Foundations by HC12091623379



In this foundation course we had been given many different courses to understand more
about the people with disability. I have chosen few of them to present. The one is about
“Foundation of Special Education and Characteristics of Learners for the Deaf People”
In this subject or through this assignment I learned to understand more for the deaf and
dump people. It gives idea that how we do have to integrate them in the society.

The second subject is about “People with Mild Intellectual Disability”. Through this
assignment I learned that how do we have to do segregate, inclusion and normalize
people those who are with disability. All this assignment work is about how to know the
people with disability and what we can do for them as a good christen, or religious people
and as a society.

The last subject is about “Normalization” means for the people with disability has their
own rights, value, equal , norms to be in the society and part of the society. So when we
work for these people in our life then we must know about them more and what are the
possibility can be given and resources could be presented from the government for them.
So this assignment encourages me to work for them and to bring life for them. “Disability
is a part of human un- ability to do something but they are same human being so called
normal” We do not have to distinguish them but encourage them to live where we live.

Foundation of Special Education and Characteristics of Learners for the Deaf
Bro.Dr.Waldebert Devestel                             Date: 22 / 3 / 06

Present by Ranjit                                         Date: 12 / 4 / 06
   1. Give me a picture of deaf person living in the world (Not accepted / isolate/
      suspicious / depressed/ as they are neglected)?
      A person with hearing problem has negative influence in the society. They are
      suspicious so they are isolate then they are depressed and neglected. Most of the
      time they are jobless, no social contact as normal people, they are less value so
      the world sees them as handicap people. By the way as world is changing so they
      have also some positive view in the world.

   2. What is the hearing lost?
      Diminished auditory acuity leads to different degrees of deafness. They cannot
      learn verbal communication. Because of hearing lost we cannot communicate
      orally. Normal hearing is situated between 250Hz and 8,000 KHz; above 25
      decibels (db). We distinguish four degree of hearing loss:
      1. Mild hearing loss: up to 50 dB for the better ear.
      2. Moderate hearing loss: 30to 60 dB
      3. Severe hearing loss:60 to 90dB
      4. Profound :more than 90db
      Causes and consequences: 1. Conductive haring loss
      Hearing loss of between 30 and 50dB will lead to retarded language
       2. Sensory-neural hearing loss
      Prenatal hearing loss becomes congenital deafness. To visual means belong lip
      reading and signs. Total communication, i.e. body language, should also be
      involved. It is an acquired deafness, after birth.

       Causes of perceptive deafness (sensory-neural hearing loss)
       1. Can be congenital ( from birth)
       2. Negative influences during pregnancy, e.g. a viral infection of the mother:
          scarlet fever, influenza, some medicine like streptomycin.
       3. An accident whereby the inner ear (e.g. the perceptive canals) is severely
          A hearing loss is not a disease but a consequence of ear damage. It is caused
          by damage to one or more parts of the ear. The damage many happen before
          birth, then the baby is born is born deaf. The reasons for hearing loss are:
             Sickness : meningitis can cause a hearing loss
             Accidents: hit on the head can cause hearing loss
             Loud noise: high sound
             Some drug
             Malformation of the ear: ear function
             Inherited hearing loss: genetic problem
             Old age

3. What are the consequences of deafness (no oral language / isolate)?

   Every cause has its consequence so as in deafness also has many. For the people
   with deafness has not contact by sound ways. They are isolate, neglected from the
   society. They don’t have spoken contact. They are limited with vital effection on
   emotion and effection on expressing on love so they are suspicious. Deafness can
   make you difficult to understand speech and to her other sounds around you.
   Because of deafness we do not learn to speak.

   4. What are the consequences of deaf in the society?

      Generation to generation the culture is affection on their handicap. They have
      problem with relationship, not good in communication, no dialogue so they
      are separate from the social activity or meeting, they are mostly individual and
      so on. Culture declares them as handicap because they have many problems
      with normal life spurn. Most of the priority things are being distinguished
      from the normal people. They are isolate, neglected from the society. They
      are separate in many aspects of human dignity or rights form the society.
      Hearing care giving is still struggling with the concept and equal value of deaf
      hood culture.

