PROTECTION PROJECT J. HUM. R. & CIV. SOC’Y 1 (2011).


3. MONITORING THE STATUS OF SEVERE FORMS OF TRAFFICKING IN FOREIGN
   COUNTRIES: SANCTIONS MANDATED UNDER THE U.S. TRAFFICKING VICTIMS
   PROTECTION ACT (Feb. 2)

   GUEST LECTURER: Ambassador Luis C de Baca, Ambassador at Large for Trafficking in
   Persons, U.S. Department of State: The U.S. Approach to Human Trafficking – Diplomacy
   and Law

Assigned Materials

      a. Mohamed Y. Mattar, Comparative Models of Reporting Mechanisms on the Status of
         Trafficking in Human Beings, 41 VAND. J. OF TRANSNAT’L L. 1355 (2008).
      b. Mohamed Y. Mattar, Monitoring the Status of Severe Forms of Trafficking in Foreign
         Countries: Sanctions Mandated Under the U.S. Trafficking Victims Protection Act, 10
         BROWN JOURNAL OF WORLD AFFAIRS 1 (2003).
      c. U.S. Department of State, TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS REPORT 2011.


4. RIGHTS OF VICTIMS OF A SEVERE FORM OF TRAFFICKING UNDER THE
   TRAFFICKING VICTIMS PROTECTION ACT: A HUMAN RIGHTS BASED
   APPROACH (Feb. 9)

Assigned Materials

      a. Mohamed Y. Mattar, Comprehensive Legal Approaches to Combating Trafficking in
         Persons: an International and Comparative Perspective. The Protection Project at The
         Johns Hopkins University School of Advanced International Studies
         http://www.protectionproject.org/wp-
         content/uploads/2010/09/PP_Chartbook_English.pdf (Pages 36-43).
      b. Jennifer M. Wetmore, The New T Visa: Is the Higher Extreme Hardship Standard
         Too High for Bona Fide Trafficking Victims? 9 New England International and
         Comparative Law Annual 159 (2003).




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      c. T-Visa Application Form: http://www.protectionproject.org/wp-
         content/uploads/2010/09/i-914.pdf


5. THE INTERNATIONAL LEGAL APPROACH: THE PROTOCOL TO PREVENT,
   SUPPRESS AND PUNISH TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS, ESPECIALLY WOMEN AND
   CHILDREN, SUPPLEMENTING THE UNITED NATIONS CONVENTION AGAINST
   TRANSNATIONAL ORGANIZED CRIME (Feb. 16)

Assigned Materials

      a. Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women
         and Children, Supplementing the United Nations Convention Against Transnational
         Organized Crime (2000).
      b. Convention for the Suppression of the Traffic in Persons and of the Exploitation of
         the Prostitution of Others (1949).
      c. Council of Europe Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings
         (2005).
      d. Directive 2011/36/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 5 April 2011
         on preventing and combating trafficking in human beings and protecting its victims,
         and replacing Council Framework Decision 2002/629/JHA.
      e. Mohamed Y. Mattar, Incorporating the Five Basic Elements of a Model Anti-
         Trafficking in Persons Legislation in Domestic Laws: from the United Nations
         Protocol to the European Convention, 14 TUL. J. INT’L & COMP. L. 357-419 (2006).
      f. Mohamed Y. Mattar, Comprehensive Legal Approaches to Combating Trafficking in
         Persons: an International and Comparative Perspective. The Protection Project at The
         Johns Hopkins University School of Advanced International Studies
         http://www.protectionproject.org/wp-
         content/uploads/2010/09/PP_Chartbook_English.pdf (Pages 22-33).
      g. Anne Gallagher, Human Rights and the New UN Protocols on Trafficking and
         Migrant Smuggling: A Preliminary Analysis, 23 HUM. RTS. Q. (2001).


6. THE ROLE OF ORGANIZED CRIME AND CORRUPTION IN TRAFFICKING IN
   PERSONS: THE UN CONVENTION AGAINST TRANSNATIONAL ORGANIZED
   CRIME (Mar. 1)

Assigned Materials

      a. United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime (2000).
      b. United Nations Convention against Corruption (2003).
      c. Mohamed Y. Mattar, Comprehensive Legal Approaches to Combating Trafficking in
         Persons: an International and Comparative Perspective. The Protection Project at The
         Johns Hopkins University School of Advanced International Studies
         http://www.protectionproject.org/wp-
         content/uploads/2010/09/PP_Chartbook_English.pdf (Page 58).



