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					       Affordable and Clean Drinking Water at Every Home through Nanomaterials

                                           T. Pradeep

   Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600 036 India.



Realizing the molecular nature of contaminants in drinking water and the need to remove them at
ultra trace levels, significant progress has been made in the recent past to utilize nanomaterials
for water purification. My presentation summarizes our recent efforts in understanding the
chemistry of nanoscale materials for the purification of drinking water. The application of
metal/metal oxide nanoparticles-based chemistry for drinking water purification can be
summarized for three major types of contaminants: halogenated organics including pesticides,
heavy metals, arsenic and microorganisms. We were the first to introduce a nanomaterials-based
purifier for drinking water to tackle pesticide contamination. Recent efforts for the removal, as
well as ultralow concentration detection of such species, using a variety of nanostructures will be
summarized. There are several materials emerging in the recent past and their chemistry may
also be utilized for this application. We have now developed an all-inclusive affordable water
purifier addressing all the common contaminants. In reference to drinking water contamination
in West Bengal, a product for arsenic free water can be provided at homes at a cost of 3 paise per
litre of clean water. Variations of this solution may be applied in other parts of the world. Some
of these purifiers are undergoing field trials now.

References/Additional reading

1. Luminescent, freestanding composite films of Au15 for specific metal ion sensing, A. George,
E. S. Shibu, S. M. Maliyekkal, M. S. Bootharaju, T. Pradeep, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, 4
(2012) 639-644.
2. Luminescent sub-nanometer clusters for metal ion sensing: A new direction in nanosensors, I.
Chakraborty, T. U. B. Rao, T. Pradeep, J. Haz. Mater., 211– 212 (2012) 396– 403.
3. Copper quantum clusters in protein matrix: Potential sensor of Pb2+ ion, N. Goswami, A. Giri,
M. S. Bootharaju, P. L. Xavier, T. Pradeep, S. K. Pal, Anal. Chem., 2011, 83 (24), pp 9676–9680
4. Transparent, luminescent, antibacterial and patternable film forming composites of graphene
oxide/reduced graphene oxide, T. S. Sreeprasad, S. M. Maliyekkal, D. Krishnan, K. Chaudhari,
P. L. Xavier, T. Pradeep, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, 3 (2011) 2643-2654
5. Investigation into the reactivity of unsupported and supported Ag7 and Ag8 clusters with toxic
metal ions, M. S. Bootharaju, T. Pradeep, Langmuir, 27 (2011) 8134-8143
6. A practical silver nanoparticle-based adsorbent for the removal of Hg2+ from water, E.
Sumesh, M. S. Bootharaju, Anshup, T. Pradeep, J. Haz. Mater., 189 (2011) 450-457
7. Reduced graphene oxide-metal/metal oxide composites: Facile synthesis and application in
water purification, T. S. Sreeprasad, S. M. Maliyekkal, K. P. Lisha, T. Pradeep, J. Haz. Mater.,
186 (2011) 921-931
8. Luminescent quantum clusters of gold in bulk by BSA-induced core etching of nanoparticles:
Metal ion sensing, metal enhanced luminescence and biolabeling, M. A. H. Muhammed, P. K.
Verma, S. K. Pal, A. Retnakumari, M. Koyakutty, S. Nair, and T. Pradeep, Chem. Eur. J., 16
(2010) 10103–10112.
9. A novel cellulose-manganese oxide hybrid material by in-situ soft chemical synthesis and its
application for the removal of Pb(II) from water, S. M. Maliyekkal, K. P.Lisha and T. Pradeep, J.
Haz. Mater., 181 (2010) 986 - 995.
10. Uptake of toxic metal ions from water by naked and monolayer protected silver
nanoparticles: An X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic investigation, M. S. Bootharaju and T.
Pradeep, J. Phys. Chem. C, 114 (2010) 8328 - 8336.
11. Luminescent Ag7 and Ag8 clusters by interfacial synthesis, T. Udaya Bhaskara Rao and T.
Pradeep, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 49 (2010) 3925 - 3929.
12. Noble metal nanoparticles for water purification: A critical review, T. Pradeep and Anshup,
Special Feature, Thin Solid Films, 517 (2009) 6441-6478.
13. A method of preparing purified water from water containing pesticides (chlorpyrifos and
malatheon) and purified water prepared by the said method, Indian patent No. 200767.
14. Adsorbent composition, a device and a method for decontaminating water containing
pesticides, US 7,968,493B2.
15. Extraction of malathion and chlorpyrifos from drinking water by nanoparticles: Adsorbent
composition, a device and a method for decontaminating water containing pesticides, PCT
Application No. PCT/IN05/0002.
16. Polyurethane foam coated with silver nanoparticles, Indian patent, 219111.


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