   5. Give me the different items of linguistic approach (syntaxes /
      Some facts of normal language development are being developed. They are to
      be known in order to understand the specific difficulties of language
      acquirement among deaf people.
         1. Phonology: concerns the discrimination of phonemes, which have
             loudness, duration, and pitch. (AA / O / U / POT , sound of voice)
             Describes the sounds of specific languages, how they produce and
         2. Semantics: understanding concepts and interpreting wood, phrases,
             sentences. ( normal 5,000words ( verb) ) Study of the words, the
             lexicon and interrelationships.
         3. Syntaxes and morphology: word order; transformations; building
             sentences; conjugation; relationships or grammar. (Combination or
             relationship with words). Study of building clauses and their
             relationships in sentences between parts of clause.
      4. Pragmatic: linking verbal to non-verbal information. Use of language
         in daily life. Linguistic competence, visual supportive elements.
      5. Met- linguistic: reflecting on language, and distinguishing language
         relationships (self-correction) grammatical reflection and new meaning
         of words.

6. Put the sentence in structure language education?

7. Why rhythm is important for language development?

   Rhythm is both visual and additive; the additive aspect is of greater important.
   Rhythm is also a constitutive element of time and plays a major role in man’s
   movements on both macro and micro level. Rhythm is also significant with
   regard to affectivity and emotions. More than with hearing people, learning
   and controlling the speech rhythm (breathing) is of much importance for the
   deaf. We think in language; so when we think or move with rhythm then
   rhythm helps us to think many situations in same time. Structured movement
   in time is called rhythm, and man’s speech is closely linked to it. Rhythmical
   structures influence in sentence building.

8. Explain the audiogram exam?
9. Open discussion – deafness is not a handicap why?

   Hearing care giving is still struggling with concept and equal value of deaf
   hood culture. For people not acquainted with the deaf community the terms
   “deaf” and “deafness” may seem politically incorrect and potentially
   offensive. They would prefer the terms hearing impaired or hearing
   challenged. For modern deaf people this is just the opposite: they do not see
   themselves as impaired versions of people with normal hearing, or as people
   with disability or challenge, but as a minority with its own language and
   culture. They do not want to defend themselves in terms of a thing they lack,
   but in terms of the positive aspects of their language and culture. They define
   themselves as deaf; just in the same way as others define themselves as
   belonging to the community.

 People with Mild Intellectual Disability
 Pro, Hendrik Delaruelle
 Date: 19 / 04 / 06

                                                             Present by
                                                             Br. Ranjit Kullu
                                                             Date: 28 / 04 / 06


Intellectual disability is a very large subject of Human Development. We have seen much
kind of intellectual disabilities but I am going to focus on Mild Intellectual Disability
which is an interesting topic for me.


According to definition of American Association Mental Retardation is; “Mental
retardation is a disability characterized by significant limitation both in intellectual
functioning and in adaptive behavior as expressed in conceptual , social, and practical
adaptive skills. The disability originates before age 18”. (Definition American
Association Mental Retardation 2002)

This definition makes a distinction between three parts:
   1. “Significantly subaverage general intellectual function” which means the
       intellectual test will tell what positions your level intellectual is. People with a
       mild mental disability have an intellectual capacity between 50 to 70.

   2. “Deficits in adaptive behavior” which means that you have some difficulties in
      adaptation, social interaction or in behavior in normal life. Most of the time that
      people depend on others.

   3. “Manifested during the developmental period” this means that we can find this
      kind of problem within the person before the age of 18. By this age we can clearly
      state that there is a Intellectual disability.


Mental retardation is normally categorized by the child’s IQ in four different levels;
which are the; 1- Mild Mental Retardation (High –grade defect- IQ 50 to 70), 2-
Moderate Mental Retardation (IQ 35 to 49), 3- Severe Mental Retardation (IQ 20 to
34) and 4- Profound Mental Retardation ( IQ under 20)
Children with mild mental retardation are educable. They have learning difficulties but
they are able to learn to read and to write at the 4th or 5th grade level, living relatively
independently and having working skills. Before the age of 0-6years, your capacity
usually sees the problem of children with a mild mental disability on their face. They
grow as normal children but at the age of 6-18 years we can see them and observe them
as they are.


