federalism by 3Az9KQ72


                                             The Balance Between Nation and States


Forms of Republics
•   Confederation
     – Little or no direct authority over citizens
     – Subservient to the creating governments
•   Unitary system
     – Centralized authority
     – Some authority is delegated
•   Federation
     – Simultaneous and separate levels of government
     – Shared and reserved authority
History of American Federalism
•   Evolution of the power balance
•   The non-linear trend

State Dominated Federalism 1789-1862
•   States did most of the policymaking as under the Articles of Confederation
•   The Size and scope of the national government was quite small
•   McCulloch v. Maryland began the shift of power

McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)
•   The federal government established a national bank
•   The Supreme Court had to resolve two issues:
     –   Is it within the power of Congress to charter a national bank?
     –   Can a state government tax a legitimate national entity?

Dual Federalism 1862-1913
•   Separate and distinct policy domains
•   The national government had little to say about many policy areas
Cooperative Federalism 1913-1980
•   Interactions at all levels
•   The 16th Amendment (1913) and the “sharing” of funds
•   Solidified by the depression
•   LBJ’s Creative Federalism

New Federalism 1980-
•   Devolution of authority
•   Pushed primarily by Presidents Nixon and Reagan

Federal Mandates and Grants
•   Unfunded mandates

•   Categorical Grants

•   Block Grants

•   General Revenue Sharing

Advantages of Federalism
•   Policy experimentation

•   Flexibility

•   Citizens can “vote with their feet”

•   Additional checks and balances

•   Increased citizen contact

•   Training ground for future leaders

Disadvantages of Federalism
•   Complexity

•   States compete with each other

•   Expensive

•   Lack of state responsiveness

•   Accountability

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