Research has established the critical factors that lead to effective school-wide discipline. If
any of these factors is weak or absent, the effectiveness decreases and student
misbehavior increases. The SSS process identifies these factors as Universal Skills.
Schools have information and strategies for each of the four Universal Skills.
Quality of adult to student relationships greatly influences student behavior.
Relationship-building factors, e.g., positive feedback, communicate in close proximity,
listen, eye contact, pleasant voice tone, smiles, touch, and use of students’ names.
SSS Belief: Positive approaches build relationships and positive learning climates.
Systematic teaching and re-teaching of behavioral expectations using the same
methods as used for teaching academics – direct instruction, practice, and feedback.
Three basic strategies: group lessons, individual instruction, and preventive prompts
(brief reminders prior to using expectation, skill or procedure).
SSS Beliefs: Student discipline is best achieved through instruction rather than
punishment. Student behavior is best taught using the same strategies used to teach
High Staff Visibility and Supervision
All staff is involved with the supervision of students based on agreed-upon
expectations for common areas.
Positive interaction with students provides a model of appropriate behavior and
SSS Beliefs: Increasing behavioral concerns require building-wide, systematic, and
proactive approaches. High expectations for student behavior are consistently
upheld, reinforced and modeled in a safe, secure, learning environment.
Frequent feedback is also known as incidental teaching (specific strategies outlined
in next section).
It capitalizes on naturally occurring opportunities to reinforce students who
demonstrate responsible behavior or provides correction to students who behave
SSS Belief: Student behavior is best taught using the same strategies used to teach