The terminology word for this population is used as Mental Retardation, Intellectual
Disability, Learning Disability, Mental Impaired, incomplete mental development act…
But I like to use the terminology saying “Mild Intellectual Disability”.

Risk factor & Prevention

The risk factors of a mild intellectual disability are divided in three different occurring
times such as; prenatal, prenatal and postnatal. The prenatal time is referring to the time
before birth, while the perinatal time is what can occur during birth. The postnatal time
refers to the time, concerns the risk factors after birth. Other influences might be of
influence to mild intellectual disability, as the social, the behavioral and the educational
circumstances are always in connection with the biomedical causes.

The biomedical risk factors for mental retardation during the prenatal time are
chromosomal disorders, single-gene disorders, syndromes, metabolic disorder, cerebral
dysgenesis, maternal illness and parental age. Socially, mental retardation could grow
worse due to poverty, maternal nutrition, domestic violence, lack of access to prenatal
care. Also the behaviors of parents’ abuse of drugs, alcohol, smoking, immaturity are the
risks to develop mental retardation and also the educational level and situation of the
parents: cognitive disability and lack of preparation for parenthood.

In the perinatal time, premature, birth injury and neonatal disorders are the risk factors,
while the parental rejection of caretaking parental abandonment of the child and socially
the lack of access to birth care are risks to develop an intellectual disability. On the
educational level a lack of medical referral for intervention services at discharge, is a risk
factor provoking an intellectual disability.

In the postnatal time, the time after birth, biomedical situations such as traumatic brain
injury, malnutrition, meninggoencephalitis, seizure discords, degenerative disorders, are
the risk factors for an intellectual disability; an impaired child caregiver, lack of adequate
stimulation, family poverty, chronic illness in the family and institutionalization are the
risk factors on the social level. You can have behavioral levels which are: child abuse and
neglect, domestic violence, inadequate safety measures, social deprivation, difficult child
behavior; and on the educational level, impaired parenting, delayed diagnosis, inadequate
early intervention service, inadequate special educational services and inadequate support
have risk factors for developing a mental handicap.

The parents have great influence on the occurrence of mild intellectual disability. If
parents themselves are only educated with a limited vocabulary, the child will have in
early childhood a lesser development in vocabulary and will show a lower mental age.
The middle till late childhood will remain even if there is instruction and exposure at
school. The teachers could have a bad influence on them. They might discriminate them.
When children become adolescent with mild intellectual disabilities; they may show a
low self-esteem. There is lack of stimulation in study or in activity, so that their
achievement remains very low and they can drop out from school and remain in the same
situation. When they get married and become parents with limited language exposure at
home the existing problems will have influence on the developing of their children’s life.

In the different phases of the development of a child to adolescence and adulthood, the
phenotype shows risks in the development at early age and mild backwardness on
adolescence age. We don’t know so much about it in adulthood. The main problems in
adolescent age are: attention and concentration problems … On adult age there is a
improvement of the intellectual functioning. Social problems could occur in adaptation to
the environment in adolescence. Mostly, guidance is needed during adulthood. In the
orthopedagogical care, our content and objectives are based on the age and on the level of
intellectual disability. When we try to help or care as an objective and content of
orthopedagogic for mild intellectual disability; we find that they are more in need of help
/ support and attention form the care givers to grow in different prospective.


At the age from 0 till 6 years, preventive measures would focus on the development of
motor skills, language, self-advocacy, co-operative games, orientation, manual work and
music. At the age of 6 till 18 years, adapted school programs should be based on the
development of reading, language and writing, arithmetic, world orientation, art
education, physical training. In adulthood the objectives are on finding for one-self,
maintaining…, beside these orthopedagogical care, special methods are developed in
teaching knowledge and skills and retaining. These methods try to transfer the acquired
learning in training it in similar tasks, instruction and revising.