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      d. Louise Shelley, Trafficking in Women: The Business Model Approach, 10 Brown
         Journal of World Affairs 1 (2003).
      e. Jorene Soto, Show Me the Money: The Application of the Asset Forfeiture Provisions
         of the Trafficking Victims Protection Act and Suggestions for the Future, 23 Penn St.
         Int'l L. Rev. 365 (2004).


7. A DEBATE ON THE PROSTITUTION OF WOMEN: SEXUAL EXPLOITATION OR A
   PERSONAL CHOICE AND THE ISSUE OF DEMAND (Mar. 8)

Assigned Materials
       a. Catharine A. MacKinnon, Prostitution and Civil Rights, in WOMEN’S LIVES – MEN’S
          LAWS 151 (2005).
       b. Donna M. Hughes, “The Natasha Trade” The Transnational Shadow Market of
          Trafficking in Women, 53 JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS 2 (2000).
       c. Susan E. Thompson; Prostitution – A Choice Ignored, 21 WOMEN’S RIGHTS L. REV.
          217 (2000).
       d. Judith Kilvington, Sophie Day, and Helen Ward, Prostitution Policy in Europe: A
          Time of Change?, 67 FEMINIST REVIEW 78 (2001).
       e. Excerpt from text of United States Leadership Against Global HIV/AIDS,
          Tuberculosis, and Malaria Act of 2003.
       f. United Nations Resolution on Eliminating Demand for Trafficked Women and Girls
          for All Forms of Exploitation (March 2005)


8. TRAFFICKING IN CHILDREN: CHILD SOLDIERS, CHILD PROSTITUTION, AND
   THE ISSUE OF SEX TOURISM (Mar. 15)

Assigned Materials

      a. Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989), Articles 34 and 35.
      b. Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the involvement of
         children in armed conflicts (2000).
      c. Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the sale of
         children, child prostitution and child pornography (2000).
      d. United States v. Clark, 315 F. Supp. 2d 1127 (2003).
      e. United States v. Frank 486 F. Supp. 2d 1353 (2007).
      f. Sandrine Valentine, Global Human Rights: Panel Remarks: Trafficking of Child
         Soldiers: Expanding the Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed
         Conflict, 9 NEW ENG. INT’L & COMP. L. ANN. 109 (2003).
      g. Daniel Edelson, Note: The Prosecution of Persons Who Sexually Exploit Children in
         Countries Other Than Their Own: A Model For Amending Existing Legislation, 25
         FORDHAM INT’L L. J. 483 (2001).




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9. BABY TRAFFICKING: THE SALE OF CHILDREN FOR ILLICIT INTERCOUNTRY
   ADOPTION (Mar. 22)

Assigned Materials

      a. Convention on Protection of Children and Co-operation in Respect of Intercountry
         Adoption (1993).
      b. Mohamed Y. Mattar, Comprehensive Legal Approaches to Combating Trafficking in
         Persons: an International and Comparative Perspective. The Protection Project at The
         Johns Hopkins University School of Advanced International Studies
         http://www.protectionproject.org/wp-
         content/uploads/2010/09/PP_Chartbook_English.pdf (Pages 54-55).
      c. Kelly M. Wittner, Curbing Child-Trafficking in Intercountry Adoptions: Will
         International Treaties and Adoption Moratoriums Accomplish the Job in Cambodia?,
         12 PAC. RIM L. & POL’Y J. 595 (2003).


10. TRAFFICKING FOR PURPOSES OF NON-COMMERCIAL SEX: MAIL ORDER
    BRIDES (Mar. 29)

Assigned Materials

      a. International Marriage Broker Regulation Act of 2005 [IMBRA], Pub. L. 109-162.
         Subtitle D of Title VIII (Sec.831-834).
      b. INS Section 652 of the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigration Responsibility
         Act (IIRIRA) regarding Mail-Order Bride Business.
      c. Convention on Consent to Marriage, Minimum Age for Marriage and Registration of
         Marriages (1962).
      d. Mohamed Y. Mattar, Comprehensive Legal Approaches to Combating Trafficking in
         Persons: an International and Comparative Perspective. The Protection Project at The
         Johns Hopkins University School of Advanced International Studies
         http://www.protectionproject.org/wp-
         content/uploads/2010/09/PP_Chartbook_English.pdf (Pages 52-53).
      e. European Connections & Tours, Inc v Gonzales, 480 F. Supp. 2d 1355 (2007).
      f. Suzanne H. Jackson, To Honor and Obey: Trafficking in “Mail-Order Brides”, 70
         GEO. WASH. L. REV. 475 (2002).


