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									                                            Landmarks

Most definitions are from http://www.modernhumanorigins.com/definitions.html

Femur

greater trochanter: Very large process on the lateral and proximal end of the femur shaft, for
the attachment of muscles that stabilize the hip during one-legged balance (whether in standing
or in bipedal locomotion).

lesser trochanter: Large blunt process on the posterior face of the femoral shaft, just below the
neck, for attachment of muscles that flex the thigh.

condyle: A smooth, rounded articular surface that is found in pairs (lateral and medial); distal
end of femur.



Pelvis

ilium (iliac blades): The side, or broad and flat blade of the innominate, forming its upper
portion

ischium: The lower rear bone of the innominate.

pubis: The front of the pelvis, formed by the parts of the innominate that meet at the midline

anterior iliac spines: In hominids, two bony projections (superior and inferior) for muscles to
attach that extend the leg, protruding from the front edge of the ilium. Sartorius attaches on the
anterior iliac spine and rectus femoris (one of the quadriceps) on the anterior inferior spine.

acetabulum: Joint depression in the os coxa into which the head of the femur fits, the socket in
the ball-in-socket hip joint. The three bones of the os coxa (ilium, ischium, pubis) meet in the
acetabulum.

greater sciatic notch: U-shaped notch at the back of the innominate characteristics of bipedal
hominid pelves caused by the rearward and inferior displacement of the sacrum relative to the
ape anatomy.

obturator foramen: A space at the front of the pelvis enclosed by the pubis and ischium.
Cranium

asterionic notch: The notch at the bottom-rear of the parietal bone, located over the mastoid
process.

bowing (limb shaft bowing): Curvature of the long bone shaft in the anterior-posterior plane

breadth of molars: refers to the buccal (cheek)- lingual (tongue) distance of the molar

calotte: the bones of the cranial vault, the calvaria without the cranial base

calvaria (calvarium): The bones of the cranium without the face or mandible.

canine fossa: A vertical furrow on the maxilla under the infraorbital foramen, extending toward
the base of the zygomatic process of the maxilla and to the side of the nose.

canine jugum (juga): Vertical ridge in the maxilla caused by an enlarged canine root.

facial buttressing (anterior pillars): Two vertical columns of bone, on either side of the nasal
aperture, extending above and lengthening the pilaster of bone surrounding the canine roots.

facial dishing: A condition in some hominid faces where the nasal bones and the borders of the
piriform aperture are recessed relative to the cheeks, making the midface area concave.

foramen magnum: The large opening in the occipital bone on the base of the skull through
which the spinal cord passes to join the base of the brain.

frontal trigone: A concave smooth triangular area on the frontal bone just behind the orbits. Its
base is formed by the supraorbital torus and its apex by converging temporal lines. To be
distinguished from lateral frontal trigone.

glabella: A place on the midline of the frontal bone between the browridges, superciliary arches,
or upper orbital borders

inion: The center of the tuberculum linearum, a protuberance of varying expression that
develops where the superior nuchal lines meet at the sagittal plane. It is not necessarily what is
called the external occipital protuberance (although this describes what it is) which occurs above
it, at or below where the supreme nuchal lines meet at the midline

interorbital distance: Distance between the orbits.

lateral frontal trigone: A backward-facing triangular form to the lateral-most part of the
supraorbital torus. The apex is created by a prominent temporal ridge, and the torus is thicker at
the trigone than it is medially. To be distinguished from the frontal trigone.

malar: See zygomatic
mandibular (glenoid) fossa: Joint for the mandibular articulation with the skull, a depression on
the base of the temporal bone, just in front of the ear opening, into which the mandibular
condyles fit.

mastoid process: A pyramid-shaped prominence of cancelous bone on the temporal bone behind
the external auditory meatus. Muscles that extend and turn the head attach on it.

nasal spine (anterior): The thin projection of bone at the midline on the lower nasal margin,
holding the cartilaginous center of the nose.

nasoalveolar clivus: Portion of the premaxilla extending from the nasal cavity to the incisor root
sockets.

nuchal torus (occipital torus): A thickened bony prominence extending transversely across
some or all of the back of the head, on the occipital bone, reflecting the pattern of muscle use as
it separates the nuchal plane below from the occipital plane above.

occipital bun: A backward extension of the cranial rear in the form of a protuberance bounded
by the nuchal plane below, a shaft vertical face for the occiput behind, and a flat surface above
(lambdoidal flattening).

piriform aperture: The pear-shaped nasal opening of the skull; anterior nasal aperture

pneumatization: Air spaces in cranial bones such as the mastoid area, or nasal sinuses.

postorbital constriction: Narrowing of the (frontal and sphenoidal walls of the) skull behind the
orbits, where they form the inner wall of the temporal fossa.

premaxilla: Front part of the palate and subnasal maxilla, anterior to the middle of the canine
roots and housing the incisors.

retromolar gap (space): A space or gap at the rear of a mandible between the back of the last
molar and the anterior edge of the ascending ramus where it crosses the alveolar margin.

squama: The flat portion of a cranial bone

subnasal alveolar process: Part of the anterior maxilla below the nose, housing the roots of the
upper incisors.

subnasal plane: when the subnasal alveolar process forms a flat, level surface

superciliary arches: Smoothly rounded bulges of bone found on the frontal bone of the skull at
its center and extending over the inner portion of the upper orbital border.

suprainiac fossa: An elliptical depression on the occiput above the superior nuchal line, or inion
supratoral sulcus: A broad depression or groove between the browridges and the frontal bone,
creating an angle between the top of the browridge and the front of the orbital squama.

temporal fossa: The space enclosed by the side of the skull and the zygomatic arch, which is
occupied by the temporalis muscle as it passes from its mandibular attachment to its attachment
on the cranium.

temporonuchal crest: A compound crest on the back of the skull formed by convergence of the
temporal line of the nuchal crest.

tympanic bone (tympanic plate): The portion of the temporal bone that encloses the inner ear.

uniform incisors: all of the incisors are same size and shape

zygomatic arch: Bony arch on the lateral part of the cheek formed by projections of the
zygomatic bone and the temporal bone, enclosing the fibers of the temporalis muscle and for
attachment of the masseter muscle.

								
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