Objectives in the care for person with Mild Intellectual Disability

The early childhood, a mild intellectual disability cannot be observed in children. They
grow up as normal children. When they become older, it is more clear. The kindergarten
teacher could point out those children as having intellectual problems. They have
concentration problems; they cannot do or think simultaneously on different things. To
learn and to put it into practice is difficult. They have memory, reading and writing
problems. Their lives improve in the way they are supported by society and they need an
ongoing guidance. No success is experienced in contact with their age or peer groups.
The teacher should give more special attention to them. In this way preventive programs
are important. Stimulation is needed certainly when they are included in regular schools.

The challenge for the teacher is arousing their attention. The children with a mild
intellectual disability must feel, hear, and experience so that they can learn. Don’t talk too
much, but work with them. Motivate them and they will learn by doing it on a concrete
level. When a child with an intellectual disability does not clearly understand what he
/she is learning, it could be useless. The child must have a lot of successful experiences
that he learned something in seeing the result of his /her work.

Adults and people with a mild intellectual disability can work in a sheltered workshop or
on the regular market, but an ongoing guidance is needed to maintain their job. For this
purpose, they must be prepared for the kind of work they have to do and to learn how to
behave with the director of the working place. Guidance is also needed in their family
lives and parenthood lives in a world that becomes more technical. The change must be
given to learn, to make themselves choices and to experience freedom. Sometimes
control and intervention is needed so that they will have a normal rhythm of lives. They
need proper communication, intervention, proper explanation of their choices which is
leading to good decisions and to argue with them for a better life in an optimistic way.
More preparation is needed for almost everything in live. Therefore care-givers should
observe them in order to give good guidance.

Segregation and Normalization

People with a mild intellectual disability have low self –esteem and low self image.
Because of the disability, society neglects them, rejects them, isolates them, and
marginalizes them because they think that disabled people are unfit to live in the
community; so they are seen by the society as a danger to the community. They are put to
in institutes so they do not nor have little contact with daily life of the ordinary society.
They are strictly upheld in separation from the sexes, society and culture has always a
bad face to them.

 The principal of Normalization is “People with intellectual disability should have access
to the same patterns of life and circumstances as everybody living in society. It includes
family life, real job, ordinary living, conditions and everything else we take for granted as
our right. Also emphasizes legal and human rights”.

The five Principals of Normalization are:
   1. Relationship or community participation
   2. Choice
   3. Respect
   4. Personal Development or Competence
   5. Community presence
There are also other aspects that we can look for to normalize people. We make it our
business to improve public image of them, make them feel or fit that they are also belong
to society and make them contact with social network, make them sensitive that they
have also important function in society and give them great support in their life.

As we all are human being we have to normalize them in our society.
People with an intellectual disability should experience a normal life span which means
that society and culture must normalize them as normal people with special needs.

They must have a normal day, a week, and a year rhythm. They should be exposed to the
developmental experience typical for their age. They should be able to live in a bisexual
world. They must have the right to have their own opinion, own needs and access and the
right to speak or discuss. They would have the possibility to have access to the normal
economic standards. The separate facilities that are provided for them should be tailored
to human beings. They must live with human rights and human value. They must have
the right to live a life with quality. We have to integrate them in various ways such as;
housing, employment, relations, relaxation and leisure, social right, duties, and also in
physical, psychological, and philosophical way.

To normalize people with disabilities we have to think how we bring people with
disabilities to the society, into the programs, into the communities, and into the nations. It
is really challenging work for us but we have to do it because as we are human being and
every human being has right on same respect, dignity, value, norms, rights to have better
life in this world. Normalizing them is requires our psychological acceptance of them as
they are, motivations, self-expression, self-control.


The society must include children with intellectual disabilities. They must live in a family
home. They must grow up as other people grow in the society with adult relationships
both inside and outside a family. They must have the possibility to attend a regular school
with children of the same age without disabilities. They can practice also things with
children those who are not disabled. They can possibly participate in community
recreation. It has also the common value that every body must grow in same spiritual life,
social life, sexual life, act…

Adults with intellectual disabilities should have the opportunity to have minimum well-
being of their life. They can build the partner relationship with the culture and they can
make their own choice for that and for accommodation. The government or the society
must look for a meaningful work for them to have a better economical life. They are not
excluded from enjoying life from various recreations and leisure activities. It has also the
common value that every body must grow in same spiritual life, social life, sexual life,

“What does this mean to care giver and teachers?”
As a care giver, as a teacher we have to think always of the well-being of their life like;
the emotional well-being, interpersonal relationship, material well- being, personal
development, physical wellbeing, self-determination, social inclusion and rights. We can
show our attitude of love to them by accepting them as they are. Maintaining
relationships, making them independent, giving them experience on expressing feelings
and considering that they are equal to us, needs empathy from the care givers. If things
are not appropriate for our self, absolutely that things are not appropriate for them too.
(“Love them as your self”).