11. TRAFFICKING FOR THE PURPOSE OF FORCED LABOR (Apr. 5)

Assigned Materials


      a. ILO Convention No. 189 concerning decent work for domestic workers (2011).
      b. United States v. Kozminski, 108 S. Ct. 2751 (1988) (Two mentally retarded men
         were found laboring on his farm. The term involuntary servitude means a condition of



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           servitude in which the victim is forced to work by the use or threat of physical force,
           threat, or coercion).
      c.   Mohamed Y. Mattar, Comprehensive Legal Approaches to Combating Trafficking in
           Persons: an International and Comparative Perspective. The Protection Project at The
           Johns Hopkins University School of Advanced International Studies
           http://www.protectionproject.org/wp-
           content/uploads/2010/09/PP_Chartbook_English.pdf (Pages 56-57).
      d.   Ramos & Castro v. Hoyle & Perales, U.S. Dist. Lexis 102677 (2008).
      e.   Ramos & Castro v. Hoyle & Perales, U.S. Dist. Lexis 102677 (2008).
      f.   United States v. Djoumessi, U.S. App. Lexis 17689 FED App. 0306P (6th Cir.)
           (2008).
      g.   Mani Kumani Sabbithi v. Waleed KH N.S. Al Saleh 605 F. Supp. 2d 122 (2009).


12. COMPARATIVE LEGAL ANALYSIS OF THE DOMESTIC TRAFFICKING LAWS OF
    THE VARIOUS COUNTRIES OF THE WORLD: DRAFTING A MODEL LAW (Apr. 12)

Assigned Materials

      a. Mohamed Y. Mattar, Human Rights Legislation in the Arab World: The Case of
         Human Trafficking, 33 MICH. J. INT’L L. 1 (2011).
      b. Mohamed Y. Mattar, COMBATING TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS: A HANDBOOK FOR
         PARLIAMENTARIANS, Inter-Parliamentary Union and UNODC (2009).
      c. Laura Lederer, Testimony before the Subcommittee on International Operations and
         Human Rights, Committee on International Relations, United States House of
         Representatives, September 14, 1999.
      d. Mohamed Y. Mattar, A Comparative Analysis of the Anti-Trafficking Legislation in
         Foreign Countries: Towards a Comprehensive and Effective Legal Response to
         Combating Trafficking in Persons, Testimony before House Committee on
         International Relations, Subcommittee on International Terrorism, Nonproliferation
         and Human Rights, 108th Congress, 1st Session, June 25, 2003.
      e. Mohamed Y. Mattar, Remarks on the Anti-Trafficking Law of the Russian
         Federation, Testimony before the State Duma of the Russian Federation, November
         29, 2004.
      f. Mohamed Y. Mattar, Remarks on the Anti-Trafficking Law of Mexico, Testimony
         before the Senate of Mexico, October 17, 2005.


13. REGIONAL CASE STUDIES OF TRAFFICKING OF WOMEN AND CHILDREN IN
    THE VARIOUS COUNTRIES OF THE WORLD: ROUTES, FORMS OF TRAFFICKING,
    AND CAUSES OF VULNERABILITY (Apr. 26)

Assigned Materials

      a. Mohamed Y. Mattar, COMBATING TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS              IN   ACCORDANCE   WITH
         THE PRINCIPLES OF ISLAMIC LAW, UNODC (2009).




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b. Mohamed Y. Mattar, State Responsibilities in Combating Trafficking in Persons in
   Central Asia, 27 LOY. L.A. INT’L & COMP. L. R. 145 (2005).
c. Mohamed Y. Mattar, Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children in
   Countries of the Middle East: The Scope of the Problem and the Appropriate
   Legislative Responses, 26 FORDHAM INT’L L. J. 721 (2003).




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