Acceptance of our fellow humans and their striving for self-determination, maintaining
relationships with disabled people, avoiding making them dependent on us, considering
them equal to us, putting yourself in the shoes of their and try to find out the meaning of
there behaviour, words, act… and take care of them in a special way.

For the school, we have to develop in a different way so that we can improve the quality
of the life of people with intellectual disability. We have to keep teachers who are trained
in that field. We have to teach them in class more practical ways than theoretical way.
They have to see, fee, touch, use their senses in different way so that we have to go
slowly to adapt to their capacities. We can organise for them some therapy or personal
guidance so that child can improve in an intellectual way.

As I have mentioned a bit about the things where we have to keep our attention on as care
giver or teacher to improve their quality of life:
     emotional well-being: safety, stable and predictable environments, positive
     interpersonal relations: affiliations, affection, intimacy, friendship, interactions
     material well-being: ownership, possessions, employment
     personal development: education and rehabilitation, purposive activities, assistive
     physical well-being: health care, mobility, wellness, nutrition
     self-determination: choices, personal control, decisions, personal goals
     social inclusion: natural supports, integrated environments, participation
     rights: privacy, ownership, due process, barrier free environments

When we work people with learning disabilities we have to keep attention on their quality
of life, meaningful life day, normal life, more opportunities in activities, socialization,
and normalization, no segregation, better life in service place, good atmosphere,
respecting dignity, value, humanization, and respect and so on.

As caregivers, staff members or in charge of staff, we have to do more than what we do
for ourselves. We must get more involved in work, appropriate communication,
interesting in doing things, involving in things, treating them as human being, giving
them best facility life, valuing life, doing things with happiness even if they are small
things, love the people, be good to them, contribute with society (parents), feedback
from both side, relationship (with staff, co-workers, manager, director, clients + parents) ,
understand the people, taking initiative, be creative, be optimistic, accepting people as
they are, meditative person, responsibility, open minded, be flexibility, be happy, good
organizer, working hand in hand, respecting choice, good trained, raising of awareness,
respectful approach, be sympathy, kindness, successful in service, good in maintaining,
quality staff, one motivation, facing of challenging service, no superiority, making
family atosmosphiar, no gasping and then we can see our professionalism in service and
will be successful service!

At every decision we have to refer to them and we have to question whether it will lead to
the improvement of their quality of life or not.

They have limitations in every face of life span. Their limitations are our challenge to
improve their lives. Never give up to the best for their lives. Put yourself in their place
and you will recognize your professionalism.

                                     Mental retardation

The concept of mild intellectual disability is used when a person has a certain limitation
in intellectual ability. They have limitations of communication, taking care of themselves
and social skills. When we find these limitations in them they are slower to develop than
a typical child in learning process. They can learn but there is much limitation and they
take a longer time to learn. There are also many things which are very difficult to learn or
even never can learn. (E.g. higher level math)

As a person develops and grows in learning according to his ability the world and he/she
changes as well. A student with mild intellectual disabilities can properly do well in
school but he /she needs more attention, help, support and individual guidance. When a
person with a mild mental disability becomes adult he has try to live independently.

Mild intellectual disabilities are diagnosed by observing their IQ capacity. Most of the
time there are many arguments on this point (e.g. may be child is nervous or doesn’t like
the test). By the way IQ is measured by a test called IQ test. The average score is 100.
People scoring on an IQ test between 75 to 50 % are considered as people with a mild
intellectual disability. This test shows the ability of a person capacity to learn, to think, to
solve problems, and make sense of the world.

If you want to help them or socialise them, or normalize them then you must be a good
observer of them. When you observe well you can recognize the enormous difference in
this student’s life. You must be able to find out the students strengths and interests and
emphasize them. Always encourage them and praise their successes. You need to give
more attention and concentration to them. Demonstrate what you mean rather than just
explaining with words because they want to touch, feel, see, or wants experience by their
scenes. During the class you can break the instructions down in to smaller steps if
necessary because they have problems with attention. Provide them assistance if
necessary. Our feedback is most important for them. Our feedback helps them to develop
their self image and self esteem.

Students with mild intellectual disability need more practice, revision and more time to
memorize the facts. Teachers must assist every process of their disabilities (e.g. reading,
writing, making assignments, listing same time many in formations). Be a friend to the
student in school and in environments outside the class room. If you do that then
friendship could mean a lot to them. They have more negative points or views from the
culture and society but at the same time we are developing their normalization.
For the more information about mild mental disabilities I give some links below.


                                  Mild Mental Retardation


“The Swedish schools still have relatively good resources to take care of mildly retarded
children even if possibilities have been reduced during the 1990s. After school there is a
labor market measure of different types. Many mildly retarded people can take care of
themselves today without special help”.

The diagnosis “mild intellectual retardation” is assigned according to two factors. The
first is when a test scores comparable to IQ 50-70 on the intelligence test; the other is
when the subject demonstrates a lack of capacity to meet the given social demands. The
people with mild much activities are disturbed enough to require help because of their
intellectual disability, and therefore receive certain benefits (e.g. special teaching in
school and a place to live in a group home, an occupation at a day center). The child can
perform basic life management functions appropriate for Childs age and development and
can use mainstream methods or transportation and communication.

Mild developments disorders can rarely be identified before school age. Several mildly
retarded people, corresponding to slight development disabilities, do not get special help
and are thereby not identified as developmentally disturbed.

Children in the younger age group, and most of all school age children, are according to
concurring results from other countries, over-represented when administratively defined.
The portion is smallest before ages six and seven, and largest by the age of 15, decreasing
during adulthood. Above all this applies to the group with mild developmental
disabilities. The demands on intellectual achievement and learning capacity at school lead
people with this kind of functional disability to have much more difficulty reaching the
required standards. To a larger and larger extent they are identified as developmentally
disabled as a result of their continuous need for special help.
Mild developmental disorders seldom have a proven organic cause but in certain
circumstances, they could be related to social background and thereby judged to have its
cause in socio cultural relationship. An environment in childhood and adolescence
characterized by different stress loads for the child, and a relative lack of culture,
intellectual, and emotional resources increases the risk of psychological and social
deviance and disturbances. They can have also emotional, adjustment reactions;
situational behavior problems also imply an increased risk of mild developmental

Care givers can expect the child to respond to limit-setting or other interventions.
Intellectual conditions with mild intellectual retardation in children who usually will be
able to live independently as an adult, hold a job, and manage their lives with some
guidance in crises. A child with mild mental retardation can often be in a mainstream
class with resource room help or tutoring.

It is possible that social-political measures have contributed to this, partly through
fostering children’s growth environment in general and partly by helping the people with
an Intellectual disability. Included in the board programs are such things as prenatal care,
general health care, parental insurance, mother’s health care, child health care, and pre-
school for most children. The pre-school is also able to identify children at an early stage
if they are significantly delayed in their development. These children can receive special
assistance and other stimuli.

Many mildly retarded people can support themselves without special help. The people
with a mild Intellectual retardation can support themselves relatively well. High risk
family means families in which parents have poor education, low incomes, and mild
mental retardation, as well as children in minority families.

We can organise programs or projects and the goal of these programmers for early
intervention from pre- school or earlier was above all to stimulate cognitive and language
capabilities, but also social skills. The care providers and the school were involved
directly or indirectly.


Appendix additions

   1. Blomquist HK. (1982) Mental retardation in children. An epidemiological and
       etiological study of mental retarded children born 1959-1970 in a northern
       Swedish country. Umea University Medical Dissertation. New Series No 76.
   2. Cooke, R. (1981) Mild mental retardation: A comparative analysis of the US and
       Sweden (mimeo). Kennedy foundation, Washington, DC.
   3. Luckason R(Ed). (1992) Mental Retardation. Definition, Classification and
       Systems of Support. American Association on Mental Retardation, Washington,
   4. Sonnader K, Emanuelsson I, Kebbon L. (1993) Pupils with Mild mental retardation
       in regular Swedish schools; prevalence, objective characteristics, and subjective
       evaluations. American Journal on Mental Retardation, vol 97, no 6, 692-701
   5. World Heath Organization (WHO) (1980). International classification of
       impairment, disabilities and handicaps. Geneva.

                                What is normalization?
Pro, Brain Kelly
Chapter -1
Date: 28 / 03 / 06                                                     Ranjit

The development of Normalization: Scandinavian thinkers- Bank-Mikkelsen
and Nirje:
The concept of normalization originated in Denmark.

Nirje (1980) describes the key characteristics of such a lifestyle in relation to eight areas:
        1. The rhythm of the day
        2. The rhythm of the week
        3. The rhythm of the year
        4. Progression through the stages of the life cycle
        5. Self-determination
        6. The development of heterosexual relationships
        7. Economic standards
        8. Environmental standards

To making “normal”, mentally retarded people is to bring them the legal and human
rights of all others citizens´ (Bank-Mikkelsen 1980:56)

There are three minor aspects which are similarities but important and they are:
                1. they are egalitarian statements about the rights of service uses;
                2. they focus on equality in terms of an individual’s quality of life; and
                3. They do not specifically confront the issue of segregation in service
 The key points, however, is that normalization for Nirje and Bank-Mikkelsen is about
rights and as such, requires no scientific justification.

The North American version-Wolfensberger:
Wolfensberger initially defined normalization as the utilization of means which are as
culturally normative as possible, in order to establish and or maintain personal behaviors
and characteristics which are as culturally normative as possible.

Wolfensberger and Thomas (1983) identified seven core themes which were the
theoretical underpinnings of normalization.
    1. The role of (UN) consciousness in human services
    2. The relevance of role expectancy and role circularity to deviancy-making and
    3. The conservatism corollary
    4. The developmental model and the importance of personal competency
    5. The power of imitation
    6. The dynamics of social imagery
    7. The importance of personal social integration valued social participation,
        especially for people at risk of social devaluation.

   Program Analysis of Serving Systems
   Implementation of Normalization Goals (Passing):
   PASSING consists of a forty-two item rating scale designed for use by a team of
   three or more trained evaluators to assess the extent to which a human service reflects
   the principal of normalization in its organization and operation (Wolfensberger
   The items are divided into two main categories: 1- social image of service users,
    2- The impact of the service on their personal competency.

   The scope of the concepts to such an extent indicates that he considered the
   programmer of action advocated by normalization as equally applicable to ethnic or
   culture minorities, women and other oppressed or disadvantaged classes.

   Normalization in the UK: O’Brien’s Service Accomplishments:

   O’Brien has drawn out the implications of normalization in terms of what services
   should try to achieve or accomplish for users.

   He identifies five major service accomplishments and they are:
   1. Ensuring that service users are present in the Community
   2. Ensuring that service users are supported in making Choices about their lives
   3. Developing the Competence by service users by developing skills
   4. Enhancing the Respect afforded to service users developing and maintaining
   5. Ensuring that service users Participate in the life of the community

   Normalization and social role valorization are likely to remain influential concepts in
   the continuing debates about the most effective ways of structuring services for
   people with disabilities.
Presented by: Ranjit Kullu
Date: 30 /3 / 06


      Learning Disability
      Mental Retardation
      Intellectual Disability
      Mental Disability / Impairment / Handicap
      Children at risk
      Physical impairment

   1. Impairment: Function is in some way limited, in-complete and damaged. ( body
      or brain doesn’t work correctly)
   2. Disability: Experience of the lack of the function
   3. Handicap : Societal experience or attitude

Intellectual Disability:
                           A significantly reduced ability to understand new or complex
information, to learn new skills (impaired intelligence) combined with a reduced capacity
/ ability to cope independently (impaired social function) which started before adulthood
with a lasting effect ion development.

Causes of Learning Disability:

Physical: Down syndrome / facial mobility
Assessment: IQ
Behavior: Aggressive / passive
Communication: means / language / limited / lack response / social interaction /
dependence / problem solving / lack of a ability to undo task / emotional.

Causes of Learning:

1. Preconception:     Heredity > Parental
                      Environment > manual health

2. Prenatal: Heredity > Chromo Sal – Genetic
              Environment > Infection – mental health – nutrition – toxic

3. Prenatal: Environment > primarily - Injury

4. Postnatal: Heredity > Unveiled genetic disorders
              Environment > Infection – trauma – nutrition – toxic- sensory / social

Genetic Causes: 60%

Chromosomal abnormalities
E-G- Down syndrome.
     Cri-du-chat syndrome
     Turners’ syndrome
      Klinefeller syndrome
          - Genetic abnormalities
          E.g. - Tuberous sclerosis
          - Pherylketonuriea
          - Fragile X syndrome
          - Hydrocephalus

Environmental Causes 40%

Preconception > nutrition – existing medication condition
Prenatal > Infections
Nutrition + material health (smoking, alcohol)
Physical factors – e.g. - radiation, violence

Prenatal – Prematurely, birth injury, abnormal labor
Post natal – infectors, trauma (head injury) environmental pollutants nutrition
(nourishment) sensory + social development.

Learning Disability = Definitions

Gates (1997) Significant developmental delay that results in arrested or incomplete
achievement of the normal milestones of human development. These related to
intellectual, emotional, spiritual and social aspects of development. Significant delays in
the achievement of one or more o f these milestones may lead to a person being defined
or categories as having learning disabilities.

Luckasson (1992) Significantly sub average intellectual functioning i.e. a score of an IQ
of below 70 on standardized test of intelligence, existing concurrently with related
limitations in tow or more of the following areas: communication, self care , home living,
social skills, use of community resources, functional academic skills, health and safety,
leisure and work, manifested before the age of 18.

WHO (1993) a condition of arrested or incomplete development of the mind which is
especially characterized by impairment of skills manifested during the developmental
period which contributes to the overall level of intelligence i.e. cognitive, language,
motor, and social abilities.

Medical Model of Disability:

Disease: Treated by medication – nurse – doctors- psychiatrist- psychologist – therapist –
no social interaction.
Isolating: Institutional – no individuality – segregated – regimented.
Lack of meaningful occupation
- No learning, no job, no future plans
- Decisions made by others, medical, superintendent, doctors
 - No property
- Prison like


Based on the fact that it is not their impairment which disables people, but the way that
society has been socially structured to suit some people and not others. This
understanding of disability does not ignore or deny the impairment but sees it as only one
characteristic. What is most important is that we share a common humanity + all have

MEDICAL MODEL                             V/S                   SOCIAL MODE.L

The disability arises from the                  The person is disabled by the social
Individuals´ impairment.                        construction of society.

Person correct take part in normal              Society creates physical barriers, political,
Activities in society because he is             attitudinal barrios which exclude a large
Disabled- can not walk, see, learn etc.         number of people who have impairments.

Stresses the difference or deviance of          Increases the diversity within human
People who do not fit in.

Focuses incapacities what a person can not do.                 Focuses on capacities

Exports disabled people to conform to the                      Recognizes the individuality
Role ascribed to them. I. C. dependent                         + humanity of each person.
Incomplete, pitiful.

People with learning disabilities should have access to the same patterns of life and
circumstances of every day living as others people in society. Includes family life, real
jobs, ordinary living conditions and everything else. We take for granted as our right also
emphasis legal + human right.


   1.   Relationship or community participation
   2.   Choice
   3.   Respect
   4.   Personal development or competence
   5.   community presence

         DEVIANCY: (Wolfersberge 1972)

A person can be said to be deviant it he is perceived as being, significantly different from
others in some aspect that is considered of relative importance, + if the difference is
negatively valued.
Devalued roles of people with learning disabilities, subhuman, menace, abject of charity,
holy innocent, sick, object of ridicule, eternal child, and commodity.


   1.   Physical
   2.   Functional
   3.   Social
   4.   Personal
   5.   Societal
   6.   Organizational

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